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Gender difference in unstimulated whole saliva flow rate and salivary gland sizes

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Abstract

A gender difference in the unstimulated whole saliva flow rate (UWSFR) may be due to a difference in the sizes of the salivary glands. In this study, we investigated the relationships among the UWSFR, gland sizes and body sizes of healthy young adult males and females. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected for 5 min by the spitting method in 50 healthy young adults, and the flow rate of the saliva was measured. Heights and weights were measured, and body mass indices (BMI) were calculated. The sizes of the salivary glands were measured by use of a magnetic resonance imaging technique. Parotid and submandibular gland sizes and flow rates in females were significantly smaller than those in males, as were also the weights, heights and BMI. In both males and females, there were significant positive correlations between gland sizes and the flow rates, weights and BMI. The variations of the flow rates were reduced by standardizing them with gland sizes, weights and BMI. These results suggest that the lower UWSFR in females as compared with males is due to the smaller gland sizes due to the smaller body sizes.

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... In order to observe the developmental trends of oral disease, the present survey included additional 55-64 age group. Therefore, the current study evaluated the oral health status among three age groups of [35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64], and 65-74 years. ...
... In the third stage, participants were recruited by quota sampling [18]. Our study was aim to determine the DMFT values in different age groups (35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)55-64 and 65-74) and areas (Urban and Rural) in the cross-sectional survey. The NCSS PASS 11 was use to calculated the sample size. ...
... And in many regions of Tibet, females suffered discrimination in access to medical resource. Other reasons for example lower flow rate of saliva in females than males also could resulted severe caries [40]. Another reason maybe that female are more likely to be affected by autoimmune diseases such as xerostomia and then cause dental caries [41]. ...
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Background: Tibet, a region where average elevation is above 3500 m and socio-economic development is relatively lower, was not included in National Oral Health Survey over decades. The cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the status of dental caries and associated factors in Tibetan adults. Methods: Participants aged 35-44, 55-64 and 65-74 years were selected. Decayed, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT), decayed and filled root (DF-Root) and root canal index (RCI) were used to evaluate dental caries. Questionnaire survey on demographic information, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, and oral health knowledge and behavior was conducted. Mann-Whitney U test, logistic regression were used for the statistical analyses. Results: A total of 446 participants were enrolled in the survey. Of these: 222 (49.8%) were females, 224 (50.2%) were males; 149 (33.4%), 151 (33.9%), 146 (32.7%) were aged 35-44, 55-64 and 65-74 years respectively. The mean DMFT (SD) was 7.62 (4.84), 12.46 (8.16), and 21.38 (8.93). The filling rate was very low in all age groups (1.77%, 0.98%, 0.45%). The mean DF-Root (SD) was 0.50 (1.04), 1.04 (2.02), 1.32 (2.14), respectively. Root caries index was 42.27, 44.78 and 57.60%. Older age (65-74 age group) was positively associated with crown caries (odds ratio = 31.20, 95% confidence interval: 10.70-90.96). College degree and above and brushing teeth at least once a day were negatively associated with crown caries (odds ratio = 0.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.09-0.89; odds ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.72, respectively). Rural area, high income level and brushing teeth at least once a day were negatively and tooth with attachment loss was positively associated with root caries. Conclusions: The status of dental caries in the adults in Tibet is severe and the treatment rate is very low. The study suggests a correlation between crown caries and the variables age, level of education and frequency of tooth brushing; correlation between root caries and residence, income level, frequency of tooth brushing and exposed root surfaces. These findings could be as reference to develop community based interventions to reduce the prevalence of caries in Tibet.
... In contrast, in stimulated saliva, greater than 50% is from the parotid gland and only 35% from the submandibular [2]. However, flow rate and therefore sample volume using the UWS method are low particularly in females due to their reduced gland size [2,7]. Flow rate, which is also affected by dehydration, has a significant influence on salivary composition [2,8,9]. ...
... In comparison, SWS, collected mostly through mastication or gustatory stimulation, provides a much greater sample volume, although the stimulation dramatically alters the contributions from the different glands and thus its validity to the unstimulated state [2]. Saliva collection using the drool method is very difficult for exercising humans as flow rates can be extremely low and it can be problematic to perform the drool procedures [7]. The bud method has been used to collect unstimulated saliva when only small amounts are available (e.g. in animals) and thus holds promise for both reliable and valid saliva analysis. ...
... While a number of reviews have collated this information to provide overviews of sex and stress-specific salivary responses there are several inconsistencies, likely due to the effect of both flow rate and stimulation on salivary composition [2,3,8,9]. Although it would be ideal to use the passive drool method in all studies and applications, this approach is not always feasible in the field and low flow rates, as well as sex-specific differences, may reduce reliability [2,7,11]. It is clear that an accurate comparison and statistical analysis of a wide range of analytes across the major saliva collection protocols is needed. ...
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Background: To compare three saliva collection methods for examining salivary biomarkers in males and females at rest and exercise. Methods: Whole saliva was collected using drool method (unstimulated, UWS), mastication (stimulated, SWS) or using cotton-buds placed around the mouth (unstimulated, Bud) from 8males and 12females. Samples were analysed for flow rate, osmolality, sodium, potassium, chloride, secretory salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), α-amylase activity and cortisol during both rest and exercise in a randomised crossover design. Results: SWS and Bud methods were consistently more reliable than UWS, and Bud had the greatest reliability across all measures. Significant variations between all methods existed for total osmolality, sodium and SIgA concentrations; between UWS and SWS methods for flow rate and α-amylase activity, and between UWS and Bud methods for potassium. SWS most consistently replicated UWS patterns of analyte responses to exercise for both males and females and showed good agreement with UWS for cortisol. Both SWS and Bud data reflected the inverse α-amylase/cortisol relationship seen in UWS. Conclusion: SWS was better able to replicate results measured from UWS, between rest and exercise and between males and females. SWS and Bud methods can be used to inform comparisons between rest and exercise and males and females
... There is variability in the threshold of salivary production among various populations and age groupings. Nonetheless, hyposalivation is classically defined as an unstimulated whole saliva values below 0.1 ml/ min and a stimulated salivary flow below 0.5 ml/ min, which corresponds to a 40-50% diminution of salivary gland secretion (Flink et al. 2005;Inoue et al. 2006). ...
... Gender and weight can influence salivary flow as these factors are correlated with the size of salivary glands (Bergdahl 2000). Male and overweight healthy subjects have larger major glands and subsequently have higher salivary flow (Miletich 2010;Inoue et al. 2006). Increased body mass index is associated with larger salivary glands and increased salivary flow (Inoue et al. 2006). ...
... Male and overweight healthy subjects have larger major glands and subsequently have higher salivary flow (Miletich 2010;Inoue et al. 2006). Increased body mass index is associated with larger salivary glands and increased salivary flow (Inoue et al. 2006). Gender-related salivary flow variations become more obvious with aging and beyond the age of 55 (Bergdahl 2000). ...
... Therefore, during oral processing, the perception of food is determined not only by the composition of unstimulated saliva, but also by the salivary flow rate, which is adjusted in response to a specific food product. All these aspects should be carefully controlled in the design of the food perception studies ages [40][41][42], sex [43], and health status [44]. Moreover, the salivary composition and secretion change in the same individual during the day and display circadian variation [45][46][47][48][49], just as it may change owing to physical activity [48,[50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57], and depend on the diet [58][59][60]. ...
... The peculiar saliva features, firstly, deal with its obligatory presence in the oral cavity, and saliva always participates in the sensory perception of food. Secondly, salivary flow rate and composition are flexibly regulated in response to food stimuli [34] and are also determined by the individual characteristics of a person (age [40,41,42], sex [43], diet [58,59,60], physiological state [44]). Thirdly, saliva affects taste, aroma, and texture perception, thanks to its composition and properties. ...
Article
Saliva plays multifunctional roles in oral cavity. Even though its importance for the maintenance of oral health has long been established, the role of saliva in food perception has attracted increasing attention in recent years. We encourage researchers to discover the peculiarity of this biological fluid and aim to combine the data concerning all aspects of the saliva influence on the sensory perception of food. This review presents saliva as a unique material, which modulates food perception due to constant presence of saliva in the mouth and thanks to its composition. Therefore, we highlight the salivary components that contribute to these effects. Moreover, this review is an attempt to structure the effects of saliva on perception of different food categories, where the mechanisms of salivary impact in perception of liquid, semi-solid, and solid foods are revealed. Finally, we emphasize that the large inter-individual variability in salivary composition and secretion appear to contribute to the fact that everyone experiences food in their own way. Therefore, the design of the sensory studies should consider the properties of volunteers’ saliva and also carefully monitor the experimental conditions that affect salivary composition and flow rate.
... In addition, the results of this study demonstrated that female athletes have a lower whole saliva secretion rate than male athletes in the 4 time-points (Table 4). This difference is in accordance with other studies (Inoue et al., 2006;Percival et al., 1994) and can be explained by the smaller size of salivary glands due to the smaller body sizes (Inoue et al., 2006) or because of "oral dryness" (xerostomia) see in females (FenolI-Palomares et al., 2004). ...
... In addition, the results of this study demonstrated that female athletes have a lower whole saliva secretion rate than male athletes in the 4 time-points (Table 4). This difference is in accordance with other studies (Inoue et al., 2006;Percival et al., 1994) and can be explained by the smaller size of salivary glands due to the smaller body sizes (Inoue et al., 2006) or because of "oral dryness" (xerostomia) see in females (FenolI-Palomares et al., 2004). ...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the effects of training load on stress tolerance (ST) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in male and female high-intensity functional fitness (HIFF) athletes during two different 10 and consecutive weekly training volume loads [higher (week 1) and lower volume (week 2)]. Methods: 14 athletes [7 males: 29.3 (±5.8) years; 86.3 (±8.2) kg and 176.8 (±3.8) cm and 7 females: 32.7 (±4.4) years; 60.0 (±6.7) kg and 162.5 (±5.9) cm] participated. The ST, assessed by Daily Analysis of Life Demand in Athletes questionnaire (DALDA) and Saliva sampling were performed in four time-points (pre (T1) and post (T2) week 1; pre (T3) and post (T4) week 2). Results: Female athletes showed a decrease in ST (symptoms of stress) from 15 T1 to T3 [F(3,36) = 7.184, p˂ 0.001, ηp2 = 0.374], without difference in male athletes (p > .05). There is a significant difference of SIgA concentration [F(3.36) = 3.551; p = .024; ηp2 = 0.228], with a significant decrease in female athletes group in T2 compared to T1 (p = .013) and T4 (p = .023). In addition, the different training volume loads did not impact mucosal immunity in male athletes (p > .05). Conclusion: The current findings suggest that higher HIFF volume results in decreased ST and SIgA concentration in female 20 athletes and a subsequent decrease in training volume loads contributed to restoring these variables.
... Alternatively, salivary flow rates can vary based on sex, such that females have lower unstimulated salivary flow rates due to smaller salivary glands. 25 In the summer, ~40% of recruits were female compared with 60% in winter. Taken The relationship between stress and indices of immune function is complex. ...
... 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxy vitamin D; SIgA, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A; -SR, secretion rates (calculated as the product of concentration and salivary flow rates, mL collected over 3 min). interquartile ranges (25th-75th). ...
