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Social support and ambulatory blood pressure: An examination of both receiving and giving

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Abstract

The relationship between the social network and physical health has been studied extensively and it has consistently been shown that individuals live longer, have fewer physical symptoms of illness, and have lower blood pressure when they are a member of a social network than when they are isolated. Much of the research has focused on the benefits of receiving social support from the network and the effects of giving to others within the network have been neglected. The goal of the present research was to systematically investigate the relationship between giving and ambulatory blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded every 30 min during the day and every 60 min at night during a 24-h period. Linear mixed models analyses revealed that lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were related to giving social support. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed that participants with a higher tendency to give social support reported greater received social support, greater self-efficacy, greater self-esteem, less depression, and less stress than participants with a lower tendency to give social support to others. Structural equation modeling was also used to test a proposed model that giving and receiving social support represent separate pathways predicting blood pressure and health. From this study, it appears that giving social support may represent a unique construct from receiving social support and may exert a unique effect on health.

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... A number of studies have directly examined the link between social support and ABP. Consistent with the link between social support and cardiovascular risk, several studies have found social support to predict significantly lower ABP (Benotsch et al., 1997;Bowen et al., 2014;Piferi & Lawler, 2006). However, one of the earliest studies in this literature reported no significant association (Landsbergis et al., 1994), a pattern that has appeared in several other studies (Hawkley et al., 2005;Steptoe et al., 2000). ...
... However, one of the earliest studies in this literature reported no significant association (Landsbergis et al., 1994), a pattern that has appeared in several other studies (Hawkley et al., 2005;Steptoe et al., 2000). Moreover, protective associations are sometimes evident only on one measure of ABP (i.e., either systolic or diastolic blood pressure, Benotsch et al., 1997;Gallo et al., 2004;Piferi & Lawler, 2006). This later point is important as resting SBP appears to have greater prognostic value compared to DBP in predicting cardiovascular risk (Benetos et al., 2003;Tin et al., 2002). ...
... As noted above, SBP appears to have greater prognostic value compared to DBP (Benetos et al., 2003;Conen & Bamberg, 2008). Although there are important conceptual differences in the operationalization of support (e.g., perceived, received, social integration, see Cohen, 1988), only three studies were found that examined measures other than perceived support (Piferi & Lawler, 2006;Rau et al., 2001;Vella et al., 2008) so these studies were excluded to focus on perceived support and ABP. 1 The main aim of this review was thus to examine if perceived social support is linked to awake ABP which might explain epidemiological links to cardiovascular disease outcomes. There does not appear to be any meta-analytic review of this literature despite its importance in addressing potential biological mechanisms linking perceived support to cardiovascular disease risk. ...
Article
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Perceived social support has been linked to lower rates of morbidity and mortality. However, more information is needed on the biological mechanisms potentially responsible for such links. The main aim of this paper was to conduct a meta-analytic review of the association between perceived social support and awake ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) which is linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The review identified 12 studies with a total of 3254 participants. The omnibus meta-analysis showed that higher perceived social support was not significantly related to lower ABP (Zr = −0.052, [ −0.11, 0.01]). In addition, there was evidence of significant bias across several indicators. Future research will be needed to explore the boundary conditions linking social support to ABP and its implications for theoretical models and intervention development.
... Even if expressive writing on its own yields limited or no improvements in outcomes such as physical symptoms, distress, and quality of life, its potential to help patients gain insight into their transplant experience and translate it into language creates a foundation for the second component of expressive helping: peer support writing. Growing evidence suggests that giving social support to others (e.g., peers) yields physical and psychosocial bene ts for the support provider, including greater positive affect and self-concept (30)(31)(32), a stronger sense of social connection (30), lower psychological distress (31,33), higher adherence to self-care (32,34), and lower symptoms and other negative physical health outcomes (31,(33)(34)(35). Although this evidence is mostly correlational, these ndings are consistent with theories describing bene ts of social support provision (36, 37) and the Helper Therapy Principle (38), which argues that giving support to others is more therapeutically bene cial than is receiving support. ...
... Even if expressive writing on its own yields limited or no improvements in outcomes such as physical symptoms, distress, and quality of life, its potential to help patients gain insight into their transplant experience and translate it into language creates a foundation for the second component of expressive helping: peer support writing. Growing evidence suggests that giving social support to others (e.g., peers) yields physical and psychosocial bene ts for the support provider, including greater positive affect and self-concept (30)(31)(32), a stronger sense of social connection (30), lower psychological distress (31,33), higher adherence to self-care (32,34), and lower symptoms and other negative physical health outcomes (31,(33)(34)(35). Although this evidence is mostly correlational, these ndings are consistent with theories describing bene ts of social support provision (36, 37) and the Helper Therapy Principle (38), which argues that giving support to others is more therapeutically bene cial than is receiving support. ...
... Even if expressive writing on its own yields limited or no improvements in outcomes such as physical symptoms, distress, and quality of life, its potential to help patients gain insight into their transplant experience and translate it into language creates a foundation for the second component of expressive helping: peer support writing. Growing evidence suggests that giving social support to others (e.g., peers) yields physical and psychosocial bene ts for the support provider, including greater positive affect and self-concept (30)(31)(32), a stronger sense of social connection (30), lower psychological distress (31,33), higher adherence to self-care (32,34), and lower symptoms and other negative physical health outcomes (31,(33)(34)(35). Although this evidence is mostly correlational, these ndings are consistent with theories describing bene ts of social support provision (36, 37) and the Helper Therapy Principle (38), which argues that giving support to others is more therapeutically bene cial than is receiving support. ...
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Background: During, shortly after, and sometimes for years after hematopoietic stem cell transplant, a large proportion of hematological cancer patients undergoing transplant report significant physical and psychological symptoms and reduced health-related quality of life. To address these survivorship problems, we developed a low-burden, brief psychological intervention called expressive helping that includes two theory- and evidence-based components designed to work together synergistically: emotionally expressive writing and peer support writing. Building on evidence from a prior randomized control trial showing reductions in physical symptoms and distress in long-term transplant survivors with persistent survivorship problems, the Writing for Insight, Strength, and Ease (WISE) trial will evaluate the efficacy of expressive helping when used during transplant and in the early post-transplant period, when symptoms peak and when intervention could prevent development of persistent symptoms. Methods: WISE is a multi-site, two-arm randomized controlled efficacy trial. Adult hematological cancer patients scheduled for a hematopoietic stem cell transplant will complete baseline measures and then, after hospitalization but prior to transplant, they will be randomized to complete either expressive helping or a time and attention “neutral writing” task. Both expressive helping and neutral writing involve four brief writing sessions, beginning immediately after randomization and ending approximately four weeks after hospital discharge. Measures of symptom burden (primary outcome), distress, health-related quality of life, and fatigue (secondary outcomes) will be administered in seven assessments coinciding with medically relevant time points from baseline and to a year post-intervention. Discussion: The steady and continuing increase in use of stem cell transplantation has created growing need for efficacious, accessible interventions to reduce the short- and long-term negative physical and psychosocial effects of this challenging but potentially life-saving treatment. Expressive helping is a psychological intervention that was designed to fill this gap. It has been shown to be efficacious in long-term transplant survivors, but could have even greater impact if it is capable of reducing symptoms during and soon after transplant. The WISE study will evaluate these benefits in a rigorous randomized controlled trial. Trial registration: Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT03800758. Expressive Helping for Stem Cell Transplant Patients, registered January 11, 2019. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03800758?term=expressive+helping&draw=2&rank=2
... Even if expressive writing on its own yields limited or no improvements in outcomes such as physical symptoms, distress, and quality of life, its potential to help patients gain insight into their transplant experience and translate it into language creates a foundation for the second component of expressive helping: peer support writing. Growing evidence suggests that giving social support to others (e.g., peers) yields physical and psychosocial benefits for the support provider, including greater positive affect and selfconcept [30][31][32], a stronger sense of social connection [30], lower psychological distress [31,33], higher adherence to self-care [32,34], and lower symptoms and other negative physical health outcomes [31,[33][34][35]. Although this evidence is mostly correlational, these findings are consistent with theories describing benefits of social support provision [36,37] and the Helper Therapy Principle [38], which argues that giving support to others is more therapeutically beneficial than is receiving support. ...
... Even if expressive writing on its own yields limited or no improvements in outcomes such as physical symptoms, distress, and quality of life, its potential to help patients gain insight into their transplant experience and translate it into language creates a foundation for the second component of expressive helping: peer support writing. Growing evidence suggests that giving social support to others (e.g., peers) yields physical and psychosocial benefits for the support provider, including greater positive affect and selfconcept [30][31][32], a stronger sense of social connection [30], lower psychological distress [31,33], higher adherence to self-care [32,34], and lower symptoms and other negative physical health outcomes [31,[33][34][35]. Although this evidence is mostly correlational, these findings are consistent with theories describing benefits of social support provision [36,37] and the Helper Therapy Principle [38], which argues that giving support to others is more therapeutically beneficial than is receiving support. ...
... Even if expressive writing on its own yields limited or no improvements in outcomes such as physical symptoms, distress, and quality of life, its potential to help patients gain insight into their transplant experience and translate it into language creates a foundation for the second component of expressive helping: peer support writing. Growing evidence suggests that giving social support to others (e.g., peers) yields physical and psychosocial benefits for the support provider, including greater positive affect and selfconcept [30][31][32], a stronger sense of social connection [30], lower psychological distress [31,33], higher adherence to self-care [32,34], and lower symptoms and other negative physical health outcomes [31,[33][34][35]. Although this evidence is mostly correlational, these findings are consistent with theories describing benefits of social support provision [36,37] and the Helper Therapy Principle [38], which argues that giving support to others is more therapeutically beneficial than is receiving support. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background During, shortly after, and sometimes for years after hematopoietic stem cell transplant, a large proportion of hematological cancer patients undergoing transplant report significant physical and psychological symptoms and reduced health-related quality of life. To address these survivorship problems, we developed a low-burden, brief psychological intervention called expressive helping that includes two theory- and evidence-based components designed to work together synergistically: emotionally expressive writing and peer support writing. Building on evidence from a prior randomized control trial showing reductions in physical symptoms and distress in long-term transplant survivors with persistent survivorship problems, the Writing for Insight, Strength, and Ease (WISE) trial will evaluate the efficacy of expressive helping when used during transplant and in the early post-transplant period, when symptoms peak, and when intervention could prevent development of persistent symptoms. Methods WISE is a multi-site, two-arm randomized controlled efficacy trial. Adult hematological cancer patients scheduled for a hematopoietic stem cell transplant will complete baseline measures and then, after hospitalization but prior to transplant, they will be randomized to complete either expressive helping or a time and attention “neutral writing” task. Both expressive helping and neutral writing involve four brief writing sessions, beginning immediately after randomization and ending approximately 4 weeks after hospital discharge. Measures of symptom burden (primary outcome), distress, health-related quality of life, and fatigue (secondary outcomes) will be administered in seven assessments coinciding with medically relevant time points from baseline and to a year post-intervention. Discussion The steady and continuing increase in use of stem cell transplantation has created growing need for efficacious, accessible interventions to reduce the short- and long-term negative physical and psychosocial effects of this challenging but potentially life-saving treatment. Expressive helping is a psychological intervention that was designed to fill this gap. It has been shown to be efficacious in long-term transplant survivors but could have even greater impact if it is capable of reducing symptoms during and soon after transplant. The WISE study will evaluate these benefits in a rigorous randomized controlled trial. Trial registration Clinicaltrial.govNCT03800758. Registered January 11, 2019
... McClellan et al. (1993) had already demonstrated that among dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease, levels of giving support to family and friends were higher in those who survived than those who died 1 year later. Trait support provision was moreover associated with cardiovascular health (e.g., lower ambulatory blood pressure; Piferi and Lawler, 2006).Using an experimental design, Inagaki and Eisenberger (2016) could show that providing support to a friend (i.e., writing a supporting note vs. writing about route to school/work) prior to a stressful experience influenced the physiological stress response by reducing systolic blood pressure but did not have an effect on self-reported psychological stress or salivary cortisol levels. ...
