Effect of tetanus immunization on T helper (Th) cytokine production in adults with and without allergic rhinitis
Epidemiological evidence links T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine responses to the pathogenesis of atopy/asthma. It is hypothesized that certain immunizations may induce/amplify Th2 cytokine responses. The objective of this study was to determine whether Th cytokine responses to immunization with tetanus toxoid differ in adults with and without allergic rhinitis (AR). Thirty subjects were enrolled (15 AR and 15 non-AR subjects as confirmed by history and allergy skin testing). Blood was collected before (day 0) and on days 3, 7, 14, and 28 after immunization with tetanus toxoid. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) were purified and cultured with either PHA or tetanus toxoid for 2 or 6 days, respectively. Supernatants were harvested and assayed for IFN-gamma and IL-13 levels (pg/mL) by EIA. Results were normalized by log transformation and analyzed by stepwise regression. Baseline (day 0) cytokine values were similar in both groups. PHA and tetanus-induced IFN-gamma were increased (p < 0.05) in non-AR (3.2 +/- 0.3 and 1.4 +/- 0.3 on day 7, and 3.5 +/- 0.2 and 1.9 +/- 0.2 on day 14, respectively) compared with AR subjects (2.3 +/- 0.3 and 0.9 +/- 0.3 on day 7, and 2.7 +/- 0.3 and 1.2 +/- 0.3 on day 14, respectively). PHA-induced, but not tetanus-induced, IL-13 production was increased (p < 0.05) in non-AR compared with AR subjects on day 7 (p < 0.05). PHA-induced IL-13 production was 3.1 +/- 0.2 in non-AR and 2.6 +/- 0.3 in AR subjects on day 7. These results indicate differential Th cytokine responses in AR and non-AR subjects after immunization with tetanus toxoid. Future studies are warranted and may result in the identification of potential prevention/treatment strategies for atopy/asthma.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current research on antigen specific CD4+ T cells indicates that there is functional and phenotypic heterogeneity within these populations, but the extent of this heterogeneity is poorly described. The CD134/CD25 assay allows live isolation of antigen specific cells in vitro for down-stream molecular analysis. Antigen specific CD4+ T cells were examined at the molecular level by lineage specific transcription factor profiling using qualitative multiplex single cell RT-PCR and Lock Nucleic Acid (LNA) probes allowed unbiased amplification and delineation of expression of Tbx21, Gata3, Rorc, Foxp3 and Bcl-6. It overcomes the limitations of previous assays by allowing identification of transcription factor mRNA in single antigen specific cells with high sensitivity (down to 10 femtograms) and specificity. Patterns of responses can be robustly characterized using <200 cells based on exact binomial calculations. These results are reproducible with a CV of ≈6%. The patterns of heterogeneity are stable within an individual antigen specific response but vary between responses to different antigens. Responses to CMV have a Th1 predominant profile (35.6% of responding cells expressing tbx21) whereas responses to Tetanus Toxoid have a Th2 biased profile (22% of responding cells expressing gata3), with unexpectedly high levels of Treg cells found in both populations. Here we describe a methodology that allows live isolation of Ag specific cells and transcription factor profiling at a single cell level to robustly delineate the different CD4+ T cell subsets within this population. This novel method is a powerful tool that can be used to study CD4+ T cell heterogeneity within extremely small populations of cells and where cell numbers are limited.0Comments 2Citations
- "...ith current literature, in that a Th2 type response is found following Tetanus Toxoid immunization . These data are consistent with protein expression measured within the antigen specific population,..."There were small numbers of Th1 (Tbx21+; 3%) and Tfh (Bcl-6+; 11%) cells within this sample. This data set correlates well with current literature, in that a Th2 type response is found following Tetanus Toxoid immunization . These data are consistent with protein expression measured within the antigen specific population, whereby CMV specific cells had a significantly higher proportion of cells expressing Tbet (18.76%) compared to Tetanus Toxoid specific cells (3.75%) (Figure S3).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Atopy is a condition of predisposition to allergic reaction to environmental allergens, and T cells have a critical role in initiating and ending allergic responses. This study was conducted to evaluate the T cell responses of atopic patients with allergic rhinitis who have allergen-hyperreactive memory CD4 T cells in vitro. Material and Methods: Cell surface markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD28, CD45RA, CD45RO, CD95, HLA-DR) were analyzed for T and B lymphocytes by flow cytometry using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or phycoerythrin (PE) labeled monoclonal antibodies. T cell proliferative response assessing pokeweed mitogen (PWM), tetanus toxoid (TT), purified protein derivative of mycobacterium (PPD) and cytomegalovirus antigen (CMV) were examined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Results: Immune profile and lymphoproliferative responses of 19 allergic rhinitis (AR) patients with positive prick skin test and nasal blockage, discharge, sneeze, nasal or ocular itching (mean age 33.2 +/- 8.4), and 10 healthy controls (mean age 31.6 +/- 9.1) were evaluated. CD3 and CD4 expression was higher in AR patients than in healthy controls. Memory (CD45RO) and activated (CD28) T cell levels were higher, but lymphoproliferation to PWM, TT, PPD, and CWV was decreased in AR patients. Conclusion: The high CD28 and CD45RO expression associated with atopy symptoms indicated that immune reactions in AR patients tended to show an undesirable shift toward Th2 skewed with high levels of allergen-reactive memory T cells. Consequently, the reduced lymphoproliferation to non-allergenic stimulants such as mitogens, bacterial and viral antigens in AR patients may lead to reduced immune response capability to infectious agents.0Comments 0Citations