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Vitamin D's role in regulating immune responses may increase during periods of elevated psychological and physiological stress. Due to the high demands placed on US Marine Corps recruits undergoing 12 weeks of basic military training, we hypothesized that vitamin status would be related to markers of innate mucosal immunity, and daily vitamin D supplementation would augment immune responses during training. Males (n = 75) and females (n = 74) entering recruit basic training during the summer and winter volunteered to participate in a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study. Subjects received either 1000 IU vitamin D3 + 2000 mg calcium·d‐1 (n = 73) or placebo (n = 76) for 12‐weeks. Saliva samples were collected pre‐, during (weeks 4 and 8), and post‐training (week 12) for measurement of salivary SIgA and cathelicidin (indices of mucosal immunity) and stress (α‐amylase). Initial (baseline) and post‐training serum 25(OH)D levels were assessed. Results were as follows: Serum 25(OH)D levels were 37% higher in recruits entering training in summer compared to winter. A positive relationship was observed between baseline 25(OH)D levels and SIgA‐secretion rates (‐SR). When stress levels were high during summer training, baseline 25(OH)D levels contributed to an increase in SIgA‐SR and cathelicidin‐SR, the latter only in males. Vitamin D supplementation contributed to the changes in SIgA‐SR and cathelicidin‐SR, specifically SIgA‐SR was higher in the treatment group. These data highlight the importance of vitamin D and mucosal immune responses during arduous basic military training when stress levels are increased. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... An underrepresentation of males (around 20% in both studies) limit generalizability to the overall population. Salivary gland size is larger in males which may influence saliva secretion and composition (Heintze, Birkhed, & Björn, 1983;Inoue et al., 2006;Prodan et al., 2015). However, adding gender to our statistical models did not improve the fit. ...
Article
Olfactory food cues can induce appetite for similar food products in humans. Odors may thus signal essential information about a foods' composition such as taste or even macronutrient content and may stimulate specific physiological responses in anticipation of food intake. Several studies have shown that sensory food cues could stimulate saliva secretion. However, potential differences between food odors in their effect on saliva secretion, or the effects of olfactory stimulation on changes in saliva composition remain to be elucidated. To gain more insight, we conducted two studies to determine the influence of various odors, representing different taste qualities (study 1) and macronutrients (study 2), on salivary biomarkers. In study 1, 36 participants were randomly exposed to no-odor, non-food, and odors signaling sweet, savory, and sour taste. In study 2, 60 participants were randomly exposed to no-odor, non-food, and odors signaling carbohydrates, protein, fat, and low-calorie food. For each condition, whole-mouth saliva was collected and saliva secretion rate determined. Furthermore, we determined mouth-watering perception (subjective salivation), visco-elasticity (study 1 only), mucin concentration, α-amylase and lingual lipase activity (study 2 only). For both studies, linear mixed model analyses showed that saliva secretion rate significantly increased by food odor exposure compared to no-odor and non-food conditions. However, no changes in salivary composition were observed. These findings indicate that food odors play a crucial role in anticipatory saliva responses and can thereby affect subsequent eating behavior.
... With aging, salivary protein composition changes are strongly associated with dental caries incidence [45]. The secretion and distribution of saliva vary by age and sex [46]. The total protein content of whole human saliva varies among various age categoriesdthe concentration of salivary protein increases with age [47]. ...
Article
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Background Dental plaque is a complex colorless film of bacteria that develops on the surfaces of teeth. Different mechanisms of microbial adhesion to tooth surfaces exist. Both non-specific and specific types of adherence have been anticipated. Highlight The present review evaluated the effect of sugar-rich diet and salivary proteins on oral hygiene and dental plaque development. Conclusion The oral microbiota is essential for maintaining and reestablishing a healthy oral cavity. Different types of sugars have different effects on the inhibition and formation of dental plaque. The peptides, proteins, and amino acids secreted by parotid glands in the oral cavity facilitate in neutralizing the acidity in dental plaque and preventing dental caries. A properly balanced diet is crucial for both a healthy oral cavity and the oral microbiome.
... Oral fluid samples provide a safe solution for sample collection procedures. e unbound drug molecules, being responsible for the therapeutic activity of the administered drug, are distributed to the oral fluid [34]. e present work describes an enantioselective chromatographic method with mass spectrometric detection for the separation and quantification of OME enantiomers in plasma and oral fluid samples using MEPS for sample preparation and chiral column cellulose-SB tris(3,5dimethylphenylcarbamate) for the chiral separation. ...
Article
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In the present work, the determination of omeprazole (OME) enantiomers in oral fluid and plasma samples was carried out utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A chiral column with cellulose-SB phase was used for the first time for enantiomeric separation of OME with an isocratic elution system using 0.2% ammonium hydroxide in hexane-ethanol mixture (70 : 30, v/v) as the mobile phase. OME enantiomers were determined utilizing a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in positive ion mode (ESI+) monitoring mass transitions: m/z 346.3 ⟶ 198.0 for OME and m/z 369.98 ⟶ 252.0 for internal standard. The limits of detection and quantification of the present method for both enantiomers were 0.1 and 0.4 ng/mL, respectively. The method validation provided good accuracy and precision. The matrix effect factor was less than 5%, and no interfering peaks were observed. The interday precision values ranged from 2.2 to 7.5 (%RSD), and the accuracy of determinations varied from −9.9% to 8.3%. In addition, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of omeprazole enantiomers in healthy subjects after a single oral dose was investigated. (S)-Enantiomers showed higher levels than (R)-enantiomers throughout 24 h. It was found that the mean maximum concentrations of (R)- and (S)-omeprazole in plasma samples were about two times higher than in oral fluid.
... Not all studies corroborate this. 13,14 In other research, 15,16 males produced significantly greater absolute volumes of saliva, but once relative size of glands, body height and body mass index/surface area were controlled, gender differences disappeared. Hence, in judging normality individuals should be compared to data from the same gender. ...
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Nick Miller,1 Margaret Walshe,2 Richard W Walker31Newcastle University Institute for Ageing, Speech and Language Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle-Tyne NE1 7RU, Great Britain; 2Clinical Speech and Language Studies, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland; 3Department of Medicine, North Tyneside General Hospital, North Shields, NE29 8NH, Great BritainAbstract: Saliva plays an important part in oral health maintenance, mastication, deglutition and the start of the digestive process. It supports clear speech. Alterations to the composition and flow of saliva through hyper- or hyposecretion or anterior loss through the lips thus have potentially significant consequences. This article reviews the metrics, possible age and gender differences and diurnal variability of flow in healthy individuals. It then focuses on the ways in which this is altered in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the possible mechanisms for why people with PD drool. It reviews procedures for clinical assessment and management. Many studies report drooling prevalence >50% of people with PD, though in the early stages the impact may not yet be great. In PD, saliva flow is normal or even decreased compared to people without PD. Motorically sialorrhea arises from an interaction between oro-facial rigidity, lingual bradykinesia and aspects of oro-pharyngeal dysphagia. Postural, cognitive, attentional and pharmacological factors may also contribute. Objective evaluation of sialorrhea looks at the rate and variability of flow (milliliters or milligrams per unit time; swallow intervals; consistency). Since objective measures seldom reflect patient-reported lived experience, assessment includes rating scales that capture subjective concerns. Because altered salivary function impacts on (peri)oral health, assessment and monitoring of this is strongly advocated. Methods in each of these assessment domains are introduced. Clinical guidelines recommend behavioral interventions in the first instance, with pharmacological treatments, including botulinum injection, as follow-up possibilities. Surgical procedures are reserved for severe or intractable cases. High-quality evidence for the efficacy of behavioral interventions is lacking. Drug therapy efficacy is also under-studied, apart from botulinum toxin management. Few studies have examined surgical interventions in PD, though principles are well established from other populations. Strands of enquiry for improving our knowledge of behavioral interventions are suggested.Keywords: drooling, Parkinson’s, management, review
... This is because people suffering from hyposalivation in the initial population were mostly women. This gender difference on salivary flow rate has already been described in several articles, and it could be due to the smaller salivary gland size of women comparing to men (Inoue et al., 2006). Table 2 shows that, as expected, the hyposalivator group presented significantly lower unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates than the control group. ...
Article
The aim of this work was to study the effects of interindividual variability of human elderly saliva on aroma release and metabolisation by ex vivo approaches. Thirty individuals suffering or not from hyposalivation were selected from a panel formed by 110 elderly people (aged >65 years old) that were matched by age and sex. Then, their stimulated saliva samples were independently incubated in presence of three aroma compounds (ethyl hexanoate, octanal, 2‐nonanone) to perform headspace‐gas chromatography (HS‐GC) and liquid/liquid extraction‐gas chromatography mass spectrometry (LLE‐GC/MS) analyses. These assays revealed that the extent of saliva effect on the release and metabolisation of aroma compounds was highly dependent on the chemical family of the compounds (octanal>ethyl hexanoate>2‐nonanone). Moreover, salivas from the hyposalivator (HPS) group exerted a significant lower release and/or higher metabolisation than those of the control group for the three assayed compounds. Regarding the biochemical characterization of the saliva samples, no significant differences were found in the total protein content between the two groups. This does not preclude the involvement of specific proteins on the observed results that need to be clarified in further experiments. Saliva from the HPS group presented a significantly higher total antioxidant capacity than that of the control group, which suggests that this parameter could be related to the metabolisation of aroma compounds by saliva. Such effects might alter aroma perception in individuals suffering from hyposalivation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... [2] According to our study, salivary flow is greater in men than in women. Our results are consistent with the studies done by Chauhan et al. [5] and Al-Azzawi et al. [9] This difference in men and women may be due to the smaller size of parotid and submandibular glands in women as compared to the men based on the study by Inoue et al. [10] In a patient with stress, the mean flow rate in men and women was 0.27 ml/min and 0.15 ml/min, respectively, which is found to be statistically significant. Compared to men, women have reduced flow rate, which is similar to the study conducted by Kim and Suh [11] and Matos-Gomes et al. [12] This difference was due to emotional states, e.g., anxiety and depression which are known to affect salivary gland function. ...
Article
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Introduction: Salivary gland secretion is mainly under autonomic nervous control, but various hormones may also modulate the salivary composition. Psychological stress exerts its effect on salivary composition, increasing the value of saliva as a dynamic biological fluid determining the overall psychological health of an individual and also in maintaining adequate oral health. Aim and Objective: To determine the salivary flow rate, pH, and viscosity among working men and women. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of 50 patients, of them 25 were working men and 25 working women. The levels of stress among them were assessed by job stress scale (Shukla and Srivastava, Cogent Business and Management, 2016). Results: The mean flow rate of saliva in working men and women was 0.36 ml/min and 0.25 ml/min and flow rate in men and women with stress was 0.2 ml/min and 0.15 ml/min, respectively. pH in working men and women was 7.1 and 6.7, respectively. pH in men and women with stress was 6.5 and 6.4, respectively. The viscosity of saliva in working men and women was 1.05 cP and 1.29 cP, respectively, whereas the viscosity of saliva in men and women with stress was 1.3 cP and 1.5 cP, respectively. Flow rate in working men and women with stress was found to be significant. Conclusion: To conclude, the stress job exerts its influence on salivary gland function, creating an impact on the quantity and quality of saliva in maintaining the oral health.