... Together, these results suggest that health behaviors may, apart from physiological processes (e.g., Piferi and Lawler, 2006;Inagaki and Eisenberger, 2016), provide an alternate pathway through which support provision impacts on providers' long-term health outcomes. While health behaviors have been generally acknowledged as one potential pathway from social networks, and more specifically social support, to health (e.g., Berkman et al., 2000), this pathway has been neither explicitly proposed nor tested as being carried, at least in part, also by the support providers. ...
Article
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Intimate partners are an important source of support when pursuing health goals. A vast amount of literature documents the role of social support in alleviating recipients’ distress and facilitating health behaviors. Less studied is the phenomenon that providing support may entail a benefit for the provider, particularly in the context of health behavior change. In the present study, we investigated whether providing social support in daily life would be associated with more health behavior, and emotional and relational well-being that same day, using a sample of romantic couples aiming to become more physically active. Ninety-nine inactive and overweight heterosexual romantic couples (=198 individuals) participated in this dyadic daily diary study. Both partners reported on the provision of social support, positive and negative affect, and relationship satisfaction in electronic end-of-day diaries across 14 consecutive days. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was objectively assessed via triaxial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+). Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), dyadic data analyses indicated that providing support to the partner was associated with higher own MVPA, more own positive affect, less own negative affect, and more own relationship satisfaction (actor effects), over and above the effect of support provision on outcomes in the other partner (partner effects). The present findings suggest that the provision of daily social support in couples is strongly associated with enhanced well-being not only at a personal level but also at a relational level. Providing social support may also serve the function of relationship maintenance. Thus, shifting the focus away from the recipient to examine beneficial effects of social support in providers is highly relevant. Future research should address the question of when, why, and how giving support is beneficial.
... Other studies have found these effects only in women and not men (Väänänen et al., 2005). A further study in young adults found that participants with a higher tendency to give social support reported greater received social support, greater self-efficacy, greater self-esteem, less depression, and less stress than participants with a lower tendency to give social support to others (Piferi and Lawler, 2006). In addition, those with a higher tendency to give social support were found to have lower systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (Piferi and Lawler, 2006). ...
... A further study in young adults found that participants with a higher tendency to give social support reported greater received social support, greater self-efficacy, greater self-esteem, less depression, and less stress than participants with a lower tendency to give social support to others (Piferi and Lawler, 2006). In addition, those with a higher tendency to give social support were found to have lower systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (Piferi and Lawler, 2006). While this study suggests that giving support has direct physiological effects, it also suggests that giving support may have implications for stress. ...
Article
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The pathways linking giving and receiving emotional and instrumental social support, and cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) are not yet fully understood. Eight-two healthy young adults completed psychometric measures of giving and receiving emotional and instrumental social support and participated in a standardised laboratory stress task. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic parameters were monitored throughout. Both giving and receiving emotional support were positively associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), such that those reporting giving and receiving more emotional support had higher reactivity. Only receiving instrumental was associated with DBP, with those receiving more instrumental support having higher reactivity. Moreover, while the significant association between giving social support and CVR withstood adjustment for several confounding factors (e.g., BMI, sex) it was abolished when receiving support was controlled for. These findings are novel and extend the literature on social support and CVR. Taken together, these findings suggest that receipt of support, rather than giving, may be more influential in this context.
... Indirect support for the beneficial effects of EER on the provider also comes from the literature on prosocial behavior. Among other favorable outcomes, helping others was found to be associated with lower mortality (Brown, Nesse, Vinokur, & Smith, 2003), better overall health (Piferi & Lawler, 2006), improved mood (Schacter & Margolin, 2018), reduced perceived stress (Raposa, Laws, & Ansell, 2016), higher levels of happiness (Dunn, Aknin, & Norton, 2008) and an enhanced sense of personal worth (Klein, 2017). In line with these findings, studies on support provision (Creaven, Howard, & Hughes, 2013;Nealey, Smith, & Uchino, 2002;Piferi & Lawler, 2006) demonstrated reduced cardiovascular reactivity c o r t e x 1 3 0 ( 2 0 2 0 ) 1 e1 5 (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate) and ultimately reduced risk of cardiovascular disease among providers (Burr et al., 2018). ...
... Among other favorable outcomes, helping others was found to be associated with lower mortality (Brown, Nesse, Vinokur, & Smith, 2003), better overall health (Piferi & Lawler, 2006), improved mood (Schacter & Margolin, 2018), reduced perceived stress (Raposa, Laws, & Ansell, 2016), higher levels of happiness (Dunn, Aknin, & Norton, 2008) and an enhanced sense of personal worth (Klein, 2017). In line with these findings, studies on support provision (Creaven, Howard, & Hughes, 2013;Nealey, Smith, & Uchino, 2002;Piferi & Lawler, 2006) demonstrated reduced cardiovascular reactivity c o r t e x 1 3 0 ( 2 0 2 0 ) 1 e1 5 (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate) and ultimately reduced risk of cardiovascular disease among providers (Burr et al., 2018). Together, these findings indicate that providing EER may mitigate stress and its concomitant physiological arousal (e.g., activity in the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system). ...
Article
Emotion regulation often takes place within interpersonal relationships. Prior research has focused mainly on the impact of extrinsic emotion regulation (EER) on the recipient. Yet EER may also have emotional and physical consequences for the provider. Understanding who benefits from helping others regulate their emotions and under what conditions is crucial in understanding the mechanisms that reinforce well-being and social ties. This conceptual review integrates existing literature into an interim working model of the benefits and costs of EER for the provider and of the underlying neural mechanisms. Inspired by a recent framework on the factors that underlie intrinsic emotion regulation, we suggest that the influence of EER on the provider depends on interactions among individual differences in salient psychological characteristics, situational factors and type of the emotion regulation strategy used. We further propose three pathways through which EER may influence the provider—stress regulation, reward and empathy—and connect each pathway to a distinct pattern of neural activation.
... With respect to mortality in older adults, giving social support has been associated with a lower risk of mortality over 5 y, even after controlling for the effects of receiving social support (10). Similarly, giving social support had more robust associations with ambulatory blood pressure than did receiving social support (11). A recent study clarified that in particular, giving instrumental social support to others (e.g., help with errands or volunteering) predicted lower mortality over a 13-y follow-up (12). ...
... Consistent with this research, other types of behaviors that involve giving support to others, such as volunteering and caregiving, have been reported in meta-analyses to be associated with lower rates of mortality (13,14). Giving to others is thought to be beneficial because it can lead to higher self-esteem, self-efficacy, and positive affect, activate neural pathways related to compassion, and reduce one's responses to stress (11,(15)(16)(17). ...
Article
Significance Social support is a key contributor to mortality risk, with effects comparable in magnitude (though opposite in direction) to smoking and obesity. Research has largely focused on either support received or support given; yet, everyday social relationships typically involve interchanges of support rather than only giving or only receiving. Using a longitudinal US national sample, this article elucidates how the balance of social support (amount of giving one does on a monthly basis relative to receiving support) relates to all-cause mortality over a 23-y follow-up period. Although correlational, one possible implication of the findings is that encouraging individuals to give support (e.g., helping others with errands) in moderation, while also being willing to accept support, may have longevity benefits.
... Respecto al origen de la conducta pro-social, Keltner, Kogan, Piff & Saturn (2014) señalan que la generosidad podría tratarse de un instinto muy básico, ya que los hallazgos indican que la pro-socialidad es intuitiva, difundida y profundamente enraizada en las tendencias comportamentales humanas. En este sentido, es importante considerar los beneficios que trae para el individuo el comportarse pro-socialmente, entre los cuales estarían mayores sentimientos de autoeficacia, autoestima (Crocker, 2008, Piferi & Lawler 2006, emociones positivas y más relaciones interpersonales placenteras (Le, Impett, Kogan, Webster & Cheng, 2013) Para Penner, Dovidio, Piliavin & Schroeder (2005), se han elaborado principalmente tres perspectivas para explicar la ocurrencia del comportamiento pro-social. La primera es la perspectiva del aprendizaje, donde la adquisición de la conducta pro-social se explicaría por el condicionamiento operante y el aprendizaje social. ...
... Aun cuando la Comprensión y concentración en la narrativa del videojuego tenga una relación positiva con las conductas pro-sociales a través de las normas sociales, creencias o actitudes, los jugadores pueden siempre pueden evaluar en qué contextos o no comportarse pro-socialmente en términos de costo y beneficio. Sean los beneficios de las conductas prosociales una mejor reputación como jugadores cooperadores, altruismo recíproco o sensaciones intrínsecas placenteras por realizarlas (Crocker, 2008;Le et al., 2013;Nowak & Sigmund, 1998;Piferi & Lawler, 2006;Wedekind & Milinski, 2000), se debe considerar que las conductas pro-sociales que no involucran actividad del avatar implican un esfuerzo o costo distinto a las conductas pro-sociales que involucran actividad del avatar, puesto que en las primeras, el jugador no tiene que interactuar mucho con el mundo del juego para cooperar o darle un beneficio a otros jugadores, sino que lo puede hacer mediante la interfaz o medios como el chat o canales de voz. En comparación, las conductas que implican actividad del avatar, demandan una manipulación constante del avatar en el mundo del juego y por lo tanto más tiempo y esfuerzo motor que las primeras. ...
Thesis
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This research aimed to analyze the relationship between the immersion in the video game narrative and the pro-social behaviors within the videogame, in a group of Latin American players of Massive Multiplayers Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). In order to measure the inmersion in the video game narrative, a questionnaire developed by Qin, Patrick-Rau & Salvendy (2009) was used, and for the pro-social behaviors within the videogame, a questionnaire was developed with the help of players from seven different Latin American countries. The research sample had 350 participants (297 men and 41 women), with an average age of 24 years (SD= 5.71), who played 5 different MMORPGs. Considering all the MMORPGs, a low relationship between the immersion in the videogame narrative and pro-social behaviors was found; however, segmenting the sample based on the MMORPG played, the relationships gain medium and high intensity. Additionally, there were differences in the levels of immersion in the video game narrative according to which MMORPG was played, and differences in pro-social behaviors were not found between sexes.
... Indirect support for the beneficial effects of EER on the provider also comes from the literature on prosocial behavior. Among other favorable outcomes, helping others was found to be associated with lower mortality (Brown, Nesse, Vinokur, & Smith, 2003), better overall health (Piferi & Lawler, 2006), improved mood (Schacter & Margolin, 2018), reduced perceived stress (Raposa, Laws, & Ansell, 2016), higher levels of happiness (Dunn, Aknin, & Norton, 2008) and an enhanced sense of personal worth (Klein, 2017). In line with these findings, studies on support provision (Creaven, Howard, & Hughes, 2013;Nealey, Smith, & Uchino, 2002;Piferi & Lawler, 2006) demonstrated reduced cardiovascular reactivity c o r t e x 1 3 0 ( 2 0 2 0 ) 1 e1 5 (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate) and ultimately reduced risk of cardiovascular disease among providers (Burr et al., 2018). ...
... Among other favorable outcomes, helping others was found to be associated with lower mortality (Brown, Nesse, Vinokur, & Smith, 2003), better overall health (Piferi & Lawler, 2006), improved mood (Schacter & Margolin, 2018), reduced perceived stress (Raposa, Laws, & Ansell, 2016), higher levels of happiness (Dunn, Aknin, & Norton, 2008) and an enhanced sense of personal worth (Klein, 2017). In line with these findings, studies on support provision (Creaven, Howard, & Hughes, 2013;Nealey, Smith, & Uchino, 2002;Piferi & Lawler, 2006) demonstrated reduced cardiovascular reactivity c o r t e x 1 3 0 ( 2 0 2 0 ) 1 e1 5 (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate) and ultimately reduced risk of cardiovascular disease among providers (Burr et al., 2018). Together, these findings indicate that providing EER may mitigate stress and its concomitant physiological arousal (e.g., activity in the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system). ...
