Osono T.. Role of phyllosphere fungi of forest trees in the development of decomposer fungal communities and decomposition processes of leaf litter. Can J Microbiol 52: 701-716

Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Division of Environmental Science and Technology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology (Impact Factor: 1.22). 09/2006; 52(8):701-16. DOI: 10.1139/w06-023
Source: PubMed


The ecology of endophytic and epiphytic phyllosphere fungi of forest trees is reviewed with special emphasis on the development of decomposer fungal communities and decomposition processes of leaf litter. A total of 41 genera of phyllosphere fungi have been reported to occur on leaf litter of tree species in 19 genera. The relative proportion of phyllosphere fungi in decomposer fungal communities ranges from 2% to 100%. Phyllosphere fungi generally disappear in the early stages of decomposition, although a few species persist until the late stages. Phyllosphere fungi have the ability to utilize various organic compounds as carbon sources, and the marked decomposing ability is associated with ligninolytic activity. The role of phyllosphere fungi in the decomposition of soluble components during the early stages is relatively small in spite of their frequent occurrence. Recently, the roles of phyllosphere fungi in the decomposition of structural components have been documented with reference to lignin and cellulose decomposition, nutrient dynamics, and accumulation and decomposition of soil organic matter. It is clear from this review that several of the common phyllosphere fungi of forest trees are primarily saprobic, being specifically adapted to colonize and utilize dead host tissue, and that some phyllosphere fungi with marked abilities to decompose litter components play important roles in decomposition of structural components, nutrient dynamics, and soil organic matter accumulation.

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    • "SW ¼ ShannoneWiener, S1/D ¼ Simpson's Reciprocal Index 1/D, E ¼ evenness. different microhabitats or hosts, even within the lifecycle of the fungus (Saikkonen, 2007; Osono, 2006; Saikkonen et al. 2004a, b). For example, Helander et al. (2006) recorded that the abundance and species composition of endophytic fungi in the leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula) differed significantly between seedling stands, managed mature forests and old natural forests. "
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the spruce-dominated pristine mires in South Finland have been drained for forestry, and a large proportion of these forest stands are currently approaching regeneration maturity. We investigated the potential impact of the drainage of pristine mire on the species composition of root endophytes compared to undisturbed mire and mineral soil. Additionally, we further evaluated the inhibitory effect of a subset of the isolated endophytes on the root rot pathogen Heterobasidion parviporum. A total of 113 isolates of fungal root endophytes were obtained from non-mycorrhizal Picea abies roots, which were assigned to 15 different OTUs. Most of the isolates consisted of dark septate endophytes (77 %); the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.–Acephala applanata species complex was the most dominant group, comprising 52 % of all the isolates. No significant differences in the frequency of isolates were observed between the sites. All the diversity indices suggest relatively low or mid-level versatility of the endophyte community, with mineral soil sites having the lowest index and drained peatland the highest. Nineteen of the isolates (17 %) inhibited the growth of the conifer root rot pathogen in vitro. The potential of these endophytes to serve as alternative antagonistic agents to control and manage Heterobasidion root rot disease is discussed.
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    • "No large-scale or anthropogenic disturbance was evident in the study site. Data on litter decomposition rates (Tian et al. 2000), diversity of litter decay fungi (Osono and Takeda 2007), decay abilities of litter fungi (Osono and Takeda 2006), and tree regeneration and coexistence (Mori and Takeda 2004; Mori and Komiyama 2008; Mori and Mizumachi 2004; Mori et al. 2008; Doi et al. 2008a, b) have been well documented for this site. "
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    ABSTRACT: Far less is known about the coarse woody debris (CWD) stock and decay process in temperate Asia compared with that in boreal and temperate Europe and North America. We estimated coniferous CWD stock (logs and snags), decay rate and process, and fungal species responsible for the decay process in a Japanese subalpine coniferous forest. The CWD mass was 42.4 Mg ha−1, which was the greatest among the previous data recorded in temperate Asia. The decay rate calculated using the annual input of CWD divided by CWD accumulation was 0.036 year−1, whereas the decay rate when measured chronosequentially was 0.020–0.023 year−1. The decay process was divided into two phases characterized by different dominant organic chemical constituents. In the first phase, both acid-unhydrolyzable residue and holocellulose decayed simultaneously, suggestive of the white-rot process. In the second phase, holocellulose was selectively decomposed and AUR accumulated, suggestive of the brown-rot process. Nutrients (N, P, K, Na, Mg, and Ca) were mineralized in the first phase but immobilized in the second phase. The fruiting bodies of 26 taxa of fungi were recorded as occurring on CWD in the study area. Trichaptum abietinum and T. fuscoviolaceum, which dominated in the first phase and are known as white-rot fungi, were assumed to be the main decomposers of lignocellulose in the first phase. Although no known strong wood decomposers dominated the second phase, Laetiporus sulphureus and Oligoporus caesius, known as brown-rot fungi, were expected to participate in the selective decomposition of holocellulose in the second phase.
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    • "Foliar endophytes appear to be able to survive on fallen leaves by switching to a saprobe phase (Promputtha et al. 2007, 2010). Moreover, Osono (2006) highlighted the roles of phyllosphere fungi in the development of decomposer fungal communities and decomposition processes of leaf litter in that they have the ability to use a variety of organic compounds as carbon sources, with an important activity in lignin decomposition. This study was carried out in the Castel Volturno Nature Reserve (southern Italy). "
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