... Moreover, the production of saliva is heavily influenced by external factors, such as degree of hydration or circadian rhythm, but also by minor factors including gender, age, and body weight (Whelton, 2012). Specifically, men salivate more than women (Inoue et al., 2006), elderly adults salivate less than middle-aged adults (Navazesh, Mulligan, Kipnis, Denny, P. A., & Denny, P. C., 1992), and individuals with a higher body mass index have a less heavy salivary flow rate (Flink, Bergdahl, Tegelberg, Rosenblad, & Lagerlöf, 2008). ...
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This paper reviews data collection practices in electromagnetic articulography (EMA) studies, with a focus on sensor placement. We first introduce electromagnetic articulography as a method. We then focus on existing data collection practices. Our overview is based on a literature review of 905 publications from a large variety of journals and conferences, identified through a systematic keyword search in Google Scholar. The review shows that experimental designs vary greatly, which in turn may limit researchers’ ability to compare results across studies. Finally, we describe an EMA data collection procedure that includes an articulatory-driven strategy for determining where to position sensors on the tongue without causing discomfort to the participant. We also evaluate three approaches for preparing (NDI Wave) EMA sensors reported in the literature with respect to the duration the sensors remain attached to the tongue: 1) attaching out-of-the-box sensors, 2) attaching sensors coated in latex, and 3) attaching sensors coated in latex with an additional latex flap. Results indicate no clear general effect of sensor preparation type on adhesion duration. A subsequent exploratory analysis reveals that sensors with the additional flap tend to adhere for shorter times than the other two types, but that this pattern is inverted for the most posterior tongue sensor.
... We hypothesize that differences in oral processing behavior can be linked to differences oral physiology between genders. Males display higher bite force [36,37], salivary flow [21,38], cheek strength [39] and masticatory performance [40] than females. Males tend to have larger anatomical features, including body height, body weight and face size [28,30]. ...
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The aim of this study was to link parameters describing oral physiology and anatomy of consumers varying in age, gender and ethnicity to food oral processing behavior. Three groups of healthy consumers were compared: Dutch, Caucasian adults (18-30 yrs, n=32), Chinese, Asian adults (18-30 yrs, n=32) and Dutch, Caucasian older adults (65-85 yrs, n=32). Mastication performance, salivary flow rate (stimulated and unstimulated) and dental status were quantified to characterize oral physiology. Volume of oral cavity, tongue dimensions, facial anthropometry, height and weight were quantified to characterize anatomy. Oral processing behavior of three solid foods (carrot, cheese and sausage) was quantified by video recordings and eating rate (g/s), average consumption time (s), chews per bite (-) and average bite size (g) were determined. Dutch, Caucasian older adults had smaller volume of oral cavity, lower number of teeth and larger head width compared to Dutch, Caucasian adults. Chinese, Asian adults showed significantly higher mastication performance and larger head width compared to Dutch, Caucasian consumers, while dental status did not significantly differ between groups. Males had significantly larger volumes of oral cavity and larger head height and width compared to females. Dutch, Caucasian adults had a shorter average consumption time (s), less chews per bite and consumed the three foods with higher eating rate (g/s) compared to Dutch, Caucasian older adults. Chinese, Asian adults had a significantly longer average consumption time (s), more chews per bite, smaller average bite size (g) and lower eating rate (g/s) compared to Dutch, Caucasian adults. Twenty-one significant relationships were found between oral physiological and anatomical parameters and oral processing behavior. Body weight resulted in the largest β-values, indicating to be the anatomical parameter of largest influence on oral processing behavior. We conclude that only few oral physiological and anatomical parameters related with food oral processing behavior. We suggest that other factors, including cultural factors contribute to variation in food oral processing behavior between different consumer groups more than saliva flow, volume of oral cavity, mastication performance and dental status.
... Healthy Dutch female participants between 18 -35 years old were recruited in Wageningen and surrounding area. We recruited only female participants due to physiological differences in the salivary gland size between sex [39,40]. After registration, potential participants were invited to a screening session to determine their eligibility. ...
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Exposure to sensory food cues such as smell, vision, taste and/or texture may trigger anticipatory physiological responses such as salivation, participating on adequate metabolism of the signaled food. However, the individual contribution of each sensory modality as well as the impact of particular food products on salivation and salivary composition remains unclear. Therefore, by systematically varying sensory modalities and nutrient content of food stimuli, we investigated their effect on saliva secretion, α-amylase activity and other salivary characteristics (pH level, buffering capacity, MUC5B concentration, and total protein content). Over 3 sessions, 46 normal-weight healthy participants were exposed to 12 conditions, consisting of 4 levels of sensory stimulation (odor, odor + vision, odor + vision + taste, and odor + vision + taste + mastication) and 3 types of stimuli (bread, high-in-starch; cucumber, low-in-starch; and parafilm as non-food control) during which saliva was collected. Linear mixed models showed a significant increase in salivation with increasing levels of sensory stimulation. α-amylase secretion rate increased upon the highest level of stimulation, which involved mastication, compared to odor and odor + visual level of stimulation. Other salivary characteristics varied with the level of sensory stimulation, which might be related to the total volume of salivation. The type of stimuli did not influence the saliva composition (α-amylase concentration nor other salivary components). Our findings indicate that cumulative sensory information, rather than specific (food) product, play a vital role in anticipatory salivary responses.
... The current study is not the first study to investigate the relationship between extra-oral and intra-oral measurements. Inoue and co-workers found significant correlations between the body profile (especially weight and Body Mass Index) and the salivary gland size [16]. This indicates the possibility to estimate the size of the oral structures by determining extra-oral measurements. ...
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PurposeDetermination of intra-oral surface areas might contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the oral cavity and oral diseases. In previous studies, the intra-oral surface area was determined using a laborious and technically challenging method. Our aim was to develop an easy and non-invasive method to determine the intra-oral surface areas.Methods In this study, we used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital analysis in 20 human cadavers to determine various intra-oral surface areas, based on digital segmentation. Next, we explored whether there was a relationship between various intra-oral surface areas and anthropometric measurements of the head using Pearson correlation coefficient.ResultsUsing CBCT and digital analysis, it was possible to determine various intra-oral surface areas. On average, the total intra-oral surface area was 173 ± 19 cm2. Moderate, statistical significant correlations were observed between (1) the length of the head and the palatal surface area, as well as (2) the depth of the head and the surface area of the tongue. These correlations suggest the feasibility of estimating intra-oral surface areas without relying on CBCT imaging.Conclusions This study presents a technique for measuring the intra-oral surface areas by CBCT imaging in combination with digital analysis. The results of this study suggest that anthropometric measurements of the head might be used to estimate the surface areas of the palate and tongue.
... For example, Chen et al. [11] reported association between increased drain output and a high body weight or diabetes mellitus. In addition, women who are perimenopausal and postmenopausal have a lower saliva flow rate [12]; moreover, a strong association has been reported with gland size, which is related to body weight and body mass index [13]. We also considered whether there was a relationship with postoperative pressure time, but there was no significant difference in this parameter. ...
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Background: Late diagnosis of a salivary fistula increases the risk of wound infection and scarring. The purpose of the present study was to identify a quantitative predictor of postoperative salivary fistula for cases treated with surgery. Methods: Demographic, intraoperative and postoperative parameters for 57 cases that received surgery for benign parotid tumours were recorded from June 2017 to June 2018, of which 18 cases developed salivary fistulas. These data were analysed using univariate and binary logistic regression analyses as well as receiver operating curve analysis. Results: Drain fluid amylase concentration was positively correlated with salivary fistula development (p < 0.001), with an odds ratio of 1.14 for a 1 KU/L increase in concentration and an optimal receiver operating curve cut-off value of 51,100 U/L for predicting salivary fistula development. Cases wherein the parotid-masseteric fascia remained intact were associated with a lower risk of salivary fistula development (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Drain fluid amylase concentration may be a valuable predictor of postoperative salivary fistula in cases with benign parotid tumours.
... The female participants in the present study had lower median UWS and SWS secretion rates than the male participants. This may be explained by the fact that women, in general, have smaller saliva glands than men (38), in addition to postmenopausal hormonal changes that can affect the glands (39). However, hyposalivation (SWS) was significantly more common among men than women in the present study, which is in contrast to previous findings (8,11,18). ...
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This study aimed to describe the prevalence and associated factors for xerostomia and hyposalivation in a young‐elderly population. A random sample of 460 65‐yr‐old people living in Oslo, Norway, answered a questionnaire and underwent a clinical examination (237 men and 223 women; response rate 58%). Ten percent of respondents reported xerostomia. The median Summated Xerostomia Index was 6 (interquartile range [IQR]: 5–7) and the median Clinical Oral Dryness Score was 2 (IQR: 1–3). The median unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) secretion rate was 0.34 (IQR: 0.20–0.53) mL min–1 and the median stimulated whole saliva (SWS) secretion rate was 1.74 (IQR: 1.24–2.38) mL min–1. In 8% of the study participants the UWS secretion rate was ≤0.1 mL min–1 and in 4% the SWS secretion rate was ≤0.7 mL min–1. Three percent of the study participants had both xerostomia and hyposalivation with respect to UWS. Xerostomia was significantly associated with medication use, having rheumatic disease, and having received radiation therapy to the head/neck region. Hyposalivation with respect to UWS and SWS was significantly associated with medication use and type II diabetes. Even though xerostomia and hyposalivation were not prevalent conditions in this population, clinicians should be especially aware of the salivary conditions in patients taking four or more medications, patients diagnosed with type II diabetes, and those who have undergone radiation therapy to the head/neck region.
... Several studies demonstrated that dry mouth is more prevalent in women (11,12,18,19,25). In females, it was shown that the parotid and submandibular gland sizes and flow rates are differ between genders (26). Also, the symptoms and behaviors of dry mouth depends to the flow rates (27). ...
Article
Objectives: The effect of age, gender and other demographic factors on relationship between smoking and dry mouth remained unknown. The aim of this study was to measure the relationship between dry mouth and smoking specifically by considering demographic characteristics. Methods: In this case-control study, 5640 subjects who were randomly selected from 10000 participants of the second phase of Kerman coronary artery disease risk factors study (KERCADRS) during 2014-2018, were included. Demographic characteristics and smoking frequency in the participants were recorded by a checklist. Six-item Fox questionnaire was filled out by the participants to determine dry mouth as a dependent variable. The interaction terms of daily cigarette smoking with sex, age, educational level, and marital status were entered to the model and non-significant terms were removed by the hierarchical model selection. Results: It was revealed that 3429 (60.8%) of controls had not dry mouth and 2211 (39.2%) of cases had xerostomia. Statistical analysis revealed that smokers are more likely to have dry mouth in all ages and both sexes (p<0.001). As men get older, the chance of having dry mouth increases more rapidly among them than female smokers (p<0.001). In addition, female smokers have more chance to have dry mouth compared to male smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion: Age, sex, and daily cigarette smoking affect the prevalence of dry mouth in the very complex way. Cigarette smoking was associated with more chance of having dry mouth especially in female smokers.