Preprint
Emotion regulation is not necessarily a solitary behavior. In fact, emotion regulation often occurs within interpersonal contexts. Prior research has focused mainly on the benefits of receiving emotion regulation support from others. Yet this extrinsic emotion regulation (EER) also offers both emotional and physical benefits to the provider. Nevertheless, only a handful of recent studies have examined the factors that determine the benefits of EER for the provider and the neural networks underlying these benefits. This review integrates these emerging findings into a working model inspired by a recently proposed intrinsic emotion regulation framework. We propose that EER success is contingent on interactions between individual differences in salient psychological characteristics, situational factors and the type of the emotion regulation strategy used. As a first step, we review empirical studies showing the favorable effects of EER for the provider, including behavioral, physiological and neural outcomes. Next, we review existing data showing the effects of person-, situation- and strategy-related characteristics on the benefits of EER for the provider. We then propose a working model that links these three sources of variance in EER success and illustrate its application in different scenarios. To conclude, we propose three pathways through which EER may be favorable for the provider—stress reduction, reward and increased empathy—and connect each pathway to a distinct pattern of neural activation.
... Although most studies have focused on the effects of receiving social support, another line of research has emphasized some psychological and physiological benefits for support providers (e.g., Brown et al., 2003;Dunn et al., 2008;Inagaki & Eisenberger, 2016). Furthermore, giving and/or doing something for others has been connected with positive social outcomes, such as increased self-esteem (Piferi & Lawler, 2006), increased self-worth (Gruenewald et al., 2012), and social connection feelings with recipients (Inagaki & Eisenberger, 2012). Particularly, performing kind behaviors for others or the world, which are prosocial behaviors, can lead to more significant increases in one's flourishing (a combination of emotional, psychological, and social well-being) than performing acts of kindness for oneself (Nelson et al., 2016). ...
... These variables could influence the stress processing by one's appraisal and coping strategies toward stressors (Fletcher & Sarkar, 2013). As we described above, variables like positive affect (Nelson et al., 2016) and self-esteem (Piferi & Lawler, 2006) are related to caring. Therefore, based on Fletcher and Sarkar's (2013) framework on resiliencerelated variables associating with stress processing, and existing research findings pertaining to caring, resilience, and perceived stress, we assume that resilience potentially links caring ability and stress perception and propose the following hypothesis. ...
Article
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While the literature has shown some positive effects of receiving social support, the benefits of offering support and helping others have also been emphasized recently. Based on this perspective, our research focuses on the effects of the ability to care for others on reducing stress perception. In addition, studies continue to suggest that factors comprising caring ability indispensably serve to build individual resilience. However, it is less clear how these factors contribute to individual resilience and relieve psychological stress. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the effect of caring ability on stress perception mediated by resilience at a factor level. A total of 295 Chinese graduate, undergraduate, and college students (221 females, 74 males; mean age = 21.67, SD = 1.91) completed the Caring Ability Inventory (CAI), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), and the Perceived Stress Scale-14 (PSS-14). A structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis with the maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to examine the proposed model. Path coefficients indicated that knowing and courage in the CAI predicted less stress perception while patience in the CAI produced an opposite effect. A mediation analysis revealed that resilience successfully mediated the relationship between knowing as well as between courage and perceived stress. The results suggest that a higher degree of knowing and courage relate to a higher degree of resilience, which could reduce distressful feelings and enhance stress coping skills. Our findings provide specific insights into the roles of knowing, courage, and resilience in alleviating perceived stress and could inspire stress prevention or intervention practices in the future.
... Providing personal care for others has often been associated with caregivers' physical and mental health problems [1]. However, a substantial amount of past research attests to the positive effects of giving social support [2][3][4][5]. Giving support could increase quality of life, happiness, and feelings of belonging [3]. A longitudinal study also showed that providing support was associated with longevity [2]. ...
Article
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Background Providing support to others has been shown to be beneficial to older adults. As people age, their health and social relationships change. These changes may also relate to changes in social support provision. We examined the trajectory of instrumental support provision by older people in three European regions throughout 11 years of follow-up. We then examined the extent to which age at baseline, sex, and region (representing welfare state regime) influenced the variations in the trajectory. Methods Data collected from 8354 respondents who had completed at least waves 1 and 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) was analysed. Instrumental support provision was determined from asking a single question regarding whether the respondent provided help personally for people outside their household. Region, sex, and age at baseline were the main predictors tested. We used growth modelling to address the aims of this study. Results The northern European region (Sweden and Denmark) had the highest odds ratio of instrumental support provision. The likelihood of being involved in providing instrumental support decreased by 8% annually (OR: 0.916, 95%CI: 0.893,0.940) over the 11 years of follow-up. Older respondents were less likely to provide instrumental support and their trajectories declined faster than those of the younger respondents. Sex difference in instrumental support provision was more apparent among younger-older people in the southern European region. Conclusions Older European adults are an important source of instrumental support, especially for their families. The probability of instrumental support provision by European older adults declines over time. Age, sex, and welfare state regime predict this trajectory.
... Correlational research suggests that giving affection to a romantic partner is associated with commitment to the relationship (Horan & Booth-Butterfield, 2010). The tendency to provide support to members of one's social network is associated with higher self-efficacy, greater selfesteem, less depression, and less stress (Piferi & Lawler, 2006). In addition, experimental research has shown that giving support to others increases the felt social connection with that person (Inagaki & Eisenberger, 2012). ...
... People benefit not only from receiving, but also from giving to others (e.g., giving support, time, money). Specifically, autonomy support given to a friend in a close friendship has been positively related to adjustment in friendship and well-being for both provider an recipient [24], providing support to a partner has been related to provider's feelings of social connection and reduced physiological stress response [49], pro-social spending of money has been found to be more related to provider's happiness than personal spending [50], and providing emotional support to spouses has been positively related to longevity in older adults and better physical health [23,51]. The mechanisms explaining the aforementioned associations may be related to feelings of usefulness to others and helpfulness, purpose and meaning, positive self-esteem and social well-being of the providers when they are able to give support to a loved one. ...
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The aims of the present study are to analyze the associations of different forms of dyadic coping (i.e., own supportive dyadic coping = OSDC; perceived supportive dyadic coping provided by the partner = PSDC; common dyadic coping = CDC) with relationship satisfaction, and to investigate whether these effects differ depending on the amount of perceived stress. In 240 couples, the different forms of dyadic coping and stress of both partners were assessed annually across 5 measurement points. Data was analyzed by dyadic multilevel models, which allow for disentangling between-person (overall, timely stable) from within-person (yearly, time specific) variations. The results revealed that all different forms of dyadic coping enhanced overall and yearly relationship satisfaction. At the same time, relationship satisfaction depends on the amount of overall and yearly stress. Interestingly, for PSDC, we found that the more a member of the couple was supported by the partner yearly (time-specific PSDC) and the more the member was stressed overall (timely stable), the higher the member scored on relationship satisfaction. For CDC, we found that yearly CDC beyond the overall level of CDC interacted with the timely stable amount of stress. Dealing together with stress and perceiving the partner as helpful were especially beneficial for relationship satisfaction. Findings highlight the importance of addressing specific forms of dyadic coping in intervention and prevention programs for couples.
... ultimately yield[s] benefits for both partners as well as their relationship" [85] (p. 7). Indeed, there are numerous benefits of giving support, affection, and gifts to partners, such as feeling more positive emotions [86,87], reporting less stress [88,89], having increased self-worth [90,91], and experiencing improved relationship quality and closeness with the support recipient [92]. Recognizing that providing affection and support can have many beneficial outcomes, these effects should also be bounded by contextual factors surrounding such behaviors [93]. ...
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Attachment insecurity is consequential for both personal and relationship wellbeing. Some research has documented that partner buffering can downregulate insecure individuals' immediate feelings of distress, allowing them to feel more secure at least temporarily. The benefits of partner buffering, however, may be limited by several contextual factors. In this article, we identify boundary conditions that may curb or amplify the benefits of partner buffering for both targets (those who receive buffering) and agents (those who enact buffering). We suggest that motivation, ability, and timing may all affect partner buffering outcomes for targets and agents. If partner buffering is delivered in an adaptive way that does not reinforce the target's insecure tendencies, it may help insecure targets learn that they can trust and depend on their partners (agents), which may facilitate greater security in targets. We recommend that future research consider these contextual factors and examine partner buffering as an inherently dyadic relationship process capable of enhancing attachment security.
... Beyond implications for prosocial behavior, there is a growing appreciation for the contribution of support-giving to the link between social support and physical health (Inagaki 2018). Giving more support to others is associated with better health outcomes (e.g., Piferi and Lawler 2006;Moieni et al. 2019) even when adjusting for receiving support (Brown et al. 2003). Further, giving to a close other in need (vs. a control condition where no support is given) reduces stress-related physiological responding to an acute stressor, suggesting that giving to others may also influence health via reductions in stress . ...
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Humans give support, care, and assistance to others on a daily basis. However, the brain mechanisms that set such supportive behavior in motion are unknown. Based on previous findings demonstrating that activity in a portion of the brain’s default network—the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC)—during brief rest primes social thinking and behavior, momentary fluctuations in this brain region at rest may prime supportive responding. To test this hypothesis, 26 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they alternated between deciding whether to give support to a close other in financial need, receive support for themselves, and make arbitrary decisions unrelated to support. Decisions were interleaved with brief periods of rest. Results showed that, within participants, spontaneous activity in the DMPFC during momentary periods of rest primed supportive-responding: greater activity in this region at the onset of a brief period of rest predicted, on a trial-by-trial basis, faster decisions to give support to the close other. Thus, activating the DMPFC as soon as our minds are free from external demands to attention may help individuals ‘default’ to support-giving. Implications for understanding the prosocial functions of the resting brain are discussed.
... Social media provides an immediate and potentially constant source of social support. The benefits of receiving support from others are well established; however, supporting others is also beneficial and leads to increases in sense of belonging, 55 increased self-esteem, 56 self-worth, 57 social connection, 58 and sense of control. 59 These findings add to recent studies that point to a rewardrelated psychological mechanisms of giving support. ...
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Objectives Social media provides an opportunity to engage in social contact and to give and receive help by means of online social networks. Social support following trauma exposure, even in a virtual community, may reduce feelings of helplessness and isolation, and, therefore, reduce posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), and increase posttraumatic growth (PTG). The current study aimed to assess whether giving and/or receiving offers of help by means of social media following large community fires predicted PTS and/or PTG. Methods A convenience sample of 212 adults living in communities that were affected by large-scale community fires in Israel (November 2016) completed questionnaires on giving and receiving offers of help by means of social media within 1 mo of the fire (W1), and the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and PTG questionnaire (PTGI-SF), 4 mo after the fire (W2). Results Regression analyses showed that, after controlling for age, gender, and distance from fire, offering help by means of social media predicted higher PTG ( β = 0.22; t = 3.18; P < 0.01), as did receiving offers of help by means of social media ( β = 0.18; t = 2.64; P < 0.01). There were no significant associations between giving and/or receiving offers of help and PTS. Conclusions Connecting people to social media networks may help in promoting posttraumatic growth, although might not impact on posttraumatic symptoms. This is one of the first studies to highlight empirically the advantages of social media in the aftermath of trauma exposure.
... • Compassion has been shown to positively correlate with increased vagal tone, which slows the heart and produces a calm state that encourages social connection, engagement mediates bonding with others (Stellar, Cohen, Oveis, & Keltner, 2015) • Piferi & Lawler (2006) showed that college students' expressed concern for fellow students positively correlated with having lower blood pressure, higher self-esteem and self-efficacy. ...
Article
Helping and supportive behavior that reduced the suffering of others laid the foundation for the interconnected society we live in today, so why does it currently feel disconnected and chaotic? One need not look further than the news in 2020 to see that we have unprecedented awareness of human incivility and violence. Small but significant acts of compassion toward strangers are necessary to move our world past the unprecedented pain in which it is currently suffering. Compassion makes us aware of suffering in others, but also brings forth the best in us: our kindness, our willingness to help, our connection to humanity. This wellspring of goodness is studied within and amplified by positive psychology, or the study of what is good in an individual, family or organizational system. Amplification of individual resources is necessary so that individuals have the resources to achieve greater resilience and enact more pro-social behaviors in the face of the challenges we see in our modern society.
