Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Dysregulates -Catenin Signaling

ArticleinJournal of Virology 80(21):10497-505 · December 2006with13 Reads
DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00739-06 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Dysregulation of beta-catenin signaling has been implicated in the malignant transformation of cells. However, the role of beta-catenin in the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced transformation of T cells is unknown. Here we found that beta-catenin protein was overexpressed in the nucleus and that beta-catenin-dependent transcription was significantly enhanced in Tax-positive HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines compared to that in Tax-negative HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. Transfection with beta-catenin-specific small interfering RNA inhibited the growth of the Tax-positive HTLV-1-infected T-cell line HUT-102. Transient transfection of Tax appeared to enhance beta-catenin-dependent transcription by stabilizing the beta-catenin protein via activation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element-binding protein. HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines overexpressing beta-catenin also showed increased Akt activity via Tax activation of the cAMP response element-binding protein, resulting in the phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, which phosphorylates beta-catenin for ubiquitination. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 reduced beta-catenin expression in Tax-positive T-cell lines, and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta by lithium chloride restored beta-catenin expression in Tax-negative T-cell lines. Finally, we showed that dominant-negative Akt inhibited Tax-induced beta-catenin-dependent transcription. These results indicate that Tax activates beta-catenin through the Akt signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that activation of beta-catenin by Tax may be important in the transformation of T cells by HTLV-1 infection.
    • "Tax also modulates the signaling pathway regulated by Akt, which is constitutively active in the majority of patients with ATLL [120]. Akt induces the activation of transcription factors, such as AP-1 and β-catenin [121], leading to expression of Bcl-xL, the repression of p53, and overall cell survival. In addition to the structural proteins, HTVL-1 encodes two accessory proteins, p12 and p13, that have been implicated in the regulation of Bcl-2 family members and caspase 3 and 9 (Figure 4B) [122]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming viruses can change a normal cell into a cancer cell during their normal life cycle. Persistent infections with these viruses have been recognized to cause some types of cancer. These viruses have been implicated in the modulation of various biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The study of infections caused by oncogenic viruses had helped in our understanding of several mechanisms that regulate cell growth, as well as the molecular alterations leading to cancer. Therefore, transforming viruses provide models of study that have enabled the advances in cancer research. Viruses with transforming abilities, include different members of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) family, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a tightly regulated process that plays an important role in development and homeostasis. Additionally, it functions as an antiviral defense mechanism. The deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in the etiology of diverse diseases, including cancer. Oncogenic viruses employ different mechanisms to inhibit the apoptotic process, allowing the propagation of infected and damaged cells. During this process, some viral proteins are able to evade the immune system, while others can directly interact with the caspases involved in apoptotic signaling. In some instances, viral proteins can also promote apoptosis, which may be necessary for an accurate regulation of the initial stages of infection.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013
    • "Furthermore, Tax could also recruit CREB and its associated HATs to other cellular genes, including those encoding miRNAs, which contain sequences homologous to the TREs, and up-regulate their transcription. In fact, Tax mediated up-regulation via CREB signaling pathway activation has been observed with the host gene β-catenin (Tomita et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus to be discovered and is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and the neurodegenerative disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The importance of microRNA (miRNA) in the replicative cycle of several other viruses, as well as in the progression of associated pathologies, has been well established in the past decade. Moreover, involvement of miRNA alteration in the HTLV-1 life cycle, and in the progression of its related oncogenic and neurodegenerative diseases, has recently come to light. Several HTLV-1 derived proteins alter transcription factor functionalities, interact with chromatin remodelers, or manipulate components of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, thereby establishing various routes by which miRNA expression can be up- or down-regulated in the host cell. Furthermore, the mechanism of action through which dysregulation of host miRNAs affects HTLV-1 infected cells can vary substantially and include mRNA silencing via the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), transcriptional gene silencing, inhibition of RNAi components, and chromatin remodeling. These miRNA-induced changes can lead to increased cell survival, invasiveness, proliferation, and differentiation, as well as allow for viral latency. While many recent studies have successfully implicated miRNAs in the life cycle and pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infections, there are still significant outstanding questions to be addressed. Here we will review recent discoveries elucidating HTLV-1 mediated manipulation of host cell miRNA profiles and examine the impact on pathogenesis, as well as explore future lines of inquiry that could increase understanding in this field of study.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012
    • "Active Lyn appears to determine the activation of Janus family tyrosine kinase 3 (Jak-3) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat-5) [37] , important during HTLV-1 infection (see relevant section below). The disruption of the complex containing activated Lyn and Hsp-90 revealed to be a potential pharmacological target for BCLL therapy [36] . This notion could be transposed in the setting of ATLL, considered that Lyn replaces Lck in HTLV-1 infected T cells [37] . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell life from the cell cycle to the signaling transduction and response to stimuli is finely tuned by protein post-translational modifications (PTMs). PTMs alter the conformation, the stability, the localization, and hence the pattern of interactions of the targeted protein. Cell pathways involve the activation of enzymes, like kinases, ligases and transferases, that, once activated, act on many proteins simultaneously, altering the state of the cell and triggering the processes they are involved in. Viruses enter a balanced system and hijack the cell, exploiting the potential of PTMs either to activate viral encoded proteins or to alter cellular pathways, with the ultimate consequence to perpetuate through their replication. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is known to be highly oncogenic and associates with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and other inflammatory pathological conditions. HTLV-1 protein activity is controlled by PTMs and, in turn, viral activity is associated with the modulation of cellular pathways based on PTMs. More knowledge is acquired about the PTMs involved in the activation of its proteins, like Tax, Rex, p12, p13, p30, HTLV-I basic leucine zipper factor and Gag. However, more has to be understood at the biochemical level in order to counteract the associated fatal outcomes. This review will focus on known PTMs that directly modify HTLV-1 components and on enzymes whose activity is modulated by viral proteins.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012
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