Article

Ganoderma — A Therapeutic Fungal Biofactory

Micoteca da Universidade do Minho, Centro de Engenharia Biológica, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.
Phytochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.55). 10/2006; 67(18):1985-2001. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.07.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma is a basidiomycete white rot fungus which has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries particularly in China, Japan and Korea. A great deal of work has been carried out on Ganoderma lucidum. The common names for preparations include Lingzhi, Munnertake, Sachitake, Reishi and Youngzhi. This review collates the publications detailing activities and compounds by representative species whilst considering the most valid claims of effectiveness. The biological activities reported of preparations from Ganoderma are remarkable and given most emphasis herein as distinct from structure/activity information. The metabolites consist of mainly polysaccharides and terpenoids. Many are activities against the major diseases of our time and so the present review is of great importance. The list of effects is huge ranging from anti-cancer to relieving blockages of the bladder. However, the reports have not all been tested scientifically with the convincing evidence is reserved for assays of pure compounds. It is a prime example of an ancient remedy being of great relevance to the modern era. There does appear to be an assumption that the therapeutic effects attributed to the fungus have been proven. The next step is to produce some effective medicines which may be hampered by problems of mass production.

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    • "Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known medicinal macrofungus in China, which creates multiple bioactive com- pounds.[1]Polysaccharides and triterpenoids are recognized as two kinds of key ingredients, which are responsible for the pharmacological activities of this fun- gus.[2,3]Modern pharmaceutical researches have reported a list of medicinal effects of G. lucidum polysaccharides , such as immunomodulating and antitumour activities.[4,5]Shi et al.[4]reported that four G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP-I, GLP-II, GLP-III and GLP-IV) from G. lucidum showed a significant stimulation of the macrophage proliferation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional medicinal macrofungus in China, which has two kinds of key bioactive compounds -- polysaccharides and triterpenoids. To improve the polysaccharide and triterpenoid production from G. lucidum, the preparation and regeneration conditions of protoplasts were optimized. This was done by systematic trials with various parameters, and protoplast mutation was subsequently performed. A mycelium that was cultivated for seven days and treated with 0.33 mL of 1% snailase and 0.66 mL of 0.5% cellulase solution for 2.5 h at 30 °C in the presence of osmotic pressure stabilizer mannitol (0.5 mol/L), had the best conditions, in which the resultant protoplasts were 6.40 × 105/mL and the regeneration rate was 6.25%. The resultant protoplasts were subjected to subsequent mutation by lithium chloride or by the combination of lithium chloride and Triton X-100. The highest yields of intracellular polysaccharide and triterpenoid in two mutant strains were 37.50 and 40.81 mg/g, which were increased with 568.45% and 373.43%, respectively, as compared to the original strain. Furthermore, the yields of intracellular polysaccharides and triterpenoids in the second generation and the third generation of the mutants were comparable to that of the first generation, which showed genetic stability of the mutants for the production of polysaccharides and triterpenoids.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment
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    • "In Southeast Asia, especially in China and Japan, edible mushrooms (Lentinula, Ganoderma, Grifola and Pleurotus spp) are used to develop diverse functional foods, such as dishes, concentrates, extracts, liqueurs and dressings (Mizuno, 1995; Azizi et al., 2012; Huan-Jun, L et al., 2015). 2015 43(2 ) 60 Among medicinal mushrooms of interest is G. lucidum, commonly known in Japan as "Reishi" (Lakhanpal and Monika, 2005; Reis et al., 2015), due to their proven effects as stimulating the immune system and its anticancer activity (Marin et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2006; Paterson, 2006; Suarez-Medellin, 2011; Cheng and Sliva, 2015). There is also a trend in the market for efficient production of fruiting bodies, where success depends largely on nutrient sources, composition and selection of strains, as well as an appropriate balance in carbon-nitrogen ratio (C / N) (Fang and Zhong, 2002; Tang and Zhong, 2002; Chang et al, 2006; Mehta, S et al., 2014). "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "The polysaccharides of b-D-glucan configuration isolated from Ganoderma lucidum have been widely reported as they are capable to inhibit the formation of free radicals. They possess higher scavenging activity [65,10,9] due to their ability to donate hydrogen atoms (H + ) bonded to their macromolecular structure. More importantly, the results significantly (p-value < 0.05) indicated that the formulation of b-D-glucan-loaded nanoemulsions has enhanced the antioxidant activity of b-D-glucan by incorporating these macromolecules with palm olein. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polysaccharides of β-d-glucan configuration have well-known antioxidant activity against reactive free radicals generated from the oxidation of metabolic processes. In this study, β-d-glucan-polysaccharides extracted from Ganoderma lucidum were incorporated in palm olein based nanoemulsions which act as carrier systems to enhance the delivery and bioactivity of these polysaccharides and could be potentially useful for skin care applications. Initially response surface statistical design (Central Composite Design – CCD) was subjected to optimize the formulation variables of oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions induced by ultrasound. The optimal formulation variables as predicted by CCD resulted in considerably improving the physical characteristics of ultrasonically formulated nanoemulsions by minimizing their droplet size, polydispersity index and viscosity. Moreover, the β-d-glucan-loaded nanoemulsions exhibited good stability over 90 days under different storage conditions (4 °C and 25 °C). The studies using palm olein based β-d-glucan-loaded nanoemulsion generated using ultrasound confirm higher antioxidant activity as compared to free β-d-glucan.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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