... Additionally, social support is associated with increased health-promoting behaviors such as medication adherence [9,10], smoking cessation [11], and weight loss [12,13]. One study in particular showed that providing support was also related to lower measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressure among those who gave support [14]. ...
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BACKGROUND With the pervasiveness of social media, online health communities (OHC) are an important tool for facilitating information sharing and support among people with chronic health conditions. Importantly, OHCs offer insight into conversations about the lived experiences of people with particular health conditions. What is less known is what aspects of OHCs are important to maintain safe and productive conversations that support health. OBJECTIVE This research aims to assess the contextual nature of the provision of social support and the role of active moderation in OHCs developed in accordance with and managed by an adaptive engagement model. This study aims to identify key elements of the model that are central to the development, maintenance, and adaptation of OHCs for people with chronic health conditions. METHODS This research uses Combined Content Analysis, a mixed-methods approach, to analyze sampled Facebook comments from 6 OHCs to understand how key aspects of the adaptive engagement model facilitate different types of social support. OHCs included in this study are for people living with multiple sclerosis, migraine, IBS, rheumatoid arthritis, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. An exploratory approach was taken in the analysis and initial codes were grouped into thematic categories and then confirmed through thematic network analysis using the Dedoose™ qualitative analysis software tool. Thematic categories were compared for similarities and differences for each of the 6 OHCs, and by content descriptive category. RESULTS The Facebook posts reach and engagement data and analysis of the sample of 5,881 comments demonstrate that people with chronic health conditions want to engage online and find value in supporting and sharing their experiences with others. By far, most comments made in these Facebook posts were expressions of social support for others living with the same health condition (57.9%). Among the comments where there was an element of support, those where community members validated knowledge or experiences of others were most frequent (46%), followed by the expression of empathy and understanding (32%). Even among posts with more factual content, like insurance coverage issues, user comments still had frequent expressions of support for others (37%). CONCLUSIONS The analysis of this OHC Adaptive Engagement model-in-action shows that the foundational elements--social support, engagement, and moderation—can effectively be used to provide a rich and dynamic community experience for individuals with chronic health conditions. Social support is demonstrated in a variety of ways including through sharing information or validating information shared by others, expressions of empathy, and sharing encouraging statements with others. CLINICALTRIAL n/a
... Additionally, social support is associated with increased health-promoting behaviors such as medication adherence [9,10], smoking cessation [11], and weight loss [12,13]. One study in particular showed that providing support was also related to lower measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressure among those who gave support [14]. ...
Article
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Background: With the pervasiveness of social media, online health communities (OHC) are an important tool for facilitating information sharing and support among people with chronic health conditions. Importantly, OHCs offer insight into conversations about the lived experiences of people with particular health conditions. What is less known is what aspects of OHCs are important to maintain safe and productive conversations that support health. Objective: This research aims to assess the provision of social support and the role of active moderation in OHCs developed in accordance with and managed by an adaptive engagement model. This study aims to identify key elements of the model that are central to the development, maintenance, and adaptation of OHCs for people with chronic health conditions. Methods: This research uses Combined Content Analysis, a mixed-methods approach, to analyze sampled Facebook post comments from 6 OHCs to understand how key aspects of the adaptive engagement model facilitate different types of social support. OHCs included in this study are for people living with multiple sclerosis, migraine, IBS, rheumatoid arthritis, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. An exploratory approach was taken in the analysis and initial codes were grouped into thematic categories and then confirmed through thematic network analysis using the Dedoose™ qualitative analysis software tool. Thematic categories were compared for similarities and differences for each of the 6 OHCs, and by content descriptive category. Results: The Facebook posts reach and engagement data and analysis of the sample of 5,881 comments demonstrate that people with chronic health conditions want to engage online and find value in supporting and sharing their experiences with others. By far, most comments made in these Facebook posts were expressions of social support for others living with the same health condition (57.9%). Among the comments where there was an element of support, those where community members validated knowledge or experiences of others were most frequent (46%), followed by the expression of empathy and understanding (32%). Even among posts with more factual content, like insurance coverage issues, user comments still had frequent expressions of support for others (37%). Conclusions: The analysis of this OHC Adaptive Engagement model-in-action shows that the foundational elements--social support, engagement, and moderation-can effectively be used to provide a rich and dynamic community experience for individuals with chronic health conditions. Social support is demonstrated in a variety of ways including through sharing information or validating information shared by others, expressions of empathy, and sharing encouraging statements with others. Clinicaltrial:
... Additionally, social support is associated with increased health-promoting behaviors such as medication adherence [9,10], smoking cessation [11], and weight loss [12,13]. One study in particular showed that providing support was also related to lower measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressure among those who gave support [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: With the pervasiveness of social media, online health communities (OHCs) are an important tool for facilitating information sharing and support among people with chronic health conditions. Importantly, OHCs offer insight into conversations about the lived experiences of people with particular health conditions. Little is known about the aspects of OHCs that are important to maintain safe and productive conversations that support health. Objective: This study aimed to assess the provision of social support and the role of active moderation in OHCs developed in accordance with and managed by an adaptive engagement model. This study also aimed to identify key elements of the model that are central to the development, maintenance, and adaptation of OHCs for people with chronic health conditions. Methods: This study used combined content analysis, a mixed methods approach, to analyze sampled Facebook post comments from 6 OHCs to understand how key aspects of the adaptive engagement model facilitate different types of social support. OHCs included in this study are for people living with multiple sclerosis, migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. An exploratory approach was used in the analysis, and initial codes were grouped into thematic categories and then confirmed through thematic network analysis using the Dedoose qualitative analysis software tool. Thematic categories were compared for similarities and differences for each of the 6 OHCs and by topic discussed. Results: Data on the reach and engagement of the Facebook posts and the analysis of the sample of 5881 comments demonstrate that people with chronic health conditions want to engage on the web and find value in supporting and sharing their experiences with others. Most comments made in these Facebook posts were expressions of social support for others living with the same health condition (3405/5881, 57.89%). Among the comments with an element of support, those where community members validated the knowledge or experiences of others were most frequent (1587/3405, 46.61%), followed by the expression of empathy and understanding (1089/3405, 31.98%). Even among posts with more factual content, such as insurance coverage issues, user comments still had frequent expressions of support for others (80/213, 37.5%). Conclusions: The analysis of this OHC adaptive engagement model in action shows that the foundational elements—social support, engagement, and moderation—can effectively be used to provide a rich and dynamic community experience for individuals with chronic health conditions. Social support is demonstrated in a variety of ways, including sharing information or validating information shared by others, expressions of empathy, and sharing encouraging statements with others.
... Experiencing subjective prosocial achievement after successfully helping others can, for example, relieve a helper's negative affective state that is caused by witnessing another person's problem (Piliavin et al., 1981). Positive effects on a helper's own well-being have also been reported with regard to reduced blood pressure (Piferi & Lawler, 2006), greater happiness (Aknin et al., 2013), increased positive affect (e.g., Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015), and accelerated recovery from depression (Brown et al., 2008). ...
Article
Achievements at work play important roles with regard to employees’ well-being and health. Based on conservation of resources theory, the success-resource model and self-determination theory, this paper investigates how subjective occupational achievement experiences (task-related and prosocial) relate to employees’ psychological well-being (i.e., depressivity). We hypothesize differential mediating effects via the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Over a course of four consecutive weeks, 260 employees provided weekly diary data (942 observations) that were analysed using multilevel structural equation modelling. At the within-persons level, results showed that relatedness need satisfaction mediated the negative relationship between prosocial achievement experiences and depressivity, while competence need satisfaction mediated the negative relationship between task-related achievement experiences and depressivity. This study contributes to the research proposing achievement experiences as a beneficial resource in the health promotion process and reinforces the call to differentiate between the satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
... Additionally, although received and provided support were significantly correlated (r = 0.64), there is evidence that the two forms tap different elements of support (e.g. Piferi and Lawler, 2006;Reblin and Uchino, 2008). For this reason, we Significance levels: * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001. ...
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Despite the numerous challenges of ageing in a foreign land, many older immigrants are fairly resilient and report experiencing good wellbeing. The key question that the present paper addresses is how this is achieved. Drawing on frameworks from cross-cultural and social identity literatures, the present study proposes and tests a model of serial multiple mediation that identifies possible mechanisms supporting the wellbeing of older immigrants who have resided in the host country for some time. In this model, it is predicted that new group memberships acquired post-migration enable access to social support that in turn provides the basis for perceived integration, which enhances wellbeing. This model was tested in a survey study with 102 older people, whose mean age was 80.3 years and who had migrated to Australia from Asian, European, and Central and South American countries on average 36 years previously. The survey assessed cultural identity, social group memberships acquired post-migration, perceived social support, perceived integration and wellbeing. Results supported the hypothesised model, indicating that joining new heritage culture and wider groups in Australia post-migration provided a platform for social support and integration, which enhanced life satisfaction and reduced loneliness. The implications of these findings for theory and adapting successfully to both migration and ageing are discussed.
... A robust literature supports a link between prosocial behavior and a wide range of positive health outcomes (Konrath & Brown, 2013). Crosssectional as well as large-scale longitudinal studies have shown that giving support to others is associated with markers of physical health, including lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure (Piferi & Lawler, 2006), morbidity (Brown et al., 2005), and reduced risk of mortality (Brown et al., 2003). Moreover, evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that interventions that increase prosocial behavior can lead to improvements in inflammatory outcomes associated with health (Moieni et al., 2019;Nelson-Coffey et al., 2017;Schreier et al., 2013). ...
Article
Background Gratitude has received growing interest as an emotion that can bring greater happiness and health. However, little is known about the effects of gratitude on objective measures of physical health or the neural mechanisms that underlie these effects. Given strong links between gratitude and giving behavior, and giving and health, it is possible that gratitude may benefit health through the same mechanisms as giving to others. Thus, this study investigated whether gratitude activates a neural ‘caregiving system’ (e.g., ventral striatum (VS), septal area (SA)), which can downregulate threat responding (e.g., amygdala) and possibly cellular inflammatory responses linked to health. Methods A parallel group randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a six-week online gratitude (n = 31) vs. control (n = 30) writing intervention on neural activity and inflammatory outcomes. Pre- and post-intervention, healthy female participants (ages 35-50) reported on support-giving behavior and provided blood samples to assess circulating plasma levels and stimulated monocytic production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)). Post-intervention, participants completed a gratitude task and a threat reactivity task in an fMRI scanner. Results There were no significant group differences (gratitude vs. control intervention) in neural responses (VS, SA, or amygdala) to the gratitude or threat tasks. However, across the entire sample, those who showed larger pre- to- post-intervention increases in self-reported support-giving showed larger reductions in amygdala reactivity following the gratitude task (vs. control task). Additionally, those who showed larger reductions in amygdala reactivity following the gratitude task showed larger pre-to-post reductions in the stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-6. Importantly, gratitude-related reductions in amygdala reactivity statistically mediated the relationship between increases in support-giving and decreases in stimulated TNF-α production. Conclusion The observed relationships suggest that gratitude may benefit health (reducing inflammatory responses) through the threat-reducing effects of support-giving.
... Social connection is correlated with access to medical resources and information (Berkman, Glass, Brissette, & Seeman, 2000), which may lead to enhancement of cognitive function (Kuiper et al., 2015). Second, it has been suggested that giving emotional support increases activity in the septal area (Inagaki, 2018;Inagaki & Eisenberger, 2012), which in turn may strengthen working memory (Givens & Olton, 1995), Third, a previous study reported that giving social support may reduce both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (Piferi & Lawler, 2006). Since some studies have demonstrated that vascular factors may be implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia (Kivipelto et al., 2001;Skoog et al., 1996), it is possible that giving emotional support may prevent dementia through an indirect improvement in the circulatory system. ...
