Promoting Smoking Cessation in the Healthcare Environment: 10 Years Later

ArticleinAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine 31(3):269-72 · October 2006with7 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2006.05.003 · Source: PubMed
    • "Factors impacting CAM practitioner tobacco cessation behaviors are not well studied, especially regarding adoption of PHS Guideline-based tobacco dependence treatment practices. Among conventional practitioners, training [17], practice environment system changes525354, and pro-adoption peer social influences have generally been shown to increase tobacco BI behaviors, particularly in combination with one another [55]. Prior to this study, however, there was little to no research on how these factors affect CAM practitioners. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, such as chiropractors, acupuncturists, and massage therapists, are a growing presence in the US health care landscape and already provide health and wellness care to significant numbers of patients who use tobacco. For decades, conventional biomedical practitioners have received training to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation brief interventions (BIs) and referrals to cessation services as part of routine clinical care, whereas CAM practitioners have been largely overlooked for BI training. Web-based training has clear potential to meet large-scale training dissemination needs. However, despite the exploding use of Web-based training for health professionals, Web-based evaluation of clinical skills competency remains underdeveloped. Objective: In pursuit of a long-term goal of helping CAM practitioners integrate evidence-based practices from US Public Health Service Tobacco Dependence Treatment Guideline into routine clinical care, this pilot protocol aims to develop and test a Web-based tobacco cessation training program tailored for CAM practitioners. Methods: In preparation for a larger trial to examine the effect of training on CAM practitioner clinical practice behaviors around tobacco cessation, this developmental study will (1) adapt an existing in-person tobacco cessation BI training program that is specifically tailored for CAM therapists for delivery via the Internet; (2) develop a novel, Web-based tool to assess CAM practitioner competence in tobacco cessation BI skills, and conduct a pilot validation study comparing the competency assessment tool to live video role plays with a standardized patient; (3) pilot test the Web-based training with 120 CAM practitioners (40 acupuncturists, 40 chiropractors, 40 massage therapists) for usability, accessibility, acceptability, and effects on practitioner knowledge, self-efficacy, and competency with tobacco cessation; and (4) conduct qualitative and quantitative formative research on factors influencing practitioner tobacco cessation clinical behaviors (eg, practice environment, peer social influence, and insurance reimbursement). Results: Web-training and competency assessment tool development and study enrollment and training activities are complete (N=203 practitioners enrolled). Training completion rates were lower than expected (36.9%, 75/203), necessitating over enrollment to ensure a sufficient number of training completers. Follow-up data collection is in progress. Data analysis will begin immediately after data collection is complete. Conclusions: To realize CAM practitioners' potential to promote tobacco cessation and use of evidence-based treatments, there is a need to know more about the facilitative and inhibitory factors influencing CAM practitioner tobacco intervention behaviors (eg, social influence and insurance reimbursement). Given marked differences between conventional and CAM practitioners, extant knowledge about factors influencing conventional practitioner adoption of tobacco cessation behaviors cannot be confidently extrapolated to CAM practitioners. The potential impact of this study is to expand tobacco cessation and health promotion infrastructure in a new group of health practitioners who can help combat the continuing epidemic of tobacco use.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
    • "National surveys indicate that clinicians are increasingly screening for tobacco use and offering brief advice; however, rates of assistance are still too low [2]. One recommended strategy to improve smoker assistance in primary care settings is to link practices to external counseling resources, such as statewide telephone quitlines [3-7]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fax referral services that connect smokers to state quitlines have been implemented in 49 U.S. states and territories and promoted as a simple solution to improving smoker assistance in medical practice. This study is an in-depth examination of the systems-level changes needed to implement and sustain a fax referral program in primary care. The study involved implementation of a fax referral system paired with a chart stamp prompting providers to identify smoking patients, provide advice to quit and refer interested smokers to a state-based fax quitline. Three focus groups (n = 26) and eight key informant interviews were conducted with staff and physicians at two clinics after the intervention. We used the Chronic Care Model as a framework to analyze the data, examining how well the systems changes were implemented and the impact of these changes on care processes, and to develop recommendations for improvement. Physicians and staff described numerous benefits of the fax referral program for providers and patients but pointed out significant barriers to full implementation, including the time-consuming process of referring patients to the Quitline, substantial patient resistance, and limitations in information and care delivery systems for referring and tracking smokers. Respondents identified several strategies for improving integration, including simplification of the referral form, enhanced teamwork, formal assignment of responsibility for referrals, ongoing staff training and patient education. Improvements in Quitline feedback were needed to compensate for clinics' limited internal information systems for tracking smokers. Establishing sustainable linkages to quitline services in clinical sites requires knowledge of existing patterns of care and tailored organizational changes to ensure new systems are prioritized, easily integrated into current office routines, formally assigned to specific staff members, and supported by internal systems that ensure adequate tracking and follow up of smokers. Ongoing staff training and patient self-management techniques are also needed to ease the introduction of new programs and increase their acceptability to smokers.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009
    • "A commitment to prevention, long neglected within the US health system, is an essential component of health care reform in the US [1,25]. Successful reform of the US health care system into a universally accessible, prevention-oriented system would include a strengthened infrastructure to support smoking cessation [26]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Joshua Yang and Thomas Novotny explore whether the US government can develop and implement a coherent policy agenda to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009
Show more