Cancer incidence in the U.S. Air Force: 1989-2002
Epidemiology Services Branch, Air Force Institute for Operational Health, 2513 Kennedy Circle, Brooks City-Base, TX 78235-5116, USA. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine
(Impact Factor: 0.88).
Cancer incidence in U.S. Air Force active duty (AFAD) personnel is unknown. Defining the epidemiology may support more effective prevention and clinical services.
Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for invasive cancer in AFAD personnel during 1989-2002 were determined using U.S. national incidence rates as the reference. SIRs were adjusted for age and race. Cutaneous squamous and basal cell carcinomas (CAs) were excluded.
There were 2750 cases: 1986 in men and 764 in women. The all-cancers SIRs were for men, 0.50 (95% CI: 0.48-0.53), and for women, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.89-1.03). Among men, the 10 most frequent cancers (77.6% of total) were, in descending order: melanoma; testicular CA; prostate CA; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; follicular/papillary thyroid CA; Hodgkin's Disease; colorectal CA; brain neuroepithelial CA; and (tied) bladder CA and oral squamous cell CA. Among women, the 10 most frequent cancers (88.1% of total) were, in descending order: breast CA; cervical CA; follicular/papillary thyroid CA; melanoma; Hodgkin's Disease; colorectal CA; (tied) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and ovarian epithelial CA; vulvar CA; and (tied) brain neuroepithelial CA and oral squamous cell CA. Compared with the U.S. population, cancer type-specific SIRs were significantly increased for cervical CA, prostate CA, and vulvar CA (range, 1.44-3.54). SIRs were significantly decreased for bladder CA (men), brain neuroepithelial CA, colorectal CA (men), Hodgkin's Disease (men), non-Hodgkin lymphoma, oral squamous cell CA (men), and testicular CA (range, 0.31-0.68). The remaining SIRs were not significantly different from unity.
The cancer experience of the AFAD population differs substantially from that of the U.S. population.
Available from: Rémi Béranger
- "Of the five studies investigating general military workers [20,31,45,66,69], only one reported a weak association with seminomas . Five studies reported an elevated risk of TGCT for air force personnel [20,66,67,69,70] while four others did not [37,41,68] or suggested a protective effect . Similar inconsistent associations were observed in studies on navy personnel [20,37,41]. "
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ABSTRACT: Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common cancers in men aged between 15 and 44 years and the incidence has increased steeply over the past 30 years. The rapid increase in the incidence, the spatial variation and the evolution of incidence in migrants suggest that environmental risk factors play a role in TGCT aetiology. The purpose of our review is to summarise the current state of knowledge on occupational and environmental factors thought to be associated with TGCT.
A systematic literature search of PubMed. All selected articles were quality appraised by two independent researchers using the 'Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale'.
After exclusion of duplicate reports, 72 relevant articles were selected; 65 assessed exposure in adulthood, 7 assessed parental exposures and 2 assessed both. Associations with occupation was reported for agricultural workers, construction workers, firemen, policemen, military personnel, as well as workers in paper, plastic or metal industries. Electromagnetic fields, PCBs and pesticides were also suggested. However, results were inconsistent and studies showing positive associations tended to had lower quality ranking using the assessment scale (p=0.02).
Current evidence does not allow concluding on existence of any clear association between TGCT and adulthood occupational or environmental exposure. The limitations of the studies may partly explain the inconsistencies observed. The lack of association with adulthood exposure is in line with current hypotheses supporting the prenatal origin of TGCT. Future research should focus on prenatal or early life exposure, as well as combined effect of prenatal and later life exposure. National and international collaborative studies should allow for more adequately powered epidemiological studies. More sophisticated methods for assessing exposure as well as evaluating gene-environment interactions will be necessary to establish clear conclusion.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "In a study examining cancer incidence in US Air Force active duty personnel between 1989 and 2002, thyroid cancer was the third most frequent invasive cancer in women and four times more prevalent than in the general population . Of even greater importance, overall cancer rates among U.S. Air Force personnel were significantly reduced relative to the general population, suggesting occupational exposure may contribute to the difference in thyroid cancer rates. "
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing, especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), making it currently the fastest-growing cancer among women. Reasons for this increase remain unclear, but several risk factors including radiation exposure and improved detection techniques have been suggested. Recently, the induction of chromosomal fragile site breakage was found to result in the formation of RET/PTC1 rearrangements, a common cause of PTC. Chromosomal fragile sites are regions of the genome with a high susceptibility to forming DNA breaks and are often associated with cancer. Exposure to a variety of external agents can induce fragile site breakage, which may account for some of the observed increase in PTC. This paper discusses the role of fragile site breakage in PTC development, external fragile site-inducing agents that may be potential risk factors for PTC, and how these factors are especially targeting women.
Available from: ocean.kisti.re.kr
- "이러한 연구는 영국 에어웨이 조종사의 결과와도 일치하였다. 다른 연구에서는 현역 미공군 장교의 암 발생이 일반인에 비하여 현저 히 감소되어 있다는 보고도 있었다 "
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ABSTRACT: Pilots are exposed to carcinogenic substances like radiation, ozone, exhaust gas from jet engine, and electromagnetic wave, their environment can be very hazardous. I designed this study to know if there is any difference between pilots and general people in cancer incidence. I analyzed cancer cases between 1999 and 2008, and investigated their age, site, aircraft types, and sex. I compared pilot's cancer incidence with general people during same periods. Statistical analysis was performed with standardized incidence ratio (SIR). 10 cases were high performance pilots, 5 cases were low performance pilots. The average age when the diagnosis had been made was . Pilot's incidence ratio was lower than people's, the most common cancer was kidney, and there was no lung cancer. Cancer is influenced by gene and environment, each country has different patterns. The low incidence ratio in Korean pilots might be due to "healthy worker effect". I think we should perform further investigation on kidney cancer.
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