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Previous studies have suggested that emotional support may promote cognition; however, the effects of giving or receiving emotional support on incident dementia remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to investigate the relationship between emotional support (giving or receiving) and incident dementia. In December 2006, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,694 Japanese individuals aged ≥65 years who lived in Ohsaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. A self-reported questionnaire including items on emotional support and lifestyle factors was distributed. After excluding those who did not provide consent or responses to all items, 13,636 eligible responses were analyzed for this study. According to responses of "yes" or "no" for emotional support, we made two categories for both giving (gave or did not give) and receiving (received or did not receive) emotional support. Furthermore, we combined giving and receiving emotional support into four categories ("giving = no & receiving = no", "giving = no & receiving = yes", "giving = yes & receiving = no", "giving = yes & receiving = yes"). Data on incident dementia were retrieved from the Long-term Care Insurance Database in which participants were followed up for 5.7 years. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we found that compared with participants who did not give emotional support to others, those who did give had a lower risk of dementia (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52, 0.71)). However, a nonsignificant relationship was observed for receiving emotional support. Additionally, compared to "giving = no & receiving = no" for emotional support, "giving = no & receiving = yes" showed a higher risk of dementia (multivariate-adjusted HR: 1.51 [95% CI: 1.07, 2.14]).
... Giving and receiving support, on the other hand, can be both negatively and positively associated with well-being. Providing informal help to others is associated with higher QoL (Litwin & Stoeckel, 2013;Potočnik & Sonnentag, 2013;Wahrendorf et al., 2006) and lower depression (Inagaki & Eisenberger, 2016;Piferi & Lawler, 2006). However, providing personal care is associated with poorer mental health (Hiel et al., 2015;Pinquart & Sörensen, 2006) and lower QoL (Litwin & Stoeckel, 2013;Netuveli, Wiggins, Hildon, Montgomery, & Blane, 2006;Wahrendorf et al., 2006). ...
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The association between quality of life (QoL) and social relationships is well established. This paper further analyses whether and how participation in social activities as well as providing and receiving social support, independently, are associated with QoL among the older population in 16 European countries. QoL was measured using the CASP-12 scale. The baseline data came from Wave 6 and the outcome from Wave 7 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The associations of interest were analysed using multivariable linear regression. The effect of possible non-ignorable dropout was tested. Then, doubly robust estimation and sensitivity analyses for unobserved confounding were performed to evaluate the possible causal interpretation of the associations found. Our findings show that participation in at least one of the socially productive activities was positively associated with QoL at two-year follow-up (Average Causal Effect, ACE: 0.474; 95%CI: 0.361, 0.587). The association was stronger among women, people aged 75+, and those in the Southern European region. Providing social support had a positive association with QoL, but only among people aged 75+ (ACE: 0.410; 95%CI: 0.031, 0.789). Conversely, receiving social support had a negative association (ACE: -0.321; 95%CI: -0.448, -0.195) with QoL, especially for men, people aged 75+, and those in Eastern European countries. Sensitivity analyses for unobserved confounders showed that the associations found cannot be attributed to causal effects.
... There is growing evidence that providing support to others produces emotional, physical, and social benefits (Inagaki and Orehek 2017). For example, in a sample of young adults, Piferi and Lawler (2006) found that giving social support was associated with reduced cardiovascular activity (i.e., lower blood pressure and heart rate) independently of receiving support. Research conducted in laboratory settings also suggests that providing support has stress-reducing effects (Inagaki and Eisenberger 2012). ...
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Previous research has shown unique benefits associated with both providing and receiving autonomy-support among same-sex friends (Deci et al. 2006). The present research examined the provision and receipt of two types of goal support from the viewpoints of the two partners in heterosexual couples (n = 247 Hungarian couples). The level of autonomy and directive support that each partner delivered and received in relation to vicarious goals (i.e., goals that partners have for one another) was assessed. Autonomy support from the partner was found to be consistently and positively associated with relationship satisfaction, and this pattern of results was found whether we considered perceived autonomy support from the partner or actual partner report of support given. In addition, providing autonomy support to one’s partner was found to positively relate to relationship satisfaction over and above the effects of receiving support. Overall, directive support was found to be either unrelated or negatively related to relationship satisfaction, suggesting that it can actually backfire and impair satisfaction. Overall, results underscore the relational benefits of supporting vicarious goals in an autonomous rather than directive manner. These findings have implications regarding the pursuit of goals in the context of romantic relationships.
... However, there is variability in how much support and care people give to others (Clark et al., 1987), and this variability has implications for the health outcomes related to giving support (e.g. Piferi & Lawler, 2006). How and why some individuals are inclined to nurture and give support to others and the neurobiological mechanisms associated with this otherfocused facet of sociality remain open for inquiry. ...
Article
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There is a growing appreciation for the health benefits of giving support, though variability in such behavior exists. Based on the possibility that the dorsomedial (DMPFC) default network subsystem is associated with social thinking and behavior, integrity of this subsystem may facilitate giving support to others. The current study tested associations between DMPFC subsystem connectivity at rest and tendencies related to giving support. During an fMRI session, 45 participants completed an emotional social cues task, a resting state scan, and self-report measures of social support. Supportive behavior during the month following the scan was also assessed. Greater DMPFC subsystem connectivity at rest was associated with greater support-giving (though not receiving or perceiving support), at the time of the scan and one month later. Results held after adjusting for extraversion. In addition, greater resting state DMPFC subsystem connectivity was associated with attenuated dorsal anterior cingulate (DACC), anterior insula (AI), and amygdala activity to others' negative emotional social cues, suggesting DMPFC subsystem integrity at rest is also associated with the dampened withdrawal response proposed to facilitate care for others in need. Together, results begin to hint at an additional role for the 'default' social brain: giving support to others.
... MyHealthNetwork offers a feature through which the primary user can choose to share their blood pressure readings with family members and friends. The application was designed with this feature in mind based on a large body of research which indicates that older adults who have stronger social support tend to have healthier blood pressure levels [29,30]. ...
Article
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Even when older adults monitor hypertension at home, it is difficult to understand trends and share them with their providers. MyHealthNetwork is a dashboard designed for patients and providers to monitor blood pressure readings to detect hypertension and ultimately warning signs of changes in brain health. A multidisciplinary group in a Digital Health course at Tufts University School of Medicine used Design Thinking to formulate a digital solution to promote brain health among older adults in the United States (US). Older adults (aged 65 and over) are a growing population in the US, with many having one or more chronic health conditions including hypertension. Nearly half of all American adults ages 50-64 worry about memory loss as they age and almost all (90%) wish to maintain independence and age in their homes. Given the well-studied association between hypertension and dementia, we designed a solution that would ultimately promote brain health among older adults by allowing them to measure and record their blood pressure readings at home on a regular basis. Going through each step in the Design Thinking process, we devised MyHealthNetwork, an application which connects to a smart blood pressure cuff and stores users’ blood pressure readings in a digital dashboard which will alert users if readings are outside of the normal range. The dashboard also has a physician view where users’ data can be reviewed by the physician and allow for shared treatment decisions. The authors developed a novel algorithm to visually display the blood pressure categories in the dashboard in a way straightforward enough that users with low health literacy could track and understand their blood pressure over time. Additional features of the dashboard include educational content about brain health and hypertension, a digital navigator to support users with application use and technical questions. Phase 1 in the development of our application includes a pilot study involving recruitment of Primary Care Providers with patients who are at risk of dementia to collect and monitor BP data with our prototype. Subsequent phases of development involve partnerships to provide primary users with a rewards program to promote continued use, additional connections to secondary users such as family members and expansion to capture other health metrics.
... We also explored whether previous day volunteering activity would yield similar main effects and stress-buffering effects as same day volunteering. This approach is motivated by an earlier study based on a sample of younger adults that showed the link between helping behaviors and stress-related cardiovascular activity was extended into the following day (Piferi & Lawler, 2006). ...
Article
Objectives: Building on theoretical frameworks and empirical evidence linking volunteering and well-being in later life, we investigated the associations between daily engagement in formal volunteering, stressors, and negative and positive affect, focusing on the stress-buffering effect of volunteering. Methods: We used eight days of daily diary data from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE II), a national survey of middle-aged and older adults (participant N = 1,320; participant-day observation N = 8,277). A series of multilevel models were estimated to assess the within-person associations between daily volunteering, stressors, and affect. Results: A direct link between daily volunteering and affect was not discovered. However, we found that the association between daily stressors and negative affect (but not positive affect) was weaker on days when volunteering was performed compared to days volunteering was not performed. Discussion: Our findings suggested that the stress-buffering effect of volunteering contributes to improved emotional well-being for participants who volunteered on a daily basis. Future studies should investigate whether such stress-buffering effects are present for other forms of helping behaviors.
... Our observations are consistent with literature that claim that supporting others can be therapeutic against stress. Giving support has been found to be related to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure [56]) and to reduce the effects of one's financial strain on mortality [57]. We postulate that because of the increased health literacy, self-efficacy, and a plausible deeper grounding in the spiritual value of "giving rather than receiving" (Acts 20:35), there may be something unique for Christians about giving support. ...
Article
Background: In the USA, African Americans (AAs) experience a greater burden of mortality and morbidity from chronic health conditions including obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Faith-based programs are a culturally sensitive approach that potentially can address the burden of chronic health conditions in the AA community. Objective: The primary objective was to assess (i) the perceptions of participants of Live Well by Faith (LWBF)-a government supported faith-based program to promote healthy living across several AA churches-on the effectiveness of the program in promoting overall wellness among AAs. A secondary objective was to explore the role of the church as an intervention unit for health promotion among AAs. Methods: Guided by the socio-ecological model, data were collected through 21 in-depth interviews (71% women) with six AA church leaders, 10 LWBF lifestyle coaches, and five LWBF program participants. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by three of the researchers. Findings: Several themes emerged suggesting there was an effect of the program at multiple levels: the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and community levels. Most participants reported increased awareness about chronic health conditions, better social supports to facilitate behavior change, and creation of health networks within the community. Conclusion: Our study suggests that one approach to address multilevel factors in a culturally sensitive manner could include developing government-community partnership to co-create interventions.
... Additionally, social support is associated with increased health-promoting behaviors such as medication adherence [9,10], smoking cessation [11], and weight loss [12,13]. One study in particular showed that providing support was also related to lower measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressure among those who gave support [14]. ...
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BACKGROUND Online health communities (OHC) can be a powerful tool to facilitate communication among patients, professionals and family members who live with or care for someone with a chronic health condition(s). Health Union LLC’s OHC Adaptive Engagement Model engages, empowers and encourages people to take an active role in their health. OHCs included in this study are for people living with multiple sclerosis, migraine, IBS, rheumatoid arthritis, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE This research uses qualitative methods to identify themes supporting the constructs of the Health Union OHC model. Key components of the model to be tested include: content tailored to needs of community, facilitation and encouragement of social support, active moderation, opportunities for active and passive engagement, and transparency of community norms and rules. METHODS A sample of over 5,800 comments exported from over 40 Facebook posts from 6 OHCs was analyzed using the Dedoose™ qualitative data analysis software. Comments from these Facebook posts were extracted, imported into Dedoose™ software and coded. Interrater reliability of initial coding was calculated using Pearson’ Correlation Coefficient. An exploratory approach was taken in the analysis and initial codes were grouped into thematic categories and then confirmed through thematic network analysis using the Dedoose™ software tool. Thematic categories were compared for similarity and differences for each of the 6 OHCs, and by content descriptive category. RESULTS Qualitative thematic network analysis of posts and comments from 6 OHCs correspond to the primary components of the Health Union OHC Adaptive Engagement Model. This analysis suggests that the structural elements of the model, including active site moderation, support high levels of community engagement and information sharing and mutual support of OHC participants. CONCLUSIONS Qualitative data from the 6 OHCs demonstrate the positive impact the community has on participants, often helping them reframe their healthcare experience and coping strategies. The principle of adaptive engagement is demonstrated by the thematic network analysis and illustrates the Health Union OHC Adaptive Engagement Model constructs. Different community segments have different patterns of was. This study has practical significance as it helps to demonstrate the value of online health communities for people living with chronic health conditions by providing meaningful engagement, support, and information in an accessible environment.
