Article

Risk and Protective Factors for Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants and Methamphetamine among Adolescents

Behavioral Health Research Division RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 3.61). 10/2006; 39(3):374-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.01.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This article reports on correlates of past-year nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and methamphetamine among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years.
Data from the 2002 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were used to conduct logistic regression analyses of the demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral correlates of illicit stimulant use. The sample size was 17,709.
Analyses revealed that mental health treatment utilization and use of marijuana and other illegal drugs were correlated with nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and methamphetamine among adolescents. Females and adolescents who reported low religiosity, binge drinking, and selling drugs were more likely to use methamphetamine than were males or individuals who did not report these attitudes or behaviors. Additionally, black adolescents were less likely than white adolescents to use methamphetamine. Alternatively, adolescents who reported high family conflict and sensation-seeking were more likely than their counterparts to use prescription stimulants nonmedically, and Hispanic adolescents were less likely to use prescription stimulants nonmedically than white adolescents.
Risk for illicit use of stimulants varies by demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors. Different intervention mechanisms, populations, and settings should be targeted to prevent nonmedical use of prescription stimulants versus methamphetamine among adolescents.

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    • "1.7 Y 17,338 Illicit; PF U.S.A. [85] 1.2 Mn ; 2.4 Y 5,205 Age; Illicit; Peer U.S.A. [92] "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose was to systematically review the global trends and factors influencing self-medication (SM) among adolescents. Databases (Medline/Pubmed, Ingenta, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, Proquest, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were searched for peer-reviewed research published between January 2000 and December 2013 on SM among adolescents aged 13–18 years. Articles were scrutinized for country of origin, sample size, recall period, prevalence rates and associations, influencing factors, medicines used, self-medicated health complaints, sources of drug information, recommendation and procurement, knowledge about medicines, and adverse drug reactions. One hundred and sixty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. SM prevalence ranged from 2% to 92% in different countries. The most frequently self-medicated over-the-counter and prescription-only medicines were analgesics and antibiotics, respectively. Headache, allergies, and fever were the most common self-medicated health complaints reported. Misuse of both over-the-counter and prescription-only medicines reflected a risky trend. Female gender, older age, maternal education, and familial practices were associated with SM among adolescents. The primary sources of drug information, recommendation, and procurement included pharmacists, parents, and friends. High-risk practices such as diversion of prescription medicines and utilization of previous prescriptions were also reported. Most studies revealed gaps in drug knowledge, although adolescents self-rated it as satisfactory. However, few adverse drug reactions were reported, probably because of lack of awareness about the potential harmful effects of medicines. Recommendations for “responsible SM” have been made to minimize the adverse effects of SM. Understanding the links between various factors promoting SM can be helpful in deriving strategies aimed at reducing drug-related health risks among adolescents. Moreover, these will aid in creating awareness among adolescents about the potential risks of using drugs without proper information and consultation. Studies need to be designed to assess the changing trend and identify new correlates of self-medication practices among adolescents, which pose fresh challenges to monitor the menace.
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    • "Level of religious importance (in one's life) is an indicator of religious salience and is often examined in relation to risk behavior (Bartkowski and Xu 2007). Personal importance of religion has been found to be protective against marijuana use in adolescents (Sinha et al. 2007), and low importance has been found to be a risk factor for use of cocaine, ecstasy, and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (Degenhardt et al. 2007; Herman-Stahl et al. 2006). Other studies have found that private religiosity, which includes level of religious importance, is more protective against substance use than public religiosity , such as attendance (Bartkowski and Xu 2007; Nonnemaker et al. 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Religiosity is a protective factor against illicit drug use, but further investigation is needed to delineate which components of religiosity are protective against use. A racially diverse sample (N = 962) was surveyed about religiosity, exposure to users, and recent use of marijuana, powder cocaine, ecstasy, and nonmedical use of opioids and amphetamine. Results suggest that identifying as Agnostic increased odds of use for each of the five drugs; however, this effect disappeared when controlling for religious importance and attendance. High levels of religious attendance were protective against recent use of marijuana and cocaine, but protective effects diminished when controlling for exposure to users, which was a robust predictor of use of every drug. Religion is a protective mechanism against drug use, but this effect may diminish in light of exposure to users. Alternative preventative methods need to be directed toward individuals who are not religious or are highly exposed to users.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Religion and Health
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    • "The relatively lower reliability for psychosocial variables can be attributed to the influence of adolescents' daily interactions and exposure to media (SAMHSA 2010). For the purposes of the present study, some of the psychosocial risk and protective factors were formed into composite variables in accordance with the literature (e.g., Gardner and Shoemaker 1989; Herman-Stahl et al. 2006); these composite variables were subjected to reliability tests. "
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    ABSTRACT: Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and Mixed-Race adolescents 12-17 years of age, using combined datasets from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH 2006-2009, N = 46,675, 48.77 % female). Native American adolescents displayed the highest rate of past-month binge drinking and past-year illicit drug use (14.06 and 30.91 %, respectively). Results of a logistic regression that included seven predictors of social bonding, individual views of substance use, and delinquent peer affiliations showed that friendships with delinquent peers and negative views of substance use were associated significantly with both substance abuse outcomes among White and Mixed-Race adolescents and, to a lesser extent, Native American adolescents. The association of parental disapproval with binge drinking was stronger for White than for Native American adolescents. Greater attention to specific measures reflecting racial groups' contextual and historical differences may be needed to delineate mechanisms that discourage substance abuse among at-risk minority adolescent populations.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Journal of Youth and Adolescence
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