... 59,60 A number of studies show that the functions and anatomical features of the salivary glands also depend on gender. 61,62 It was also found that women have a lower mean salivation rate than men at rest. 63 A decrease in the rate of saliva with age can result from a response to hormonal changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. ...
Article
Background Recently, the attention of researchers to the study of the properties of human saliva, as a material with unique properties and diagnostic capabilities, has increased. Research objective to study the connection of the biochemical composition of saliva and blood plasma in the norm, depending on gender and age. Methods 107 volunteers took part in the study, including 46 female (37.2 ± 3.9 years old) and 61 male (36.1 ± 2.8 years old). In all samples of saliva and blood plasma, 16 biochemical parameters were determined, including mineral and protein composition, enzyme activity. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to process the data. Results It has been shown that it is difficult to establish an unambiguous relation between biochemical parameters of saliva and blood plasma. The calculation of the Spearman correlation coefficients showed that only 7 of the 16 parameters demonstrate the presence of a weak correlation between the content in saliva and plasma. Conclusion In general, the determination of the composition of saliva may have an independent diagnostic value; in this case, drawing a parallel with the composition of serum and blood plasma is not advisable. Nevertheless, the use of saliva in clinical laboratory diagnostics is associated with the need to establish criteria for the norm and pathology for each biochemical parameter.
... Similar results are found in humans: In human females, the sizes of both PG and SMG are significantly smaller than in males. When separated by gender, the sizes of PG and SMG are correlated to a significant extent with body weight in both human males and females [22]. ...
Article
Aim The aim of this study was to establish normal values for parotid gland (PG) and submandibular-sublingual salivary gland complex (SSC) uptake of 99mtechnetium pertechnetate (99mTcO4) as a function of age, sex and circadian rhythm in mice. Methods In 12 female (F) and 12 male (M) C57BL/6N mice, nine consecutive SPECT images of 10 min each were acquired as dynamic acquisitions beginning 5 min after intravenous injection of 80 MBq 99mTcO4. Each mouse was imaged in follow-up studies at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age. In order to assess for physiologic changes related to circadian rhythm, animals were imaged during light (sleeping phase) as well as during night conditions (awake phase). The percentage tracer uptake of the injected activity is expressed as median %ID. Results Maximum 99mTcO4 uptake occurred earlier in PG at 11 min compared to SSC at 79 min (p < 0.001). No significant effect of circadian rhythm was observed in PG (p = 0.64) and SSC uptake (p = 0.27). With aging, 99mTcO4 uptake significantly decreased for PG (p < 0.001) while it increased for SSC (p < 0.001). F (0.5) had a significantly higher PG uptake than M (0.3; p < 0.001) up to an age of 24 months. However, SSC uptake of F (4.6) was higher than that of M (3.8; p = 0.014) only at the age of 1 month. Thereafter, F (5.6) had lower SSC uptake than M (9.2; p < 0.001) from 3 months onwards. Normalizing %ID to gland volume showed that F had a significantly higher uptake (%ID/mm3) in both PG (F 0.013; M 0.007; p < 0.001) and in SSC (F 0.110; M 0.075; p < 0.001). Conclusion Uptake patterns differed among PG and SSC with a significant impact of age and sex while circadian rhythm had no significant influence. Therefore, design of salivary gland studies in mice using 99mTcO4 should consider age and sex as relevant factors.
... Inoue et al. [22] suggested lower unstimulated salivary flow rate among female due to smaller gland sizes. Li-Hui et al. ...
... However, when salivary production is stimulated, the contributions from each gland change significantly and stimulated saliva is produced predominantly by the parotid glands [58,62]. The salivary flow rate can be influenced by numerous factors such as age (Table 1, Figs. 2 and 3, [63]), circadian rhythm [64], gender [65][66][67][68][69][70][71], health status, individual hydration, psychological effects [72], stimulation (Table 1, Supplementary Fig. 4), medication and gland size [73,74]. For assessing the impact of age on salivary flow rates, studies with healthy adult study subjects were evaluated to establish adult reference data. ...
Article
Despite much progress in regulations to improve paediatric drug development, there remains a significant need to develop better medications for children. For the design of oral dosage forms, a detailed understanding of the specific gastrointestinal (GI) conditions in children of different age categories and how they differ from GI conditions in adults is essential. Several review articles have been published addressing the ontogeny of GI characteristics, including luminal conditions in the GI tract of children. However, the data reported in most of these reviews are of limited quality because (1) information was cited from very old publications and sometimes low quality sources, (2) data gaps in the original data were filled with textbook knowledge, (3) data obtained on healthy and sick children were mixed, (4) average data obtained on groups of patients were mixed with data obtained on individual patients, and (5) results obtained using investigative techniques that may have altered the outcome of the respective studies were considered. Consequently, many of these reviews draw conclusions that may be incorrect. The aim of the present review was to provide a comprehensive and updated overview of the available original data on the ontogeny of GI luminal conditions relevant to oral drug absorption in the paediatric population. To this end, the PubMed and Web of Science metadatabases were searched for appropriate studies that examined age-related conditions in the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon. Maturation was observed for several GI parameters, and corresponding data sets were identified for each paediatric age group. However, it also became clear that the ontogeny of several GI traits in the paediatric population is not yet known. The review article provides a robust and valuable data set for the development of paediatric in vitro and in silico biopharmaceutical tools to support the development of age-appropriate dosage forms. In addition, it provides important information on existing data gaps and should provide impetus for further systematic and well-designed in vivo studies on GI physiology in children of specific age groups in order to close existing knowledge gaps and to sustainably improve oral drug therapy in children.
... us, it is suggested that the molecular underpinnings orchestrating normal salivary secretion may be influenced by the circadian clock, which also may play a role in different pathologies of salivary glands [12]. e size of the glands and the level of hydration of the body are other factors related to salivary flow rates [13][14][15][16]. ...
Article
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Objectives: Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth. It is commonly associated with salivary gland hypofunction. Both changes in the composition of the saliva and a reduction in the quantity secreted may be an objective finding of dry mouth. Although there are no currently available cures for the conditions resulting in dry mouth, there are several treatment options that give hope for patients who suffer from xerostomia. Individuals with some residual salivary gland function, which are contraindicated to pharmacological therapies, would benefit the most from identifying novel, alternative effective methods for stimulating production of saliva. The aim of this study was to give an overview of the latest and most relevant data related to treatment modalities for the management of dry mouth conditions. Data Resources and Study Selection. The present review was prepared by searching the National Library of Medicine database using the relevant medical terms and their combinations. A total of thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. Conclusion: A number of patients showed positive treatment outcomes, and the adverse effects of both electrical stimulation (ES) and acupuncture have been reported as mild and transient. In patients who have undergone radiotherapy, acupuncture is shown to increase salivation. However, in patients with Sjogren's syndrome, the effects of ES devices seem to be elusive. Moreover, due to the instability of the findings in relation to longevity of clinical effect, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and clinical effectiveness of such treatments, the results remain vague.
... Secretion rate was calculated by multiplying the sIgA concentration (mg$ml) by the saliva flow rate (ml$min 21 ) (9). Secretion rate is the total amount of sIgA present in the saliva surface per unit time (9), and flow rate is the amount of saliva produced by the salivary glands (19). ...
Article
Abstract Tiernan, C, Lyons, M, Comyns, T, Nevill, AM, and Warrington, G. Salivary IgA as a predictor of upper respiratory tract infections and relationship to training load in elite rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000–000, 2019—Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTI) are among the most common illnesses reported in athletes. An URTI can result in missed training days, which in turn may lead to performance decrements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) as a predictor of URTI, while also exploring the relationship to weekly training load in elite rugby union players. Nineteen male elite rugby union players provided morning saliva swabs, biweekly (Monday and Friday), over a 10-week training period. Participants completed an illness log documenting symptoms of URTI. Session Rate of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) was collected to determine training load (sRPE × session duration). Weekly training load was also calculated. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between incidences of URTI with sIgA and training load. Multilevel regression was conducted to compare associations between sIgA and training load. The results found that the likelihood of suffering from an URTI increased when sIgA significantly decreased (p = 0.046). Where sIgA decreased by 65% or more, a player was at a greater risk of contracting an URTI within the following 2 weeks. No association was found between sIgA and training load. In conclusion, sIgA may be a useful predictor for determining the likelihood of players contracting an URTI. This will allow the coach to make informed decisions on training status, helping reduce the risk of players missing training, which may have performance decrements. Coaches will benefit from the fast, easy, and instant results available, to analyze a player's immune function.
... El flujo salival fue notablemente mayor en hombres que en mujeres, pero cuando comparamos los promedios que encontramos para el flujo salival no estimula- 24 En cuanto a la concentración de proteínas totales, no hubo diferencias entre mujeres y hombres en contraparte a lo publicado por Banderas y su grupo, 25 quienes aseguran que la concentración de proteína es mayor en los hombres. ...
Article
VARIATIONS IN PLASMA AND SALIVARY GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS --- Introduction: Saliva is a fluid composed of several elements including glucose and it is possible that it can be used to detect changes in this and other analytes, its use as a means of diagnosis has an increasing trend. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the concentrations of proteins, glucose, and glycosylation end products (AGEs) in saliva and plasma in apparently healthy young men and women. Material and methods: Unstimulated saliva and plasma samples were obtained from 91 subjects (46 women and 45 men) in apparent good health and after an 8-hour fast. The concentrations of proteins, glucose, and AGEs in saliva and plasma were measured by standardized procedures. Results: We found that the unstimulated salivary flow velocity was different between both sexes (p = 0.078). There are no differences between proteins (p = 0.3173), glucose (p = 0.6636) or AGEs (p = 0.1082). Regarding plasma values, there are no differences between the sexes of the following: proteins (p = 0.4718), glucose (p = 0.3404) or HbA1c (p = 0.6871), however there is a difference in AGEs (p = 0.0162) which was higher in women. Regarding the differences between saliva and plasma, we found that the proteins are 100 times lower, the glucose concentration was 5.6 times lower, both in women and in men, and the AGEs concentration was 5.6 times lower in the saliva for women and 6.7 times less in saliva for men. Conclusions: The results suggested that the concentrations of related analytes in glucose metabolism in saliva might be a good method to non-invasively assess both the diagnosis and the progression of carbohydrate metabolic disorders. ++++++++++++++++++++++++ ------------------------------ VARIACIONES EN LA CONCENTRACIÓN DE GLUCOSA PLASMÁTICA Y SALIVAL EN SUJETOS SANOS ----- Introducción: La saliva es un fluido compuesto de varios elementos, entre ellos la glucosa, y es posible que pueda ser utilizada para detectar cambios en ese y otros analitos, su uso como medio de diagnóstico tiene una tendencia en aumento. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue comparar las concentraciones de proteínas, glucosa y los productos finales de la glucosilación (AGEs) en saliva y plasma entre mujeres y hombres jóvenes aparentemente sanos. Material y métodos: La muestras de saliva no estimulada y plasma se obtuvieron de 91 sujetos (46 mujeres y 45 hombres) en aparente buen estado de salud y tras un ayuno de ocho horas. Las concentraciones de proteínas, glucosa y AGEs en saliva y plasma se midieron mediante procedimientos estandarizados. Resultados: Encontramos que la velocidad del flujo salival no estimulado fue diferente entre ambos sexos (p = 0.078). No existen diferencias entre las proteínas (p = 0.3173), la glucosa (p = 0.6636) ni los AGEs (p = 0.1082). En cuanto a los valores plasmáticos no hay diferencias entre los sexos: proteínas (p = 0.4718), glucosa (p = 0.3404) ni de HbA1c (p = 0.6871); sin embargo, sí hay diferencia en los AGEs (p = 0.0162) que fue más elevado en mujeres. En cuanto a las diferencias entre saliva y plasma hallamos que las proteínas son 100 veces menores, la concentración de glucosa fue 5.6 veces menor, tanto en mujeres como en hombres, y la concentración de AGEs fue 5.6 veces menor en la saliva de mujeres y de 6.7 veces menor en la saliva de hombres. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que las concentraciones de los analitos relacionados en el metabolismo de la glucosa en la saliva puede ser un buen método para evaluar de manera no invasiva tanto el diagnóstico como la progresión de los padecimientos metabólicos de los carbohidratos.