... Beneficial initiatives for society include -inter alia -fundraising programs that no-profit organizations can organize with the aim to help people in need whose outcome is defined as charitable donations. Given the widespread of poverty as linked to the worldwide changes (e.g., pandemic of Sars-Cov-2, inadequate distribution of resources and wealth, excessive demographic expansion in certain countries), a good understanding of reasons to donate money is worth doing as means to promote successful marketing strategy to trigger charitable giving (Piferi & Lawler, 2006). ...
Conference Paper
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Charitable donations represent a possible indirect way to face the social challenge of poverty with people donating a certain amount of money independently of their social status and social roles. As such, scholarly authors devoted to the study of charity and donating behavior have proposed several models following different perspectives to explain the motivational factors and the individual conditions affecting donating behavior. In the present study, we aim at contributing to the selfish altruism model by suggesting the effect of pseudoinefficacy as possible cognitive bias which may be detrimental for deciding to donate. On the one hand, the selfish altruism model has gained notable attention as a possible explanation of the decision-making process underlying donating behavior. This model suggests that people offer aid to receive something in return or to gain a personal advantage. Such a personal benefit can be seen as the individual sense of being morally satisfied, namely, warm-glow. That is, those who donate may feel higher levels of social esteem, gratitude and respect from others which are aspects feeding their warm-glow. Individual would decide to donate by the possibility to gain moral satisfaction rather than acting for the common good. On the other hand, according to cognitive psychology, pseudoinefficacy may affect donating behaviors as an illusion of inefficacy that arises when individuals can only help some people but not others who yet are equally in need. In this sense, the phenomenon of pseudoinefficacy contributes to the selfish altruism model as an explanation of the individuals' emotions that may reduce donors' warm-glow. Ultimately, we propose a critical and interdisciplinary review of donating behaviors model and propose a research agenda for further investigations. Given the widespread of poverty as linked to the worldwide changes (i.e., novel pandemic of Sars-Cov-2), theoretical indications and reflections on donating behavior represent a pragmatic and moral concern whose relevance rests in the potential applied implications.
... In addition to community factors, individual factors are also important for understanding a person's appraisal and ability to overcome stressors. Self-efficacy, which refers to a person's belief about their ability to successfully accomplish a task in the face of challenges (Bandura, 1982), is a protective resource against stress (Edmonds, 2010;Piferi & Lawler, 2006) and has been repeatedly identified as one of the strongest psychological predictors of PA (Bauman et al., 2012;Young et al., 2014). This is because individuals that are high in self-efficacy are more likely to use problem-solving strategies in the face of significant stressors rather than relapsing to inactivity because they have stronger beliefs in their ability to succeed (Bandura, 1982). ...
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Physical activity (PA) plays an integral role in reducing risk for the leading causes of death and has also been shown to buffer stress.Based on the stress-buffering hypothesis, the present study examined whether protective factors (self-efficacy and informal social control) buffered the effects of perceived stress on PA over time. Secondary data analyses of female African American caregivers (N = 143) were conducted using data from the Families Improving Together (FIT) trial. Validated measures of stressors and protective factors were assessed at baseline. Light PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA were assessed using seven-day accelerometry estimates over sixteen weeks. Multilevel growth modeling was used to assess whether protective factors moderated the effects of perceived stress on PA outcomes across 16 weeks. There was a significant two-way interaction between informal social control and time (B = 0.40, SE = 0.17, p = .019) such that higher informal social control was positively associated with MVPA over time. There was a marginal three-way interaction (B = -18.90, SE = 10.31, p = .067) such that stress was associated with greater LPA at baseline under conditions of high but not low self-efficacy. This study provides preliminary support that social factors may be important for maintaining MVPA regardless of stress levels, while cognitive resources may be more important to target for influencing LPA engagement under conditions of high stress.
... In general terms, social support can be a moderator for mental illnesses through other psychosocial factors [52,53]. Various studies have examined social support through different lenses such as social integration and participation as well as real support received and perceived support received, both instrumental and emotional [54][55][56]. In relation to social isolation, there are other social variables such as stigma and discrimination. ...
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Introduction: Long COVID patients have experienced a decline in their quality of life caused, in part but not wholly, by its negative emotional impact. Some of the most prevalent mental symptoms presented by Long COVID patients are anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. Therefore, the need has arisen to establish the personal experiences of these patients to understand how they are managing in their daily lives while dealing with the condition. Objective: To increase understanding of the emotional well-being of people diagnosed with Long COVID. Methodology: A qualitative design was created and carried out using 35 patients, with 17 subjects being interviewed individually and 18 of them taking part in two focus groups. The participating patients were recruited in November and December 2021 from Primary Health Care (PHC) centers in the city of Zaragoza (Northern Spain) and from the Association of Long COVID Patients in Aragon. The study themes were emotional well-being, social support networks and experience of discrimination. All analyzes were performed iteratively using NVivo software. Results: The Long COVID patients demonstrated a very low state of mind due to their symptoms and limitations that had been persistent for many months in their daily life. Suicidal thoughts were also mentioned by several patients. They referred to anguish and anxiety about the future as well as fear of reinfection or relapse and returning to work. Many of the participants reported that they have sought the help of a mental health professional. Most identified discriminatory situations in health care. Conclusion: It is necessary to continue delving into the impact that Long COVID has had on mental health, and to provide entities with the necessary resources to solve these problems.
... One way in which moral actions are reflected is through charitable donations of time and money. Parting with such resources can be beneficial for donors as giving to others generates positive psychological outcomes (Batson and Schoenrade, 1991), including pleasurable feelings such as happiness (Dunn et al., 2008) as well as improving overall health (Piferi and Lawler, 2006) and longevity (Konrath et al., 2012). Moreover, there are practical benefits from giving, such as tax breaks and financial credits available to donors. ...
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Religion is an indelible force in society, yet research examining its influence on consumption, particularly in the context of financial well‐being is lacking. Thus, this paper presents a conceptual framework of factors influencing, and outcomes associated with, the effects of religion on financial well‐being. Specifically, this paper introduces a conceptual framework aimed at understanding how religion influences financial decisions and well‐being, both from a consumer and a business perspective. Focus groups were conducted with consumers and financial practitioners to support the development of the conceptual framework. Most novel to this framework is the identification of potential process mechanisms explaining this relationship, including trust, affect, risk propensity, and perceived personal control. The framework concludes with potential interventions targeted at consumers and businesses to improve financial well‐being. This propositions‐based conceptual framework serves as a research agenda to guide and aid scholars, consumer advocacy groups, policymakers, and marketers in promoting greater financial well‐being. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Expression of emotions may arbitrate the connections between communal orientation and psychological flourishing of married individuals that may lead to optimal functioning within a marital relationship. By using cross-sectional research design, the present study measures multiple dimensions of psychological flourishing (relationship and individual) in conjunction with communal orientation and emotion expressivity. Among married individuals from Pakistan aged 20–80 years, the authors examined the mediating effect of each spouse's emotional expression (positive, negative, and impulse strength) on the association between communal orientation and psychological flourishing. Findings highlight that communal orientation significantly predicts psychological flourishing. Positive Communal Orientation positively predicts relationship dimension as well as the Individual dimension of psychological flourishing. On the other hand, Negative Communal Orientation negatively predicts the Relationship dimension of psychological flourishing. However, Negative Communal Orientation positively predicts the Individual dimension of psychological flourishing. Furthermore, positive expressivity, negative expressivity and impulse strength significantly mediate the relationship between communal orientation and psychological flourishing. Moreover, gender differences were also found in the exercise of communal orientation and level of flourishing among husbands and wives. The evidence from the present study can be utilised to design relationship measure that can capture all the ingredients of optimal functioning of marital relationship.
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Individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and social phobia (SP) have difficulties in social interactions. It is unknown, however, whether such difficulties prevent them from helping others, thereby depriving them of the natural benefits of helping, such as receiving gratitude. Using event sampling methodology (ESM), individuals (MDD, n = 118; SP, n = 47; and control group, n = 119) responded to questions about the frequency of helping, in total at 5333 time points, and their well-being. Contrary to our hypothesis, individuals in the MDD, SP and control group did not differ in their helping frequency. Results did show an association between helping and well-being, such that helping is related to well-being and well-being to helping. Understanding the complex relation of helping others and well-being and how this might be used during therapy and prevention programmes are discussed.
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This study was conducted to measure the personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Openness to Experiences) and communal orientation among Afghan and Indian students. For this study, 100 students were contacted studying in Indian Universities. The sample was divided into 50 Afghan and 50 Indian students. To measure communal orientation, Communal Orientation-(Clark et al. ,1987) scale was used and to measure personality traits, Ten-Item Personality Inventory-(Gosling et al.,2003) scale was used. The research found significant differences on different variables of personality and communal orientation among Afghan and Indian students. The outcome of the study helps to make international programs for individuals who are staying away from home.
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A new trend is just born: giving and happiness appear to mix perfectly together, albeit this may sound like an oxymoron, a potential contradiction. This could just be one more motto from a Sunday School Class, in fact. But surprisingly, it seems to be much more than that and an increasing number of research is showing that giving make us happier. Giving make us feel happy! How extraordinarily amazing this statement can be?! How wonderful can this announcement seem to everyone! And when one believes truly on that, and living accordingly… life can be just cheerful, meaningful and easier to carry on… an extraordinary finding also for the academia! Could we explain further this simple idea?! The idea that we give and become happy. This statement can also de rephrased like: give in order to be happy... or… give if you want to chase a happy life
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This study aimed to examine how mutual support among helpers in emergency settings can be explained by psychological status and goal-oriented behaviors based on the intrinsic motivation model. A cohort comprising 747 nurses was asked to complete a questionnaire, which was assessed based on the mutual support, psychological well-being, ego-resiliency scales, and the nurses' demographic data. The correlation coefficient showed that mutual support scores were shown to have a positive moderate correlation with psychological well-being scores (r = 0.509, p < .001) and ego-resiliency scores (r = 0.485, p < .001). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that the mutual support scale's scores were explained with 39.5% variance by most of the factors, including the psychological well-being and ego-resiliency scales, registration in disaster-assistance teams, and participation in psycho-education classes. The result of this study showed that mutual support could largely depend on the basic psychological status.
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Physician burnout is a public health crisis. Although recent studies underscore its prevalence, there are few rigorous studies examining its prevention, especially among medical students and residents. Prior interventions have centered on mindfulness techniques and flexible workload scheduling, yielding limited success. However, interventions that combine fitness with philanthropy and community building may be more effective. The purpose of this report is 2-fold: first, to provide a review of physician burnout and potential prevention mechanisms and, second, to present a case study of how Medicine in Motion (MiM) addresses these issues. MiM facilitates various athletic workouts, competitions, and other events for students and professionals in medicine, dentistry, nursing, and physical therapy to support wellness and charitable initiatives. This analysis identifies 4 barriers to physicians and those in the health care profession from participating in wellness activities: (1) insufficient awareness, (2) logistical challenges, (3) lack of purpose, and (4) absence of perceived support. To overcome these barriers, MiM provides a model toolkit for starting a grassroots movement against physician burnout that other health care institutions may emulate. Institutions should provide financial support for these wellness programs. Future research is needed to evaluate these combined exercise, philanthropic, and community building efforts.
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Background This study examined whether the effects of received and provided social support on blood pressure (BP) would differ by education. Methods Data from 602 African American adults (48-95 years) enrolled in the Baltimore Study of Black Aging—Patterns of Cognitive Aging were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results We found no main effects of received and provided social support on BP. However, a significant moderation effect was observed for systolic BP, such that greater received social support was positively associated with higher systolic BP among individuals with low levels of education, adjusting for age, sex, chronic health conditions, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that social support and education have joint effects on blood pressure, which highlights the importance of considering psychosocial determinants of adverse cardiovascular health outcomes that disproportionately affect African Americans.
