Kang SC, Lee CM, Choi H, et al. Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities. Phytother Res. : 20:; 1017-1019
College of Pharmacy, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, South Korea.Phytotherapy Research (Impact Factor: 2.66). 11/2006; 20(11):1017-9. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1987
Herb extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic activity with a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 17-estradiol = 1.00) (7.8e-3) (RP for + control), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.3e-3), Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum and Pueraria lobata (root) (9.5e-4-1.0e-4), and Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus and Adenophora stricta (9.0e-5-8.0e-5). In the antiproliferative assay, five human cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung and ovary) were used. Eriobotrya japonica showed strong cytotoxicity in ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), cervix epitheloid (HeLa) and lung (A549) carcinoma cell lines.
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- "Phytoestrogenic effects, the stimulation of osteoblasts and an anti-estrogenic lignan could be detected for Carthamus tinctorius (Yoo et al., 2006; Kim et al., 2008). An inhibitory activity on 5α-reductase was reported for an antraquinone derivative of Reynoutria multiflora (Cho et al., 2010) and estrogenic properties were documented for Reynoutria multiflora by Kang et al. (2006). 4.3. "
ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Prostate cancer is one of the most diagnosed forms of cancer among men in western regions. Many traditional applications or phytotherapeutic concepts propose to inhibit the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. In order to detect influences of plant or fungal extracts and derived fractions on androgen receptor signaling pathways, a differentiating cell proliferation assay was established, which enables the simultaneous detection of hormonal and cytotoxic effects. Material and methods: The well characterized prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 were used in a multiple readout assay. In all, 186 fractions of 23 traditionally used organisms were screened regarding their effects on proliferation of the two prostate cancer cell lines. The fractions were prepared by accelerated solvent extraction followed by gradient extrography. Extracts of the potential hormonally active plants Cibotium barometz, Heteropterys chrysophylla, and Sideroxylon obtusifolium (= Bumelia sartorum) were phytochemically investigated. Results: Fractions from Cibotium barometz, Cortinarius rubellus, Cyrtomium falcatum, Heteropterys chrysophylla, Nephrolepis exaltata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Sideroxylon obtusifolium, Trichilia emetica, and Trimeria grandifolia exhibited hormonal influences on prostate cancer cells. Cytotoxic activity towards human cell lines was detected for the first time for fractions from Aglaia spectabilis (A. gigantea), Nephrolepis exaltata and Cortinarius brunneus. Conclusions: The differential behavior of the two prostate cancer cell lines allows the discrimination between potential androgenic or antiandrogenic activities and effects on the estrogen or glucocorticoid receptor as well as cytotoxic activities. The combined cell lines assay can help to assess the biological activities of material used in traditional medicine.
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- "The estrogenic properties of seeds from a Fallopia species have not been examined, so comparison to seeds of other Fallopia species is not possible. However, whole root extracts of a related species, F. multiflorum, were capable of inducing ER-dependent gene expression to ~75% of maximal E2 activity (from 0.1 mg root) in a yeast-based estrogen receptor assay  and contains an estimated 0.4 mM E2 EQ/g herb in the same receptor assay in a separate study . After initial analysis on BG1Luc4E2 cells, F. convolvulus seed extract was then crudely fractionated using normal phase chromatography, and fractions (8 mg seed equivalents/mL) were evaluated for estrogenic activity in the BG1Luc4E2 cell line (Figure 1B). "
ABSTRACT: Background The plant genus Fallopia is well-known in Chinese traditional medicine and includes many species that contain bioactive compounds, namely phytoestrogens. Consumption of phytoestrogens may be linked to decreased incidence of breast and prostate cancers therefore discovery of novel phytoestrogens and novel sources of phytoestrogens is of interest. Although phytoestrogen content has been analyzed in the rhizomes of various Fallopia sp., seeds of a Fallopia sp. have never been examined for phytoestrogen presence. Methods Analytical chemistry techniques were used with guidance from an in vitro estrogen receptor bioassay (a stably transfected human ovarian carcinoma cell line) to isolate and identify estrogenic components from seeds of Fallopia convolvulus. A transiently transfected human breast carcinoma cell line was used to characterize the biological activity of the isolated compounds on estrogen receptors (ER) α and β. Results Two compounds, emodin and the novel flavan-3-ol, (−)-epiafzelechin-3-O-p-coumarate (rhodoeosein), were identified to be responsible for estrogenic activity of F. convolvulus seed extract. Absolute stereochemistry of rhodoeosein was determined by 1 and 2D NMR, optical rotation and circular dichroism. Emodin was identified by HPLC/DAD, LC/MS/MS, and FT/ICR-MS. When characterizing the ER specificity in biological activity of rhodoeosein and emodin, rhodoeosein was able to exhibit a four-fold greater relative estrogenic potency (REP) in breast cells transiently-transfected with ERβ as compared to those transfected with ERα, and emodin exhibited a six-fold greater REP in ERβ-transfected breast cells. Cell type-specific differences were observed with rhodoeosein but not emodin; rhodoeosein produced superinduction of reporter gene activity in the human ovarian cell line (> 400% of maximum estradiol [E2] induction) but not in the breast cell line. Conclusion This study is the first to characterize the novel flavan-3-ol compound, rhodoeosein, and its ability to induce estrogenic activity in human cell lines. Rhodoeosein and emodin may have potential therapeutic applications as natural products activating ERβ, and further characterization of rhodoeosein is necessary to evaluate its selectivity as a cell type-specific ER agonist.
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- "In addition, the extract of E. japonica leaf was reported to have several anti-cancer effects. E. japonica extract showed strong cytotoxicity in cervical cancer (HeLa), lung cancer (A549) and ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines . Kim et al. have reported that E. japonica extract inhibits the adhesion, migration and invasion of human breast cancer . "
ABSTRACT: Eriobotrya japonica leaf is a traditional herbal medicine that contains numerous triterpenes, which have various pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative activity of four triterpenes derived from E. japonica, including corosolic acid (CA), ursolic acid (UA), maslinic acid (MA) and oleanolic acid (OA), in human leukemia cell lines. CA showed the strongest anti-proliferative activity in all of the leukemia cell lines tested, but not in normal human skin fibroblast cell lines. To determine the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effect of CA, we examined the effect of CA on molecular events known as apoptosis induction. CA induced chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, sub-G(1) phase DNA, activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 and the cleavage of PARP in HL-60. CA also activated Bid and Bax, leading to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψ(m)) and cytochrome c release into the cytosol, whereas Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were unaffected by CA. These results suggest that CA has an anti-proliferative effect on leukemia cells via the induction of apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation. CA may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human leukemia.
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