... A subtle peak shift is observed for the amide III region (1205-1300 cm À1 ) showing that the composition of saliva in both males and females is distinct from each other. A difference in salivary composition can be linked to flow rate, where Inoue et al. and Li-Hui et al. showed that the flow rate of saliva in females is considerably lower than in males as their submandibular glands, where unstimulated saliva is mainly derived from, are much smaller than their male counterparts [45,46]. Lastly, the Raman spectra of saliva show a lack of response in the amide I region. ...
Article
Saliva analysis has been gaining interest as a potential non-invasive source of disease indicative biomarkers due to being a complex biofluid correlating with blood-based constituents on a molecular level. For saliva to cement its usage for analytical applications, it is paramount to gain underpinning molecular knowledge and establish a ‘baseline’ of the salivary composition in healthy individuals as well as characterize how these factors are impacting its performance as potential analytical biofluid. Here, we have systematically studied the molecular spectral fingerprint of saliva, including the changes associated with gender, age, and time. Via hybrid artificial neural network algorithms and Raman spectroscopy, we have developed a non-destructive molecular profiling approach enabling the assessment of salivary spectral changes yielding the determination of gender and age of the biofluid source. Our classification algorithm successfully identified the gender and age from saliva with high classification accuracy. Discernible spectral molecular ‘barcodes’ were subsequently constructed for each class and found to primarily stem from amino acid, protein, and lipid changes in saliva. This unique combination of Raman spectroscopy and advanced machine learning techniques lays the platform for a variety of applications in forensics and biosensing.
... The importance of saliva in oral and systemic health is related to its physicochemical properties. Saliva composition and its biological characteristics are influenced by several factors, such as age, sex, flow and type of salivary stimulus, diet, degree of hydration and circadian cycle [7][8][9]. These should be taken into account when collecting saliva for diagnostic purposes. ...
Article
Introduction: A biomarker is a biological indicator of normal or pathogenic processes. Identification of biomarkers is useful for the prevention, diagnosis and prognosis of diseases as well as for monitoring the progression of pathological disorders. Several types of molecules present in biological fluids can act as biomarkers such as DNA, coding and non-coding RNA, lipids, metabolites, proteins and even microbes. In this context, saliva emerges as a useful diagnostic tool for the detection of biomarkers involved with oral and systemic diseases, since it reflects the pathophysiological conditions of the organism and allows early, rapid, practical and noninvasive detection of biomarkers. Areas covered: This review discusses the properties of saliva as a diagnostic tool and addresses the main identified biomarkers related to dental caries, periodontal disease, head and neck cancer and other types of cancer of considerable incidence among the world population. Expert commentary: Despite extensive efforts which have been directed toward the identification of one or a combination of biomarkers with good predictive values for the early detection of dental caries, periodontal disease and cancer, these biomarkers still need validation before chairside point-of-care devices can be widely used in the clinic.
... Данный факт подтверждает динамику уровня электролитных компонентов слюны, однако не объясняет различий в динамике концентрации натрия и калия. Вероятными причинами выявленных половых различий в составе слюны могут являться меньший размер слюнных желез у женщин [10], особенности секреции слюны, а также действие эстрогенов [12,15]. ...
Article
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A high rate of change in the composition of saliva can be used to monitor biorhythms (seasonal and circadian). Research objective - the study of the dynamics of the near-24-hour mineral composition of saliva in men and women. Methods. The study involved 40 people (20 men, 20 women, age 23.1 ± 0.9 years). Saliva samples were collected every 3 hours during the day. The mineral composition of saliva was defined by the capillary electrophoresis technique. The cross-group differences were evaluated using the non-parametric criterion. Results. It is shown that the sodium concentration reaches its maximum values at night (9.67 mM), and then monotonously decreases to 12-15 p.m. (5.72 mM). For potassium concentration, the maximum is observed around 12 p.m. (10.71 mM), remains at a stably high level until 21 p.m., after which it decreases until 6:00 a.m. in the morning (8.78 mM). For the Na/K ratio, one maximum is observed, corresponding to 3 a.m. in the night (Na/K = 1.257), and one minimum at 12-13 p.m. (Na/K = 0.666; р = 0.0082). Conclusion. Thus, the diurnal dynamics of the parameters studied is characterized by pronounced periodicity. The revealed regularities are caused by a change in the rate of saliva secretion during the day, and by the action of hormones.
... 114,115 Gland size is another factor related to saliva flow rates. [116][117][118] With respect to ageing, a number of studies have investigated whether it is associated with decrease in salivary flow rates, since both major and minor salivary glands undergo agerelated structural, degenerative changes, such as loss of secretory acini and stromal alterations. [119][120][121][122][123][124][125] In this regard, results are contradicting, showing stable 113,[126][127][128][129][130][131][132][133] or declining salivary gland function with age. ...
Article
Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction impact oral health and quality of life and are mainly caused by the intake of medications, chronic disorders like Sjögren's syndrome, and head and neck radiation. Other aetiologies may be local diseases of the salivary glands including infections, cancer, or obstructive diseases of the salivary ducts. Management strategies are primarily alleviating symptoms. Current investigations show promising results in stem cell treatment. In this review, we want to provide comprehension of the aetiologies, evaluation, and management of xerostomia and hyposalivation.
... Saliva is secreted at a rate from 0.3 ml to 7 ml/min [2,3]. The volume of the saliva and its components depend on activity of the salivary gland, stimulation of the salivary gland, physiologic stimuli, circadian rhythm, age and gender of the patient [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. The important functions of saliva include lubrication of oral cavity, preserving the soft tissue from abrasion during mastication, promotes digestion of carbohydrates, mechanical flushing to remove food debris, maintains remineralization and demineralization cycle by chemically maintaining ph, calcium and phosphate levels and salivary proteins and immunoglobulins exhibit antibacterial action by neutralizing bacterial toxins and enzymes [14]. ...
Article
Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the total salivary protein concentration and dietary habits in Caries-free, Early childhood Caries and Severe Early Childhood Caries children. Materials and methods: The present study included Thirty children who were divided into three groups. They were further divided into Caries-free, Early childhood Caries and Severe Early Childhood Caries with 10 children in each group. Information was collected regarding oral hygiene practices, feeding habits and dietary pattern through a face-to-face interview with the parent/caretaker of the child. Unstimulated saliva was collected and total protein concentration was estimated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relative contributions of dietary and feeding patterns between children with and without ECC. ANOVA was done to identify the difference in mean protein concentration between the groups. Results: Risk factors specific to the ECC group were Breast feeding <24 months (OR 2.1, 95% CI, 0.35-13.0), bottle feeding (21.0, 95% CI, 2.8-15.7), snacking more than 3 times per day (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.283-5.734), consumption of less protein diet (OR 4.1, 95% CI, 1.99-8.81), consumption of less milk products (2.33, 95% CI, 1.67-6.77). Results also revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in total protein concentration between Caries-free, Early childhood Caries and Severe Early Childhood Caries group. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, we can conclude that, Breast feeding less than 24 months, bottle feeding, snacking more than thrice per day, consuming low protein diet and low milk products had a high risk of developing ECC. There was no significant difference in the mean protein concentration between caries free, ECC and S ECC group.
... Previous studies on cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease revealed a significantly higher prevalence and incidence rate in women than in men [28,30,38]. Besides, women showed a lower unstimulated SFR than men [39]. Therefore, the association between SFR and cognitive impairment could be increased in women. ...
Article
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Background Salivary function has been suggested to be associated with cognitive impairment. However, the effect of salivary flow rate (SFR) on cognitive impairment remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether SFR is associated with cognitive impairment among Korean elders. Methods This cross-sectional study included 649 elders aged 65 and older in the Korean community-dwelling population. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Mini-Mental Status Examination. Unstimulated SFR was measured and dichotomized. Denture status, age, sex, education level, smoking, drinking, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity were considered confounders. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the adjusted association. Stratified analysis by sex and denture status was performed to clarify the effect modification. Results Participants without cognitive impairment showed a higher SFR level than those with cognitive impairment (0.81 mL/min for non-cognitive impairment versus 0.52 mL/min for cognitive impairment, p < 0.001). After controlling for confounders, participants with low SFR (< 0.3 mL/min) were more likely to have cognitive impairment by 1.5 times than participants with normal SFR (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, confidence interval [CI] = 1.05–2.10). The association of low SFR with cognitive impairment was higher in women and dentate participants: about 10% higher in women (OR = 1.63, CI = 1.07–2.50) and about 22% higher in dentate participants (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.41–2.90). Conclusions Salivary flow rate is independently associated with cognitive impairment among Korean elders. The association was modified in females and dentate elders. Physicians and dentists should consider low SFR and cognitive impairment as a risk factor between them in clinics.
... Noteworthy, proteins of the bPRP family are secreted in saliva exclusively by parotid glands [74,81] and gland activity is affected by gender and obesity status. Inoue et al. showed that young NW females have smaller parotid and submandibular gland sizes as compared to males [82]. Moreover, Bozzato et al. [83] described a deposition of adipocytes in parotid glands of OB, but not in submandibular glands, with a correlation between BMI and gland size. ...
Article
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Taste plays an important role in processes such as food choices, nutrition status and health. Salivary proteins contribute to taste sensitivity. Taste reduction has been associated with obesity. Gender influences the obesity predisposition and the genetic ability to perceive the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), oral marker for food preferences and consumption. We investigated variations in the profile of salivary proteome, analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS, between sixty-one normal weight subjects (NW) and fifty-seven subjects with obesity (OB), based on gender and PROP sensitivity. Results showed variations of taste-related salivary proteins between NW and OB, which were differently associated with gender and PROP sensitivity. High levels of Ps-1, II-2 and IB-1 proteins belonging to basic proline rich proteins (bPRPs) and PRP-1 protein belonging to acid proline rich proteins (aPRPs) were found in OB males, who showed a lower body mass index (BMI) than OB females. High levels of Ps-1 protein and Cystatin SN (Cyst SN) were found in OB non-tasters, who had lower BMI than OB super-tasters. These new insights on the role of salivary proteins as a factor driving the specific weight gain of OB females and super-tasters, suggest the use of specific proteins as a strategic tool modifying taste responses related to eating behavior.