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Individuals regularly face stress, and the manner in which they cope with that stress is a crucial component in predicting stress recovery. While many engage in self-rewarding behaviors to feel better, these behaviors can come with a cost. The current study tested the effect of engaging in a different behavior after experiencing stress-prosocial behavior. Given the health benefits associated with giving to others, it is plausible that engaging in prosocial behavior is more successful in reducing the psychological and physiological responses to stress. To test this, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test and then either sent a gift card to a person of their choosing, received a gift card for themselves, or selected the more aesthetically pleasing gift card. Measures of self-reported mood, heart rate, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase, and cortisol were collected throughout the session. While the manipulation did not elicit differences in psychological or hormonal measures, the giving group showed a significantly greater downregulation of their heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure while recovering from the stressor. Additionally, those in the giving group who evidenced greater prosocial sentiment showed a larger reduction in diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure. A follow-up study suggested that these behaviors may be engaging different reward components, as those who gave a gift card reported greater "liking" while those who received a gift card reported greater "wanting". Overall, the findings show that engaging in prosocial behavior following a stressor can help to downregulate physiological stress responses.
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This article argues that international development research needs to focus more attention on love, for two reasons. First, to better understand the emotional experiences of poverty, injustice and development, and second, to understand the ways that public policy can shape the capabilities for love. Following analysis of the importance of love for physical and mental health, the article examines areas of public policy in the global North and South that may undermine the capability to love and be loved. The article concludes by highlighting the ways that attention to love may help to humanize international development research and overcome “othering.”
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Altruistic social activity, such as giving support to others, has shown protective benefits on dementia risk and cognitive decline. However, the pathological mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the association between altruistic social activity and brain regional gray matter. Furthermore, to explore the psychological interplay in altruistic social activity, we tested mediating effect of depressive symptoms on brain regional gray matter. We performed a cross-sectional Voxel-Based Morphology (VBM) analysis including 8695 old adults (72.9±6.1 years) from Japan Prospective Studies Collaboration for Aging and Dementia (JPSC-AD) Cohort. We measured altruistic social activities by self-report questionnaire, depressive symptoms by Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-short version. We employed the whole-brain VBM method to detect relevant structural properties related to altruistic social activity. We then performed multiple regression models to detect the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on particular brain regional gray matter volume while adjusting possible physical and social lifestyle covariables. We found that altruistic social activity is associated with larger gray matter volume in posterior insula, middle cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, thalamus, superior temporal gyrus, anterior orbital gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. Depressive symptoms mediated over 10% on altruistic social activity and hippocampus volume, over 20% on altruistic social activity and cingulate gyrus volume. Our results indicated that altruistic social activity might preserve brain regional gray matter where are sensitive to aging and cognitive decline. Meanwhile, this association may be explained by indirect effect on depressive symptoms, suggesting that altruistic social activity may mitigate the neuropathology of dementia.
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This article reviews the presence of family theory in health‐care research. First, we demonstrate some disconnect between models of the patient, which tend to focus on the individual, and a large body of research that finds that relationships influence health. We summarize the contributions of family science and medical family therapy and conclude that family science models and measures are generally underutilized. As a result, practitioners do not have access to the rich tool kit of lenses and interventions offered by systems thinking. We propose several possible ways that family scientists can contribute to health‐care research, such as using the family as the unit of analysis, exploring theories of the family as they relate to health, and suggesting greater involvement of family scientists in health research.
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Tested the self-efficacy hypotheses that (1) personal mastery expectations are the primary determinants of behavioral change and (2) individual differences in past experiences and attribution of success to skill or chance result in different levels of generalized self-efficacy expectations. A Self-Efficacy Scale was developed and tested with 376 college students. Factor analysis yielded 2 subscales: a General Self-Efficacy subscale (17 items) and a Social Self-Efficacy subscale (6 items). Confirmation of several predicted conceptual relationships between the Self-Efficacy subscales and other personality measures (i.e., Locus of Control, Personal Control, Social Desirability, Ego Strength, Interpersonal Competence, and Self-Esteem) provided evidence of construct validity. Positive relationships between the Self-Efficacy Scale and vocational, educational, and military success established criterion validity. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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Growing research interest in social support underscores the need for reliable and valid measures of this concept. It is argued that measures that assess what indivMuals actually do by way of providing support make unique contributions to our understanding of natural helping processes. A 40item scale, the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (ISSB), was developed in which respondents report the frequency with which they were the recipients of supportive actions. Results suggest that the ISSB has adequate test-retest and internal consistency reliability and is significantly correlated with network size and perceived support of the family. Although further research is needed to further substantiate its utility, the ISSB is seen as a promising tool for understanding natural helping processes. When people are asked to indicate who they turn to in times of crisis and emotional distress, they typically cite key family members and friends who they consider "natural helpers" (Gurin, Veroff, & Feld, 1960; Croog, Lipson, & Levine, 1972; Keefe, Padilla, & Carlos, 1978). Particularly since Caplan's (1974) influential work, the term social support has been popularized to connote the various forms of aid and assistance supplied by family members, friends, neighbors, and others. Support networks formed by these informal helpers are thought to have a major
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This study examined factors facilitating support giving to members of the social network by elderly Jewish persons residing in assisted living facilities in Israel. A support provision score was regressed on two sets of background control variables: personal characteristics and housing factors; social network variables; and an exchange measure-perceived available support. The hierarchical multivariate results revealed that it was principally the perceived support measure along with two personal characteristics (younger age and nonreligious orientation) that explained the variance in the support provision score (R2 = .52). The findings underscore the importance of reciprocity within the informal networks of this population.
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This cross-national study examined the perception of reciprocity in support relationships and the degree to which reciprocity predicts life satisfaction. Comparisons of white and black American elderly with elderly from south-western France indicate cultural differences. The French are much more likely to perceive their support relationships as reciprocal and very unlikely to report receiving less support than they provide. Among elderly white Americans, age, lower educational levels and functional limitations are associated with not perceiving support relationships as reciprocal. The pattern is similar but not significant among black Americans. French elderly with more functional limitations report that they receive less than they provide, whereas those who are married are more likely to report that their relations are reciprocal. Comparisons of white and black Americans over the full adult age range reveal that for white Americans, age, education, functional limitations, and marital status are important factors predicting reciprocity in social relations; for black Americans again the pattern is similar, but only functional limitations and marital status significantly predict reciprocity. Generally, reciprocal relationships are most positively related to life satisfaction in comparison to both receiving more or receiving less support in white and black American adults and American and French elderly. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68332/2/10.1177_0265407590074008.pdf
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This paper is designed to empirically investigate sex differences in social support. Several types of sex differences are examined, including quantity and quality of support, the relationship between quantitative and qualitative measures of support, the number and source of support provided and received, and the relative predictive power of quality and quantity of support on well-being. The data are taken from the Supports of the Elderly, a national survey of older people (Kahn and Antonucci, 1984). Included in the present study are 214 men and 166 women ranging in age from 50 to 95 who are married and have at least one child. The analyses reveal that women have larger networks and receive supports from multiple sources, while men tend to rely on their spouses exclusively. Men report greater satisfaction with marriage than women. Quantitative supports are more related to qualitative supports for women than for men. For both sexes, the quality of support rather than the quantity of support has significantly greater effects on well-being; both the quantity and quality of social support have a greater impact on the well-being of women compared to men. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45580/1/11199_2004_Article_BF00287685.pdf
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This study examined daily stress processes among 75 married couples across 20 assessments during a 6-month period. The somatic and psychological effects of common everyday hassles were investigated. Overall, there was a significant relationship between daily stress and the occurrence of both concurrent and subsequent health problems such as flu, sore throat, headaches, and backaches. The relationship of daily stress to mood disturbance was more complex. The negative effects of stress on mood were limited to a single day, with the following day characterized by mood scores that were better than usual. Furthermore, striking individual differences were found in the extent to which daily stress was associated with health and mood across time. Participants with unsupportive social relationships and low self-esteem were more likely to experience an increase in psychological and somatic problems both on and following stressful days than were participants high in self-esteem and social support. These data suggest that persons with low psychosocial resources are vulnerable to illness and mood disturbance when their stress levels increase, even if they generally have little stress in their lives.
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The association between an a priori measure of social connections and five-year mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases (International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision (ICD-8) codes 390-458), and ischemic heart disease (ICD-8 codes 410-414) was studied in 13,301 men and women from eastern Finland who were first interviewed in 1972 or 1977. For men, there was a graded association between extent of social connections and mortality. In multivariate models with adjustment for age, smoking, serum cholesterol, mean weighted blood pressure, measures of prevalent illness, and other possible confounders, men who were in the two lowest quintiles of the social connections scale were at increased risk compared with those in the highest quintile (odds ratio (OR)all cause = 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21-1.95; ORcardiovascular disease = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.11-2.13; ORischemic heart disease = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.94-1.90). No strong or consistent association was found for women. The association for men was modified by levels of blood pressure with the effect of low social connections greater at higher levels of blood pressure. In three separate analyses, there was no evidence for confounding or effect modification due to prevalent illness at baseline.
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A 30-question Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) was validated, in Italian and English, among 230 subjects. Test-retest reliability was 0.82 for the General (past year or two) PSQ, while monthly Recent (past month) PSQs varied by a mean factor of 1.9 over 6 months; coefficient alpha > 0.9. General and/or Recent PSQ scores were associated with trait anxiety (r = 0.75), Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (r = 0.73), depression (r = 0.56), self-rated stress (r = 0.56), and stressful life events (p < 0.05). The General PSQ was higher in in-patients than in out-patients (p < 0.05); both forms were correlated with a somatic complaints scale in a non-patient population (r > 0.5), and were higher, among 27 asymptomatic ulcerative colitis patients, in the seven who had rectal inflammation than in those with normal proctoscopy (p = 0.03). Factor analysis yielded seven factors, of which those reflecting interpersonal conflict and tension were significantly associated with health outcomes. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire may be a valuable addition to the armamentarium of psychosomatic researchers.
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We tested whether the presence of a stranger reduces cardiovascular responses during stressful tasks if the evaluation potential of the stranger is minimized and whether cardiovascular responses are affected by the quality of support in a friendship. Undergraduate women performed stressful tasks in one of three conditions: Alone, with a same-sex Stranger, or with a same-sex best Friend. The stranger and friend could not hear participants' responses. Alone women had the greatest increases in SBP and HR while women in the Stranger and Friend conditions did not differ in their responses. In the Friend condition, HR responses were smallest in women who were highly satisfied with the support that they generally received from their friend. We conclude that the presence of a nonevaluative friend or stranger can reduce cardiovascular responses and that the quality of supportive ties modulates the impact of those ties on responses to stress.
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The relationship between social and community ties and mortality was assessed using the 1965 Human Population Laboratory survey of a random sample of 6928 adults in Alameda County, California and a subsequent nine-year mortality follow-up. The findings show that people who lacked social and community ties were more likely to die in the follow-up period than those with more extensive contacts. The age-adjusted relative risks for those most Isolated when compared to those with the most social contacts were 2.3 for men and 2.8 for women. The association between social ties and mortality was found to be independent of self-reported physical health status at the time of the 1965 survey, year of death, socioeconomic status, and health practices such as smoking, alcoholic beverage consumption, obesity, physical activity, and utilization of preventive health services as well as a cumulative index of health practices.
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Social support has been prospectively associated with mortality and implicated in the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD; see reviews by Berkman, 1985; Broadhead et al., 1983; Cohen, 1988; House, Landis, & Umberson, 1988; Wallston, Alagna, DeVellis, & DeVellis, 1983). Although there has been a tremendous effort to establish a relation between support and CHD, relatively little work has focused on how social support influences CHD pathogenesis. We feel that differentiation between conceptions of social support and specification of pathways through which each type of support influences CHD are requisite for understanding the role of support in the prevention of disease. In service of this goal, we review studies of the role of social support in the etiology of CHD, suggest some distinctions in social support based on existing research, argue for functionally distinct stages of CHD pathogenesis, and propose a series of psychological and biological models linking different conceptualizations of social support to CHD. Our discussion is limited to the etiology of disease (onset and progression, but not recovery) and focuses on disease end points (morbidity and mortality) rather than illness behaviors such as symptom reporting and use of medical services.
