Zang YF, He Y, Zhu CZ, Cao QJ, Sui MQ, Liang M et al. Altered baseline brain activity in children with ADHD revealed by resting-state functional MRI. Brain Dev 29: 83-91

Beijing Normal University, Peping, Beijing, China
Brain and Development (Impact Factor: 1.88). 04/2007; 29(2):83-91. DOI: 10.1016/j.braindev.2006.07.002
Source: PubMed


In children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), functional neuroimaging studies have revealed abnormalities in various brain regions, including prefrontal-striatal circuit, cerebellum, and brainstem. In the current study, we used a new marker of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to investigate the baseline brain function of this disorder. Thirteen boys with ADHD (13.0+/-1.4 years) were examined by resting-state fMRI and compared with age-matched controls. As a result, we found that patients with ADHD had decreased ALFF in the right inferior frontal cortex, [corrected] and bilateral cerebellum and the vermis as well as increased ALFF in the right anterior cingulated cortex, left sensorimotor cortex, and bilateral brainstem. This resting-state fMRI study suggests that the changed spontaneous neuronal activity of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology in children with ADHD.

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    • "Similar to the static CBF map, the ReHo map of each subject was divided by that subject's mean ReHo value, and one-sided one-sample t-test against 1 were performed on the normalized maps. (3) Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) (Zang et al., 2007) was utilized to detect the strength of spontaneous fluctuations of the PASL signal in each voxel. Using REST, the time course of each voxel was transformed to the frequency domain, and ALFF was calculated as the amplitude integral over a frequency range of 0–0.125 Hz. "

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    • "Therefore, we took advantage of our unique behavioral techniques for assessing SS-induced tinnitus and hyperacusis in rats and combined this with focused electrophysiological measurements plus global fMRI assessment techniques to map out the regions of neural hyperactivity and enhanced FC that characterize the tinnitus–hyperacusis network. To identify regions of heightened or depressed spontaneous neural activity, we measured the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in resting-state fMRI (Zang et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2010; Yao et al., 2012; Wen et al., 2013) and combined this with resting-state FC to identify regions of increased or decreased functional coupling between regions of the auditory pathway and other parts of the CNS. This is the first animal study to use ALFF and FC combined with detailed electrophysiological measures to provide a comprehensive neurological map of the tinnitus–hyperacusis network. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hearing loss often triggers an inescapable buzz (tinnitus) and causes everyday sounds to become intolerably loud (hyperacusis), but exactly where and how this occurs in the brain is unknown. To identify the neural substrate for these debilitating disorders, we induced both tinnitus and hyperacusis with an ototoxic drug (salicylate) and used behavioral, electrophysiological, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques to identify the tinnitus–hyperacusis network. Salicylate depressed the neural output of the cochlea, but vigorously amplified soundevoked neural responses in the amygdala, medial geniculate, and auditory cortex. Resting-state fMRI revealed hyperactivity in an auditory network composed of inferior colliculus, medial geniculate, and auditory cortex with side branches to cerebellum, amygdala, and reticular formation. Functional connectivity revealed enhanced coupling within the auditory network and segments of the auditory network and cerebellum, reticular formation, amygdala, and hippocampus. A testable model accounting for distress, arousal, and gating of tinnitus and hyperacusis is proposed.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · eLife Sciences
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    • "Both qualitative review (Rubia, 2011) and meta-analyses (Cortese et al., 2012; Hart, Radua, Nakao, Mataix-Cols, Rubia, 2013) on task-fMRI document hypoactivation of the components within the FPCN in ADHD across tasks. Rs-fMRI studies using various analytic methods also suggest involvement of the FPCN in ADHD (Cao et al., 2006; Posner et al., 2013; Qiu et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2009; Zang et al., 2007). However, to our knowledge, no studies have directly investigated the resting functional organization of the FPCN based on the aPFC, and how it underpins the cognitive/behavioral features of ADHD. "
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    ABSTRACT: The frontoparietal control network, anatomically and functionally interposed between the dorsal attention network and default mode network, underpins executive control functions. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly exhibit deficits in executive functions, which are mainly mediated by the frontoparietal control network. Involvement of the frontoparietal control network based on the anterior prefrontal cortex in neurobiological mechanisms of ADHD has yet to be tested. We used resting-state functional MRI and seed-based correlation analyses to investigate functional connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in a sample of 25 children with ADHD (7–14 years; mean 9.94±1.77 years; 20 males), and 25 age-, sex-, and performance IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. All participants had limited in-scanner head motion. Spearman’s rank correlations were used to test the associations between altered patterns of functional connectivity with clinical symptoms and executive functions, measured by the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test and Spatial Span in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Compared with TD children, children with ADHD demonstrated weaker connectivity between the right anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right ventrolateral PFC, and between the left anterior PFC and the right inferior parietal lobule. Furthermore, this aberrant connectivity of the frontoparietal control network in ADHD was associated with symptoms of impulsivity and opposition-defiance, as well as impaired response inhibition and attentional control. The findings support potential integration of the disconnection model and the executive dysfunction model for ADHD. Atypical frontoparietal control network may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. ( JINS , 2015, 21 , 271–284)
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