Article
Purpose Recovering the acidic plaque pH to its resting value as soon as possible after exposure to a sugary beverage might reduce the risk of dental caries. Milk contains nutrients that help to buffer acid. Adding fluoride to milk might enhance this effect. Accordingly, this study investigates the effect of milk and fluoridated milk on acidic dental plaque. Methods The study was a randomized crossover design. Ten subjects were asked to rinse for 2 min with the following solutions: (1) water, (2) 10% sucrose, (3) milk, (4) fluoridated milk, (5) 10% sucrose followed by water, (6) 10% sucrose followed by milk, or (7) 10% sucrose followed by fluoridated milk. The supra-gingival plaque was collected before rinsing and every 5 min after rinsing to measure the plaque pH. Results The results showed that rinsing with 10% sucrose caused acidic dental plaque. After rinsing with 10% sucrose followed by milk, fluoridated milk, or water, the maximum plaque pH dropped and the area under the curve was significantly less than that after rinsing with 10% sucrose alone (p = 0.001). The maximum change in the plaque pH and the area under the curve in the group challenged with 10% sucrose followed by fluoridated milk were significantly lower than those in the group followed by nonfluoridated milk (p = 0.04). Conclusion Rinsing with milk could raise the acidic plaque pH to the resting value faster than individual's natural capacity to do so. Adding fluoride to milk can enhance this effect.
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Biological fluids have been playing a vital role in most of the cases involving the criminal investigation. They are found to be useful as markers of identification. Though there are plenty of studies available in blood, there are very less number of studies available on saliva. A study has been undertaken with saliva and has been analyzed without subjecting it to any chemical and biological examinations. But there was a physical examination done with the parameter of refractive index. In this study a total of 101 males and 101 females have been considered. From these subjects, the saliva has been collected and has been analyzed for refractive index. There was a significant difference noted among the females and males.
Article
Objective: To investigate the sex differences in clinical features, including salivary flow rate, psychological distress, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response and their inter-relationships in patients with burning mouth syndrome. Subjects and Methods Eighteen men and 37 postmenopausal women with burning mouth syndrome underwent a comprehensive questionnaire evaluation, psychological evaluation, and salivary flow rate measurement. Laboratory tests were performed to investigate the function and integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Results: Both unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were higher in men than in women (unstimulated: 0.58 ± 0.32 vs. 0.37 ± 0.15 mL/min, p<0.01; stimulated: 1.83 ± 0.63 vs. 1.22 ± 0.31, p<0.001). Symptom severity scored on a visual analogue scale negatively correlated with antidiuretic hormone levels in both sexes. The visual analogue scale scores negatively correlated with unstimulated (r=-0.652, p<0.01) and stimulated (r=-0.376, p<0.05) salivary flow rates in men and women, respectively. Unstimulated salivary flow rates positively correlated with antidiuretic hormone (r=0.453, p<0.05) and progesterone (r=0.402, p<0.05) levels only in women. Conclusions: Our results suggest that clinicians should consider hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response, as well as sex and salivary flow rates, when identifying the aetiology of patients with burning mouth syndrome, as it may enable more accurate and effective treatment.
Article
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a premalignant disease with unknown etiology. It has been demonstrated that inflammation and immune activation play a central role in the pathogenesis of OLP. Various cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of OLP. Studies have shown that 2–7% of OLP patients develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). As a result, determining the prognosis of the disease will be promising in preventing oral carcinoma. MicroRNAs are involved in the regulation of cytokine expression and cytokines have a central role in the pathogenesis of OLP. As a result, their evaluation in body fluids may be helpful in assessing the disease's status and progression, and facilitating the treatment process. In this regard, much attention has been paid to the saliva of OLP patients as the sampling is cost-effective and non-invasive. Here, we discuss the potential of miRNAs in predicting the disease severity and progression.
Article
Sensory perception of starch‐based products has been associated with salivary α‐amylase enzymatic activity. However, besides this salivary protein, others have been related to taste sensitivity and oral food processing. As such, the participation of different constituents of saliva in starchy‐foods sensory evaluation cannot be excluded. The present study aimed to identify salivary proteins altered by bread mastication and correlated with sensory ratings. In Experiment 1 the effect of bread mastication was assessed by comparing α‐amylase enzymatic activity and SDS PAGE profiles between saliva collected before and after bread mastication (N = 64). In Experiment 2, a sub‐sample of these individuals (N = 22) was subjected to sensory tests and the sensory ratings obtained were correlated with saliva protein composition. Salivary α‐amylase activity, in the supernatant of saliva collected after bread mastication, was negatively correlated with the ratings of sweetness and saltiness reported. Moreover, the rating intensity of saltiness was positively correlated with the expression levels of carbonic anhydrase VI. Bread roughness presented positive association with α‐amylase enzymatic activity and negative association with S‐type cystatin expression levels. Despite further studies are needed to clarify the surprising negative association between salivary amylase enzymatic activity and sweetness ratings, observed in this study, these results reinforce the role of α‐amylase in starch‐based sensory perception and highlights that other salivary proteins can also influence oral food sensory evaluation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
Objectives: The Three-Factor-Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) is an established instrument to assess eating behavior in terms of dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Methods: The aims of this study were to examine (1) the correlation between eating behavior and body mass index (BMI), (2) the correlation between eating behavior and masticatory performance in terms of bite size and eating speed, and (3) the effects of gender on these correlations in 56 healthy subjects (33 males [21.9 ± 2.8 years old] and 23 females [21.7 ± 2.2 years old]). Results: We found a significant correlation between restraint and BMI only in females and between hunger and BMI only in males. However, disinhibition and BMI were significantly correlated in both males and females. We also found a significant correlation between bite size and hunger only in males and between eating speed and disinhibition in both males and females. Conclusions: These findings underline the importance of gender-specific counselling and behavioral treatment of obesity.
Article
Oral dysfunctions are common in the elderly but the literature lacks a multidisciplinary approach on the relationship between polypharmacy, saliva flow, xerostomia, taste, and swallowing complaints. This cross‐sectional study included 204 non‐institutionalized elderly (>60 years; 123 women/81 men), free of severe disabilities and non‐alcohol/tobacco consumers, from whom specific pharmacological therapies were evaluated, as well xerostomia (Xerostomia Inventory‐XI) and swallowing complaints (EAT‐10 questionnaire), salivary flow rate and gustatory sensitivity. Statistical analysis included Chi‐square, Mann–Whitney, Two‐way ANCOVA, and linear multiple regression. Polypharmacy (≥5 drugs daily), hyposalivation, and severe taste dysfunction were found in 18, 46, and 10% of the participants, respectively. Polypharmacy was related with xerostomia (p = .041) and swallowing complaints (p < .001; power = 94%), but not with taste dysfunction. Dry mouth complaint and higher risk of swallowing disorders were found in 50 and 12% of the elderly, respectively, and angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors users (n = 36) showed higher EAT‐10 scores (p = .038). Regression models showed that stimulated salivary flow rate was dependent on gender and diuretic use, while xerostomia scores were dependent on the number of medications and unstimulated saliva flow (p < .001). In conclusion, the results draw attention to the high frequency of oral and maxillofacial dysfunctions found in non‐institutionalized elderly, especially polypharmacy, xerostomia and swallowing complaints, and the side effects of drugs that can disturb the oral functions, the acceptance of food, and the adherence to oral therapies.
Article
Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ablating postganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the submandibular ganglion in combination with sublingual gland excision in the treatment of primary sialorrhea. Materials and methods Healthy volunteers were initially chosen to determine a basic saliva flow rate value by saliva collection. Next, unstimulated and stimulated saliva flow rates, and a visual analog scale index for sialorrhea were recorded in all the patients pre- and postoperatively. In addition, the generalized anxiety disorder scale was used to assess preoperative anxiety symptoms. The follow-up durations ranged from 24 to 36 months after surgery. Results A total of 10 patients were included in this study. Preoperatively, the mean unstimulated saliva flow rate for the 10 patients was 11.26 ± 4.19 ml/10 min, the stimulated saliva flow rate was 16.76 ± 3.49 ml/6 min, and the visual analog scale index was 66.29 ± 14.86. Postoperatively, the mean unstimulated and stimulated saliva flow rates were significantly reduced to 5.99 ± 1.33 ml/10 min (p = 0.001) and 13.28 ± 1.86 ml/6 min (p = 0.013), respectively, and the visual analog scale index was 25.41 ± 5.6 (p < 0.001). No complications were found after operation. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ablation of postganglionic parasympathetic fibers of the submandibular ganglion in combination with sublingual gland excision by an intraoral approach is a simple, safe, and efficient approach for treating primary sialorrhea.
Article
Virtual Reality (VR) is considered a promising tool for measurement of food choices (e.g., virtual supermarkets) and for interventions regarding eating behavior (e.g., cue exposure therapy). However, it is not yet known whether food cue responses (FCRs) are similar in VR as in real life, which creates uncertainty about the effectiveness of these interventions. Furthermore, the role of hunger in relation to FCRs is still unclear, both in real life and in VR. Therefore, this study explores to what extent exposure to food cues in VR and real life elicit similar psychological (i.e., craving) and physiological (i.e., salivation) FCRs, and whether this differs between hungry and satiated conditions. The study employed a 2 (stimulus type: food vs. non-food) x 2 (exposure mode: VR vs. real life) x 2 (hunger state: hungry vs. satiated) within-subjects design (N = 54). Exposure to food led to stronger cravings than exposure to non-food, both in VR and real life, albeit weaker in VR. Furthermore, exposure to food led to more salivation than exposure to non-food, however in real life only. In sum, craving (but not salivation) responses after exposure to virtual food (vs. non-food) approach real life responses. Craving is an important measure in several fields of therapy, and this study suggests that VR is a potentially useful intervention tool. Additionally, this study provides evidence that VR can be used as a tool when it comes to measuring food-related behavior, as virtual food approximates psychological FCRs in real life.
Article
Background: Salivary secretion in patients with proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-resistant severe reflux esophagitis has not been examined. In this study, saliva secretion and salivary epidermal growth factor (EGF) in patients with PPI-resistant severe reflux esophagitis were investigated. Methods: We recruited 22 PPI-resistant and 22 PPI-responsive severe reflux esophagitis patients who were not infected with Helicobacter pylori. Saliva secretion testing and esophageal manometry using high-resolution manometry were performed. Saliva secretion was assessed as follows: each patient chewed sugar-free gum for 3 min prior to endoscopy and the amount and pH of saliva as well as the pH of saliva after acid loading as an index of the acid-buffering capacity were measured. The salivary EGF concentration was assessed by ELISA. Results: The amount of saliva secreted was significantly lower in the PPI-resistant group than in the PPI-responsive group, with medians (25th-75th percentile) of 3.7 (2.2-6.8) and 4.9 (4.0-7.8) mL, respectively (p = 0.029). Salivary pH was significantly lower in the PPI-resistant group [6.9 (6.7-7.2)] than in the PPI-responsive group [7.2 (7.1-7.4), p = 0.001]. Salivary pH after acid loading was significantly lower in the PPI-resistant group [5.6 (5.3-5.9)] than in the PPI-responsive group [6.4 (6.1-6.5), p = 0.002]. The salivary EGF concentration was significantly higher in the PPI-resistant group [3211.5 (1865.0-4121.5)] than in the PPI-responsive group [1816.0 (1123.5-2792.3), p = 0.041]. No significant differences were observed in the proportion of esophageal motility abnormalities. Conclusion: Stimulated saliva secretion was reduced in PPI-resistant severe reflux esophagitis patients.