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This article concerns the study of altruism. Highlights of the research history of altruism in sociobiology, psychological social-psychology, and sociology are reviewed. Examples from the author's work on kidney and bone-marrow donation are interwoven with this history. The sociological mechanisms producing altruism, particularly normative obligation, are emphasized along with the psychological mechanisms (e.g., empathy). The need for better integration across subareas in sociology is discussed. In addition, it is concluded that some scientific work significantly trivializes altruism.
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This study examined the effects of participation in a school-based helper program on adolescents' self-image, attitudes, and behaviors. Seventh-grade students at the junior high where the program was implemented were divided into 2 functional groups, one of which was required to engage in volunteer helping activities for the remainder of the school year, whereas the other group engaged in no such service. It was hypothesized that Helper Program participants (n = 85) relative to nonparticipants (n = 86), and especially boys, would show improvement in 4 domains: self-image, commitment to school and community, problem behavior, and commitment to altruism. The results were gender specific: Participating boys showed positive changes in self-esteem, depressive affect, involvement, and problem behavior relative to other groups. The findings indicate that, with program modifications to augment potential benefits to girls, helper programs might become an important mechanism in producing positive life changes for adolescents.
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The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
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The ability to identify patients with special psychosocia1 needs is necessary to effectively target cardiac rehabilitation. Recent evidence suggests that social relationships and social support may influence recovery from a myocardial infarction (MI). A panel study is used to explore the predictive value of assessing social support in MI recovery and to examine its relative contribution to multiple recovery outcomes when compared to illness severity, pre-illness stressful life events, and personal sense of control. Analysis of data collected through structured interviews during acute hospitalization (N = 114) and again 6 months later (N = 75) and one year later (N = 60) finds statistically significant associations between measures of support and psychological, functional, and physical outcomes. Multiple regression analysis indicates that the relative contribution of support to outcome variance is less than that of the patient's sense of personal control. Methodological and clinical implications of the study are discussed.
Article
Examined the nature of the support that flows between older adults and their relatives in an empirical study of family relationships and later-life satisfaction. 108 noninstitutionalized older adults (aged 60–90 yrs) completed the Life Satisfaction Index Form Z and a Reciprocity in Family Support scale developed for the study. Findings indicate that older adults who are givers of support as well as receivers of support are more likely to express greater life satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Used the repeated-measures ANOVA approach to analyze the relationship between position, location, and mood and individual ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) in 246 Ss (aged 30–60 yrs at baseline). Position and location had sizeable effects on systolic and diastolic ABP as well as HR, but a large amount of interpersonal variability was seen in these effects. Of the 12 moods studied, anger was associated with the largest increase in both systolic and diastolic ABP followed by excitement; feeling happy, rushed, and anxious were also associated with small, but statistically significant ABP increases. Feeling tired was associated with a modest decrease in ABP. Although several of the mood effects were significant, overall mood was found not to account for much of the variance in ABP or HR. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Fifty elders, 61–91 years of age, identified and evaluated the important people in their lives. Characteristics which typified good relationships in general were reciprocity, trustworthiness, friendliness and responsibility. Highest mean scores on the semantic differential scale were found for friends, lowest for neighbours. Significant differences between these two groups indicates that they cannot be combined. Grandchildren did not appear to play a central role in the lives of this group of elders. Spouses gave each other low ratings relative to other groups of supporters. If replicated in a larger sample, the possibility should be investigated that respondents may evaluate intimate relationships on a different ‘psychological yardstick’ than other relationships and relatively low evaluations may not indicate marital dissatisfaction.
Article
Structured interviews were conducted with forty-eight older clients discharged from a public health nursing service in order to: (1) describe their social support network and (2) identify specific components of social support related to physical, social and emotional health. The sample was comprised primarily of older widows living alone to whom family and relatives contributed the largest amount of support. Correlation analyses revealed that: (1) age, emotional support given by older persons to their supporters and aid given and received by older persons were related to physical functioning; (2) emotional, decisional and aid support given by older persons to their supports (total reciprocity) and femaleness were related to emotional functioning and; (3) emotional and aid support received by older persons and reciprocity were related to social functioning.
Article
A perceived availability of social support measure (the ISEL) was designed with independent subscales measuring four separate support functions. In a sample of college students, both perceived availability of social support and number of positive events moderated the relationship between negative life stress and depressive and physical symptomatology. In the case of depressive symptoms, the data fit a “buffering” hypothesis pattern, i.e., they suggest that both social support and positive events protect one from the pathogenic effects of high levels of life stress but are relatively unimportant for those with low levels of stress. In the case of physical symptoms, the data only partially support the buffering hypothesis. Particularly, the data suggest that both social support and positive events protect one from the pathogenic effects of high levels of stress but harm those (i.e., are associated with increased symptomatology) with low levels of stress. Further analyses suggest that self-esteem and appraisal support were primarily responsible for the reported interactions between negative life stress and social support. In contrast, frequency of past social support was not an effective life stress buffer in either the case of depressive or physical symptomatology. Moreover, past support frequency was positively related to physical symptoms and unrelated to depressive symptoms, while perceived availability of support was negatively related to depressive symptoms and unrelated to physical symptoms.
Book
There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
Article
The relationship between social and community ties and mortality was assessed using the 1965 Human Population Laboratory survey of a random sample of 6928 adults in Alameda County, California and a subsequent nine-year mortality follow-up. The findings show that people who lacked social and community ties were more likely to die in the follow-up period than those with more extensive contacts. The age-adjusted relative risks for those most isolated when compared to those with the most social contacts were 2.3 for men and 2.8 for women. The association between social ties and mortality was found to be independent of self-reported physical health status at the time of the 1965 survey, year of death, socioeconomic status, and health practices such as smoking, alcoholic beverage consumption, obesity, physical activity, and utilization of preventive health services as well as a cumulative index of health practices.
Article
Social support is defined as information leading the subject to believe that he is cared for and loved, esteemed, and a member of a network of mutual obligations. The evidence that supportive interactions among people are protective against the health consequences of life stress is reviewed. It appears that social support can protect people in crisis from a wide variety of pathological states: from low birth weight to death, from arthritis through tuberculosis to depression, alcoholism, and the social breakdown syndrome. Furthermore, social support may reduce the amount of medication required, accelerate recovery, and facilitate compliance with prescribed medical regimens.
Article
This study examines the possibility that social support operates as a moderator of cardiovascular reactivity, which may be a factor in the development of heart disease and hypertension. An experiment was performed in which each of 40 subjects was the object of verbal attack in a discussion of a controversial issue. In each session, one subject and three confederates participated. Two of the confederates argued with the subject; in half the groups, a third confederate defended the subject's position (social support condition); in the other half, the third confederate sat quietly (no support condition). The subject's blood pressure and heart rate were continuously monitored. Subjects in the social support condition showed significantly smaller increases in cardiovascular measures than subjects in the no support condition. The results are discussed in terms of small group dynamics and Social Comparison Theory.
Article
Ninety post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients were interviewed to assess masculinity/femininity and social support shortly before hospital discharge. Patients were contacted 1 year following MI to obtain information about rehospitalization and/or death, post-MI chest pain, and perceived health. After controlling for traditional coronary risk factors, MI severity, and psychological distress, lack of disclosure to one's spouse predicted worse recovery on all three indices. Exploratory analyses revealed that males (n = 63) who disclosed to their spouses were rehospitalized less often than females (n = 14) who disclosed to their spouses, and married patients who engaged in less spouse disclosure (n = 32) were significantly more likely to be rehospitalized than either unmarried patients (n = 14) or married patients who engaged in more spouse disclosure (n = 41). Masculinity predicted more severe post-MI chest pain but was unrelated to rehospitalization and perceived health.
Article
The relationship between social network and blood pressure was assessed in a cross-sectional, random sample of 1409 white adults aged 20 to 70 years studied in Buffalo in 1961. Higher total social network scores were associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both males and females. Considering the components of social network separately, increased size of household and greater participation in clubs were associated with lower systolic blood pressure for males, with the trend in the same direction for women, though not reaching statistical significance. Among females, the only social network component showing significant linear trend was the number of siblings, with increased number of siblings being associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Religious service attendance and marital status were not associated with blood pressure in this population.
Article
The associations of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with stroke and with coronary heart disease (CHD) were investigated in nine major prospective observational studies: total 420,000 individuals, 843 strokes, and 4856 CHD events, 6-25 (mean 10) years of follow-up. The combined results demonstrate positive, continuous, and apparently independent associations, with no significant heterogeneity of effect among different studies. Within the range of DBP studied (about 70-110 mm Hg), there was no evidence of any "threshold" below which lower levels of DBP were not associated with lower risks of stroke and of CHD. Previous analyses have described the uncorrected associations of DBP measured just at "baseline" with subsequent disease rates. But, because of the diluting effects of random fluctuations in DBP, these substantially underestimate the true associations of the usual DBP (ie, an individual's long-term average DBP) with disease. After correction for this "regression dilution" bias, prolonged differences in usual DBP of 5, 7.5, and 10 mm Hg were respectively associated with at least 34%, 46%, and 56% less stroke and at least 21%, 29%, and 37% less CHD. These associations are about 60% greater than in previous uncorrected analyses. (This regression dilution bias is quite general, so analogous corrections to the relations of cholesterol to CHD or of various other risk factors to CHD or to other diseases would likewise increase their estimated strengths.) The DBP results suggest that for the large majority of individuals, whether conventionally "hypertensive" or "normotensive", a lower blood pressure should eventually confer a lower risk of vascular disease.
Article
In this study we investigated the effects of nonevaluative social interaction on the cardiovascular response to psychological challenge. Thirty-nine college-age females appeared accompanied ("Friend" condition) or unaccompanied ("Alone" condition) to an experimental laboratory. In the Friend condition, partners were present while the subject participated in two laboratory tasks, and the partners' evaluation potential was minimized by design. Subjects in the Friend condition showed reduced heart rate reactivity to both tasks, relative to the Alone group, an attenuated task-related systolic blood pressure response to one of the tasks, and a reduced diastolic blood pressure increase during a solitary interview. In two other instances, partner-related response reductions were apparent only for Type A subjects. None of these effects was accompanied by differences in task performance or self-reported emotional response. Interpersonal support may reduce cardiovascular responsivity to stress, an effect with possible implications for understanding the association between social relationships and cardiovascular risk.
Article
The value of ambulatory systolic blood pressure as a predictor of the development of cardiovascular complications was investigated in a sample of 761 hypertensive patients who had undergone ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and who were followed for an average of 5.5 years. Of the 695 patients without prior cardiovascular events at entry into the study, 11% subsequently experienced an event during the follow-up period (up to 10 years) compared to 48% of the 102 patients with a prior cardiovascular event. For each patient, a 'predicted' ambulatory systolic blood pressure was calculated, using the patient's office systolic blood pressure and the equation derived from regressing ambulatory on office blood pressure for the entire sample. By subtracting the predicted from the observed ambulatory pressure, a 'residual' ambulatory systolic blood pressure was derived for each patient, as a measure of that portion of the ambulatory pressure that could not be predicted from the office pressure. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to analyse the independent effect of each of the following patient characteristics at entry on the occurrence of subsequent cardiovascular events: sex, age, ECG evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertensive retinopathy, ambulatory systolic blood pressure, office systolic blood pressure, residual ambulatory systolic blood pressure and subsequent drug therapy. In both groups, with and without a prior cardiovascular event, women, younger patients and those with lower residual ambulatory systolic blood pressure tended to have longer periods of survival without new cardiovascular events. In the group without prior cardiovascular events, a lower office systolic blood pressure and the absence of advanced ECG evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy were also independently predictive of longer event-free survival.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Measures of support, stress, distress, and cardiac symptoms were obtained from a cohort of 73 male cardiac patients at hospitalization and at 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter. Sets of general and alternative hypotheses regarding the direction of causality among these variables were drawn from the literature on c