Intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as a non-peptide small molecule agonist of the PTH1 receptor inhibits adipocyte differentiation in human bone marrow stromal cells
Musculoskeletal Diseases Biology, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, 1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA. Bone
(Impact Factor: 3.97).
01/2007; 39(6):1361-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2006.06.010
Whereas continuous PTH infusion increases bone resorption and bone loss, intermittent PTH treatment stimulates bone formation, in part, via reactivation of quiescent bone surfaces and reducing osteoblast apoptosis. We investigated the possibility that intermittent and continuous PTH treatment also differentially regulates osteogenic and adipocytic lineage commitment of bone marrow stromal progenitor/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The MSC were cultured under mildly adipogenic conditions in medium supplemented with dexamethasone, insulin, isobutyl-methylxanthine and troglitazone (DIIT), and treated with 50 nM human PTH(1-34) for either 1 h/day or continuously (PTH replenished every 48 h). After 6 days, cells treated with PTH for 1 h/day retained their normal fibroblastic appearance whereas those treated continuously adopted a polygonal, irregular morphology. After 12-18 days numerous lipid vacuole and oil red O-positive adipocytes had developed in cultures treated with DIIT alone, or with DIIT and continuous PTH. In contrast, adipocyte number was reduced and alkaline phosphatase staining increased in the cultures treated with DIIT and 1 h/day PTH, indicating suppression of adipogenesis and possible promotion of early osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, intermittent but not continuous PTH treatment suppressed markers of differentiated adipocytes such as mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase and PPARgamma as well as glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. All of these effects of intermittent PTH were also produced by a 1 h/day treatment with AH3960 (30 microM), a small molecule, non-peptide agonist of the PTH1 receptor. AH3960, like PTH, activates both the cAMP and calcium signaling pathways. Treatment with the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin for 1 h/day, mimicked the anti-adipogenic effect of intermittent PTH, whereas pretreatment with the protein kinase-A inhibitor H89 prior to intermittent PTH resulted in almost complete conversion to adipocytes. In contrast, the MAP kinase inhibitor PD 98059 failed to prevent the anti-adipocytic effect of intermittent PTH, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of PTH on adipocyte differentiation is predominantly cAMP-dependent. These results demonstrate a differential effect of PTH1 receptor agonists on the adipocytic commitment and differentiation of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. This response may represent an additional mechanism that contributes to the overall bone anabolic action of intermittent PTH.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
- "Exposure to PTH promoted both. This is in contrast to the findings by Rickard et al.  where intermittent PTH treatment or a non-peptide agonist of PTH1 receptor suppressed adipocyte differentiation from human MSCs. However, human MSCs used in these experiments were relatively homogeneous. "
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ABSTRACT: Stimulatory G protein-mediated cAMP signaling is intimately involved in skeletal homeostasis. However, limited information is available on the role of the cAMP signaling in regulating the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into mature osteoblasts and adipocytes. To investigate this, we treated primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) with forskolin to stimulate cAMP signaling and determined the effect on osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Exposure of differentiating osteoblasts to forskolin markedly inhibited progression to the late stages of osteoblast differentiation, and this effect was replicated by continuous exposure to PTH. Strikingly, forskolin activation of cAMP signaling in BMSCs conditioned mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to undergo increased osteogenic differentiation and decreased adipogenic differentiation. PTH treatment of BMSCs also enhanced subsequent osteogenesis, but promoted an increased adipogenesis as well. Thus, activation of cAMP signaling alters the lineage commitment of MSCs, favoring osteogenesis at the expense of adipogenesis.
Available from: Jong Min Lee
- "Although MSC has been suggested as an attractive option for cartilage tissue engineering due to their proliferate capacity and availability from different cell sources    , the qualities of cartilage induced from MSCs do not surpass those from chondrocytes. Prime causes are phenotypic instability and hypertrophy, which eventually leads to apoptosis or ossification  . Cues to solve the predicament were deduced from the observation of developmental processes . "
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ABSTRACT: While several isoforms of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) have been commercially available, the difference in their effect has not been widely studied. The purpose of this study was to determine which isoform most effectively promoted chondrogenesis and suppressed hypertrophy from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs isolated from fresh bone marrow were cultured in pellet in chondrogenic medium containing 5 ng/ml of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(3). From day 14 of culture, subsets of pellets were additionally treated with one of the four PTHrP isoforms (1-34, 1-86, 7-34, and 107-139) at 100 nM. After a further 2 weeks of in vitro culture, pellets were harvested for analysis. PTHrPs 1-34 and 1-86 significantly decreased the DNA level (p<0.05) while PTHrPs 7-34 and 107-139 significantly increased DNA level (p<0.05) compared with the control treated with TGF-β(3) only. Glycosaminoglycan per DNA significantly increased when treated with PTHrPs 1-34 and 1-86 (p<0.05) while it significantly decreased with PTHrPs 7-34 and 107-139 (p<0.05). PTHrP 1-34 significantly increased the gene and protein expression of the chondrogenic marker COL2A1, and decreased those of hypertrophic markers COL10A1 and alkaline phosphatase while other isoforms showed inconsistent effects. All of PTHrP isoforms significantly suppressed the gene and protein expression of indian hedgehog (p<0.05) while all isoforms except PTHrP 107-139 significantly reduced the gene and protein expression of patched 1 (p<0.05). In conclusion, of several PTHrP isoforms, PTHrP 1-34 most significantly enhanced chondrogenesis and suppressed hypertrophy in MSCs, supporting its use for cartilage tissue engineering.
Available from: Cory Xian
- "Intermittent treatment with PTH reduced the adipogenic differentiation capacity but increased ALP positivity of osteogenic cultures . Similarly, treatment with parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) (1-36) reduced adipogenesis of human MSCs as revealed by reduced expression of adipogenic related genes PPAR-γ and lipoprotein lipase . "
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ABSTRACT: The bone marrow is a complex environment that houses haematopoietic and mesenchymal cell populations and regulates bone turnover throughout life. The high proliferative capacity of these cell populations however, makes them susceptible to damage and injury, altering the steady-state of the bone marrow environment. Following cancer chemotherapy, irradiation and long-term glucocorticoid use, reduced bone and increased fat formation of marrow stromal progenitor cells results in a fatty marrow cavity, reduced bone mass and increased fracture risk. These bone and marrow defects are also observed in age-related complications such as estrogen deficiency and increased oxidative stress. Although the underlying mechanisms are yet to be clarified, recent investigations have suggested a switch in lineage commitment of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells down the adipogenic lineage at the expense of osteogenic differentiation following such stress or injury. The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is however has been recognized the key mechanism regulating stromal commitment, and its involvement in the osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment switch under the damaging conditions has been of great interest. This article reviews the effects of various types of stress or injury on the commitment to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages of bone marrow stromal progenitor cells, and summarizes the roles of the Wnt/β-catenin and associated signalling pathways in the lineage commitment, switch, and recovery after damage, and as a therapeutic target.
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