Article
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Biological fluids have been playing a vital role in most of the cases involving the criminal investigation. They are found to be useful as markers of identification. Though there are plenty of studies available in blood, there are very less number of studies available on saliva. A study has been undertaken with saliva and has been analyzed without subjecting it to any chemical and biological examinations. But there was a physical examination done with the parameter of refractive index. In this study a total of 101 males and 101 females have been considered. From these subjects, the saliva has been collected and has been analyzed for refractive index. There was a significant difference noted among the females and males.
Article
Sex differences in physiology are noted in clinical and animal studies. However, mechanisms underlying these observed differences between males and females remain elusive. Nuclear receptors control a wide range of physiological pathways and are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth, stomach, liver and intestine. We investigated the literature pertaining to ER, AR, FXR, and PPAR regulation and highlight the sex differences in nutrient metabolism along the digestive system. We chose these nuclear receptors based on their metabolic functions, and hormonal actions. Intriguingly, we noted an overlap in target genes of ER and FXR that modulate mucosal integrity and GLP-1 secretion, whereas overlap in target genes of PPARα with ER and AR modulate lipid metabolism. Sex differences were seen not only in the basal expression of nuclear receptors, but also in activation as their endogenous ligand concentrations fluctuate depending on nutrient availability. Finally, in this review, we speculate that interactions between the nuclear receptors may influence overall metabolic decisions in the gastrointestinal tract in a sex-specific manner.
Chapter
The focus of this chapter is to present the basic clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic strategies, and management approaches of SS for the oral health team. As the disease spectrum for SS is wide and quite variable, diagnosis can be challenging. This chapter will present evidence-based diagnostic and management strategies in a sequential fashion. More specifically, these include published diagnostic criteria, signs and symptoms, selected chairside patient questions suggestive of SS, and distinctions between xerostomia and hyposalivation. Chairside procedures to measure salivary flow rates and perform labial salivary gland biopsies are presented as well. Essential serological screening tests for diagnosis of SS and the subsequent need for interprofessional involvement are reviewed. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments provided by the oral health care team for SS are detailed. These include products to relieve dry mouth, caries prevention agents, and medications to manage the oral manifestations SS. The dental management section includes patient counseling, caries management, discussion of TMD symptoms, association of SS and periodontal disease, and implant therapy. A positive and supportive approach to managing SS patients will empower them to take an active role in their oral health and improve their quality of life. Any patient presenting with xerostomia should receive a thorough evaluation. Of significance, the dentist and/or dental hygienist may be the first health care professional to suspect and facilitate the diagnosis of SS. This chapter will sequentially present the key elements in the management of patients with xerostomia, hyposalivation, and rheumatic diseases such as SS. This clinical-based approach will serve as a valuable reference for the oral health team as well as the interprofessional medical team consisting of (at a minimum) rheumatologists, ophthalmologists, and primary care physicians.
Article
Food texture is a major driver of consumer food acceptance and is influenced by the presence of particles. The objective of this study was to determine if individual differences in human factors (demographic, oral physiology, product experience and psychology) are associated to consumers’ ability to detect particles in semisolid foods (namely yoghurt). A systematic design was employed involving nine yoghurt samples with spherical agar microgels added at levels in the range of human sensory threshold for particle detection in yoghurt. Consumers (n = 117) rated product acceptability, identified specific product sensory properties by Check All That Apply (CATA), and completed a questionnaire including demographics, personality typing, and product related questions. In addition, consumer saliva flow rate, mouth volume, tactile sensitivity, fungiform papillae density, and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and salt (NaCl) sensitivity were measured. Consumers who identified particles and/or drying in samples (by CATA) had significantly higher fungiform papillae density, were more oral tactile sensitive and were more sensitive to salt taste. The same consumers were more likely to have an open personality type, reported a preference for more cohesive yoghurt textures (fatty, spoonable, not-separated) and were more likely to have a history of consuming yoghurt products in combination with cereal and for preparation of smoothies. These results demonstrate that acceptance and rejection of particles in soft-foods is driven by a combination of intrinsic product factors and human factors. Understanding these drivers will assist the food industry to more accurately target products to specific markets.
Article
Dry mouth has numerous causes, including medications, radiotherapy and rheumatological conditions, such as Sjögren's syndrome. This article presents the common causes of dry mouth, and details the assessment, investigations and management required for patients with dry mouth within primary dental care, in addition to outlining secondary care investigations and management. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Dry mouth is common in the general population, with widespread implications for dental health and patients' quality of life. Dental professionals have a key role in both its identification and long-term management.
Article
Human saliva is a complex colloidal system that offers multiple functions during food oral processing. Most interestingly, saliva was recently proved to act as an effective natural emulsifier during the oral consumption of oil/fat, leading to speculations about the mechanisms of oral sensation of oil/fat. For this reason, this project was designed to investigate the stability of saliva emulsions, as influenced by storage time (0–240 min), Ca²⁺ concentrations (0–45 mM), and pH (4–8). A total of 12 healthy young subjects were recruited, and saliva emulsions were prepared in vitro under gentle homogenization conditions. Emulsion stability was monitored by ζ-potential, particle size distribution, microstructure, and apparent viscosity. The results showed that emulsifying capability of saliva and the stability of emulsion was significantly different among subjects (p < 0.05). During the observation period, d32 of saliva emulsions only increased slightly with the extension of storage time. The stability of saliva emulsions was affected by Ca²⁺ concentrations or pH values to varying degrees. The lowest stability was observed at 45 mM Ca²⁺ or pH 4 (close to pI). Also, all saliva emulsions were exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Despite the results are still preliminary, it is evident that oral emulsifying capability and the stability of saliva emulsions are highly individualized and are significantly affected by complex factors. Confirmation of oral emulsification reminds us that very different thinking is needed in explaining oral mechanisms of oil/fat sensation and perception.
Article
Full-text available
The rate of sugar clearance from the mouth would seem to be an important parameter in caries susceptibility. Such clearance is by dilution with saliva and periodic swallowing. A mathematical model of this process has been developed which incorporates a variable salivary flow rate dependent on salivary sugar concentration and in which swallowing is treated as an incomplete syphon. The parameters in the model include the amount of sugar in the mouth at time zero (S), the unstimulated salivary flow rate, the maximum sugar-stimulated flow rate, the delay between taste stimulation and development of a steady stimulated flow rate, the taste theshold for sugar, the sugar concentration in a saturated solution, the volume of saliva in the mouth initially and the volume in the mouth before swallowing (VMAX) and immediately after swallowing (RESID). The most important parameters affecting clearance appear to be the unstimulated salivary flow rate and the volumes of saliva in the mouth immediately before and after swallowing. Surprisingly, the value of S was of lesser importance, mainly because as S increased, so did the stimulated flow rate which increased the rate of clearance. This result is in keeping with the finding of the Vipeholm study that increasing the amount of nonretentive forms of carbohydrate in the diet had minimal effects on caries. The model is of value for assessing the relative importance of the various parameters affecting clearance and may help to account for differences in caries susceptibility between individuals with apparently similar intakes of carbohydrates. This study appears to be the first to identify the importance of RESID and VMAX in salivary sugar clearance.Copyright © 1983 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article
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Dry mouth is a common feature in the elderly, but it is not clear what proportion of incidences are related to functional disturbances and whether age per se and gender play a role. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and gender on salivary flow rates. The effect of age on unstimulated (resting) whole and stimulated parotid saliva flow rates was determined in 116 unmedicated, healthy individuals. The subjects were divided into four age groups: 20-39 years (group A), 40-59 years (group B), 60-79 years (group C), and 80 years and over (group D). A significant decrease in the secretion rates of unstimulated whole saliva in relation to age was observed in the study population (p < 0.001). However, the flow rates of stimulated parotid saliva were not significantly different in the four age groups. Females had significantly lower mean flow rates than males for both unstimulated (resting) whole saliva (p < 0.005) and stimulated parotid saliva (p < 0.05). In the study as a whole, significant negative correlations were found between either the DMF index (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) or the DMFS index (decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces) and the flow rates of unstimulated whole saliva (p < 0.02), but no relationship to stimulated parotid saliva flow rates was apparent. The results suggest that elderly subjects have no impairment in their ability to respond to sialogogues but that resting saliva rates are significantly lower than in younger individuals and may contribute to the increase in oral mucosal diseases seen in the elderly.
Article
Full-text available
A comprehensive evaluation of salivary flow rates and composition was undertaken in an age- and community-stratified population. A nonmedicated subpopulation was used to assess the effect of "primary aging" on salivary gland function. Unstimulated whole, parotid and submandibular/sublingual (SMSL) saliva, as well as citrate-stimulated parotid and SMSL saliva were collected from 1006 subjects. Flow rates were determined, and the total protein concentrations measured. Height and caloric intake were documented. Subjects were divided into six age groups from 35 to 75+ years old. Significant age-related decreases in the secretion rates of unstimulated whole (p < 0.001), stimulated parotid (p < 0.01) and unstimulated and stimulated SMSL (both p < 0.0001) saliva were observed in the total population. In the non-medicated subpopulation, age-related decreases in salivary secretions were observed in unstimulated whole (p < 0.01) and unstimulated and stimulated SMSL (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Multiple regression analysis revealed that, as well as age, caloric intake was related to unstimulated SMSL and stimulated SMSL saliva in the whole population, and height was a contributor to unstimulated whole saliva and unstimulated parotid saliva flow rate variances. In the non-medicated population, caloric intake was the significant independent variable for unstimulated and stimulated parotid secretion, as was height for unstimulated whole and SMSL flow rates. Age-related increases in the total protein concentration of unstimulated parotid (p < 0.001) and unstimulated SMSL (p < 0.05) saliva were evident in the whole population, but not in the non-medicated subgroup. These data suggest that there are significant age-related alterations in salivary function.
Article
Saliva from normally menstruating, pregnant and post-menopausal women was collected by catheterizing the excretory duct of the submandibular gland. The saliva was studied for rate of secretion, water content and the crystallization pattern. In addition the spontaneous secretion of saliva as well as the secretion stimulated by histamine and by pilocarpine were studied. The observations can be summarized as follows: Histamine had no effect on the rate of secretion, while pilocarpine increased the secretion considerably. In fertile women, the rate of spontaneous and histamine-stimulated secretion was somewhat higher during the secretion phase of the menstrual cycle than during the proliferation phase. No significant difference was found between the water content of the saliva in the two phases. In pregnant women there was a decrease in the rate of secretion as compared with normally menstruating women. In the post-menopausal women the decrease in secretion of saliva was still more marked. In pregnant women the crystallization pattern of the saliva was coarser than in menstruating women. After the menopause the crystallization pattern was still coarser and in one case no crystallization occurred at all. No constant differences were observed between the patterns during the proliferation and secretion phases, respectively.
