Comment on: Knol MJ, Twisk JWR, Beekman ATF, Heine RJ, Snoek FJ, Pouwer F. (2006) Depression as a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis. Diabetologia; 49: 837–845
Diabetologia (Impact Factor: 6.67). 12/2006; 49(11):2797-8; author reply 2799-800. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-006-0389-y
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that clinically significant depression detected in a population sample increases the risk of diabetes mellitus. The authors examined the effect of characteristics of depression frequently found in the community on the risk of incident diabetes mellitus. A large community sample of adults aged > or = 55 years (N=4,803) was assessed at baseline in a longitudinal three-wave epidemiological enquiry using a psychiatric interview and the Geriatric Mental State Schedule. Cases of depression were diagnosed according to standardized criteria, and diabetes was assessed using a risk factors questionnaire. Follow-up evaluations, conducted 2.5 and 5 years later, were completed to determine the incidence of diabetes. At baseline, 379 case subjects with depression were identified. The risk of incident diabetes mellitus was higher among subjects with depression when compared with nondepressed subjects, and the association remained significant after controlling for potential confounders, including diabetes risk factors. The estimated rate of diabetes mellitus attributable to depression was 6.87%. An increased risk of diabetes mellitus was also associated with the following characteristics of depression: nonsevere depression, persistent depression, and untreated depression. Treatment with antidepressants was not associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Clinically significant depression is associated with a 65% increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Characteristics of depression frequently found in the community, namely nonsevere depression, persistent depression, and untreated depression, may play a role in the development of diabetes in a predominantly elderly adult population.
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ABSTRACT: Depression is one of the most common psychological problems among individuals with diabetes, and is associated with worse treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. As part of a program of treatment research aimed at integrating interventions for depression and treatment nonadherence, five depressed patients with suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes were treated with 10–12 sessions of individual cognitive–behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in a case-series design. The intervention was delivered in a hospital setting by a collaborative team consisting of a psychologist, a nurse educator, and a dietitian. Post-treatment, all participants demonstrated a decrease in depression severity and demonstrated improvements in diabetes self-care. Four of the five demonstrated improved glycemic control. These preliminary results provide evidence for the acceptability, feasibility, and potential utility of CBT-AD for patients with type 2 diabetes and depression.