Article
The prevalence of xerostomia was evaluated in 259 volunteers 70 ± 4.5 years old. Seventy–two (27.7%) complained of dry mouth. In 31 (11.8%) salivary secretion was under 0.1 ml/min. The xerostomic patients were compared to an age–matched control group. The main complaints of xerostomia were dry mouth during the day, dry throat, burning sensation of the tongue, difficulty in swallowing, and taste disturbances. Systemic diseases frequent in the xerostomic patients were heart failure and hypertension. Chronic renal failure, depression, rheumatoid arthritis, and hypothyroidism were also encountered. The medications most frequently used by the xerostomic patients were parasympatholytics, sympatholytics, and diuretics. A higher frequency of active caries, gingivitis, and dryness of the mucosa was detected in the xerostomic patients. A significantly higher response to stimulation, elevated salivary calcium, and lowered oral pH were found in this group. Xerostomia was found to be related o t systemic diseases, medications, or a combination of these factors. The importance of saliva for maintaining oral health was also observed. Twenty–nine patients suffering from xerostomia were treated with an artificial saliva. On reexamination after one month, most of them reported improvement, and a significant increase in salivary flow rate was found.
Article
The volumes of 153 submandibular salivary glands were determined by a method of differential weighings in air and in a fluid of low density. Volumes ranged from below 2 cm3 to over 15 cm3. Male glands were larger than female glands on average by 50 per cent. In old age a reduction in gland volume was noted. Frequent individual contralateral volume differences were found. 8.5 per cent of submandibular glands were directly continuous with the sublingual gland. Inaccuracies in methods employing a direct estimation of volume were overcome in the present method in which direct measurements were made only of weights. For the clinician, the present finding of a wide range of inter- and intra-subject variability in size and shape of submandibular glands is of both diagnostic and surgical importance.
Article
This paper discusses methods for collection of both whole saliva and individual gland secretions, the normal ranges of salivary flow rate, the effects of physiological variables which influence flow rate, and the role of saliva in oral sugar clearance. The physiological basis for the sensation of dry mouth is discussed, and a new concept is advanced which states that the sensation of dry mouth will occur when the salivary flow rate is less than the sum of the rates of water absorption and evaporation from the mouth. In a study of the effects of anticholinergic agents on salivary flow, the subjects experienced the sensation of dry mouth when the normal flow rate of unstimulated saliva was reduced by from 40 to 50%.
Article
The relation between the size of the parotid gland and the output of saliva has been studied in 92 healthy individuals of both sexes and of various ages. The size of the gland has been determined on sialograms and the relation between the gland-size and the secretion stimulated with different citric-acid solutions has been studied with regression analysis. A formula for the predicted secretion with varying sizes of the parotid gland has been set up and the relation has been graphically illustrated. The study has shown that the secretory rate of the parotid gland should be related to the size of the gland when there is a matter of assessing the function of the parotid glands and that a sialographic investigation of the parotid may be taken as a basis for a prediction of the normal secretion range of a gland. The clinical value of the sialometric method as a diagnostic aid in the investigation of diseases of the salivary gland has in this way been considerably increased.
Article
Duplicate determinations of secretion rate and buffer effect of resting and stimulated whole saliva were made in 629 adults (286 males and 343 females) within an interval of 1-2 weeks. The subjects were arbitrarily classified into four separate age-groups. For all variables studied, a highly significant correlation was obtained between the duplicate tests. The secretion rate of resting as well as stimulated saliva was significantly lower for females than for males. For females, the resting secretion rate was negatively correlated with age. The buffer effect was also significantly lower in the females for both resting and stimulated saliva. For the females, the buffer effect was positively correlated with age and therefore, with advancing age, the females tended to catch up with the males. Irrespective of sex, the secretion rate of resting saliva was highly correlated to that of stimulated saliva. This relationship was established also for the buffer effect. However, between secretion rate and buffer effect a correlation was observed only for stimulated saliva.
Article
Plasma and salivary progesterone and estradiol were measured throughout nine menstrual cycles and before and after intramuscular injection of progesterone in four women. Mean +/- standard error of the mean (SE) salivary progesterone increased significantly from 238.7 +/- 14.3 pg/ml in the proliferative phase to 475.3 +/- 39.8 pg/ml in the secretory phase (p less than 0.001). There was a highly significant correlation between plasma and salivary progesterone levels throughout the menstrual cycle (r = 0.5841, p = 0.001). The ratio of plasma to salivary progesterone was 6.4 during the proliferative phase and increased to 26.7 during the secretory phase. Free unbound progesterone as determined by equilibrium dialysis gave a mean +/- SE level of 126.8 +/- 6.9 pg/ml during the proliferative phase and increased significantly to 196.8 +/- 18.8 pg/ml during the secretory phase (p less than 0.001). The corresponding levels in the plasma were 88.5 +/- 11.2 pg/ml, which increased significantly to 332.2 +/- 39.2 pg/ml (p less than 0.001). Free progesterone constituted 53.7% and 41.4% of salivary progesterone during the proliferative and secretory phases, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages in the plasma were 5.8% and 2.6%. Both plasma and salivary progesterone levels increased in a dose-dependent manner after an intramuscular injection of progesterone, with peak levels being attained from 2 to 3 hours after the injection. Salivary estradiol levels were 5 to 18 and 8 to 35 pg/ml in the proliferative and secretory phases, respectively, but showed no correlation with plasma estradiol levels. The findings are discussed in relationship to the origin of salivary progesterone and the potential use of it as an index of ovulation.
Article
Dry mouth is a common disorder in elderly individuals. It is not, however, necessarily related to decreased salivary flow rate, since subjective feelings of oral dryness have also been found in those with normal flow rates. The aim of this study was to examine in elderly individuals the prevalence of subjective complaints related to dry mouth, and their association with salivary flow rates and the use of systemic medication. In 1990 and 1991, 368 elderly inhabitants of Helsinki, Finland, had their oral health status examined. In addition to the clinical examination, 341 subjects were interviewed regarding different oral and non-oral complaints related to dry mouth. Findings showed that 46% (n = 158) of the subjects had noticed subjective symptoms of dry mouth. Continuous oral dryness was reported by 12% (n = 40) of the subjects, 6% of the men and 14% of the women (p < 0.05). In these 40, the oral and non-oral symptoms were more frequent in subjects reporting continuous dry mouth compared with controls. Continuous dry mouth was clearly associated with the female gender, with mouth breathing and with the use of systemic medications.
Article
The effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on salivary gland functions were examined in a longitudinal study. The flow rate, buffer effect and pH of paraffin-stimulated whole saliva were analysed in 8 perimenopausal and 19 postmenopausal women. The saliva samples were collected 1-2 days before as well as 3 and 5 months after the start of HRT. Salivary flow rates were higher (p <0.033) in the perimenopausal than in the postmenopausal group. The flow rates increased significantly (p <0.001) during HRT in both groups. Similarly, buffer effect and pH showed significant (p = 0.004 and p = 0.009, respectively) time-related changes without any differences between the groups. It appears that HRT improves both the quantity and the quality of salivary gland function in peri- and postmenopausal women.
Article
Classification criteria for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) were developed and validated between 1989 and 1996 by the European Study Group on Classification Criteria for SS, and broadly accepted. These have been re-examined by consensus group members, who have introduced some modifications, more clearly defined the rules for classifying patients with primary or secondary SS, and provided more precise exclusion criteria.
Article
Many women undergo hormone replacement therapy in order to relieve menopausal and postmenopausal symptoms. Oral discomfort is common among these symptoms and studies have shown that the stimulated whole saliva flow rate is increased after combined oestradiol and progesterone replacement therapy. There is, however, no data regarding the effect of other oestrogens or of oestrogen alone on whole and minor gland saliva. In the present study, the flow rate from minor salivary glands (buccal, labial and palatal) and the secretion rate and buffer capacity of whole saliva was examined in 18 postmenopausal women (61-76 years) prior to, and during 1 year of a low potency oestrogen (oestriol) use. The ability of whole saliva to aggregate and mediate bacterial adherence as well as subjective feelings of dry mouth was also examined. For comparison, the same variables were examined in nine peri- and postmenopausal, non-medicated women (reference group, 53-61 years). During hormone treatment, the labial saliva flow was significantly increased and the complaints of dry mouth reduced. Increased stimulated whole saliva flow was seen in both the hormone and reference groups. This was also true for the stimulated whole saliva buffer capacity, which was increased parallel to the flow rate. The secretion rates were generally lower in the hormone group compared to the reference group throughout the study period. Except for stimulated whole saliva, statistical analysis at baseline revealed no age-related reduction of the saliva flow rates. The ability of whole saliva to mediate aggregation of Actinomyces naeslundii was significantly decreased after hormone treatment. Thus, the present findings indicate that a low dose oestrogen (oestriol) may affect the flow rate of labial salivary glands and the bacterial aggregation activity of whole saliva.
Article
An unstimulated whole saliva flow rate (UWSFR) of less than 0.1 mL/min is often related to symptoms of dry mouth. It is also used as a diagnostic criterion for Sjogren's syndrome, and for assessment of hyposalivation as a caries risk factor. The main hypothesis was that the circadian rhythm of salivary flow affects this diagnosis if saliva is collected at different morning time-points. UWSFR was tested at 7:30 and 11:30 a.m. in 108 individuals, age 15-46 years (mean 33+/-9). The participants were allocated to one of three groups (very low< or =0. 1/min, low 0.1-0.2 mL/min and normal>0.2 mL/min) based on the UWSFR at 7:30 a.m. Different aspects of the perception of oral dryness were rated using Visual Analog Scales. All three groups displayed a statistically significant increase in UWSFR at 11:30 a.m. compared with 7:30 a.m., all of similar magnitude (0.08-0.09 mL/min). In the group with very low UWSFR, 70% at 11:30 a.m. exceeded the 0.1 mL/min limit. There were significant difference in perception of oral dryness between the normal group and both the low and the very low groups. Only the subjects in the groups with a low or very low UWSFR perceived an increase in oral wetness at 11:30 a.m. It was concluded that the time of measurement strongly influences the diagnosis of hyposalivation. To control the influence of variations in the time of saliva collection, we suggest that unstimulated whole saliva tests are performed at a fixed time-point or in a limited time interval early in the morning.
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between gland sizes and the flow rate and composition of the unstimulated whole saliva in humans. In 28 healthy young adults, the sizes of the three major salivary glands were estimated by use of a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected for 5 min by the spitting method, and the flow rate and the concentrations of total protein, Na(+) and K(+) and pH were measured. The estimated sizes of the parotid and submandibular glands showed a significant positive correlation with the flow rate and the secretion rate of total protein in the unstimulated whole saliva, but that of the sublingual glands did not. Concerning the concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) and pH, there were no correlations with the salivary gland sizes. The results suggest that the larger the sizes of the parotid and submandibular glands, the faster the fluid flow and protein secretion rates in unstimulated whole saliva.
The importance of sialography for the determination of the parotid flow
  • Ericson
The influence of gland size on the flow rate and composition of human parotid saliva
  • Dawes