Transcolonic endoscopic cholecystectomy: A NOTES survival study in a porcine model (with video)

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (Impact Factor: 5.37). 10/2006; 64(3):428-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.gie.2006.06.079
Source: PubMed


Transgastric cholecystectomy is a natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedure that has been reported in 2 nonsurvival studies. Both studies detail substantial technical limitations, with only a 33% success rate when limited to 1 gastric incision site, despite the use of a multichannel locking endoscope.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and technical limitations of transcolonic cholecystectomy in a survival model.
Animal feasibility study.
Five pigs, under general anesthesia, were prepared with tap-water enemas, a peranal antibiotic lavage, and a Betadine rinse. A dual-channel endoscope was advanced into the peritoneum through an anterior, transcolonic incision 15 to 20 cm from the anus. After cystic duct and artery ligation, dissection of the gallbladder was achieved by using grasping and cutting instruments. After removing the gallbladder, the colonic incision was closed by using Endoloops and/or endoclips. The animals lived for 2 weeks after the procedure, then they were euthanized, and a necropsy was performed.
All 5 gallbladders were successfully resected. Four of the 5 animals flourished in the postoperative period, with appropriate weight gain. In 1 animal, complete closure of the colonic incision was not possible, and it was euthanized at 48 hours for suspected peritonitis.
This study reports the first transcolonic organ resection and demonstrates the first successful NOTES cholecystectomy in a survival model. The transcolonic approach provided improved endoscope stability and biliary exposure compared with the transgastric route, and complete incision closure appeared critical for procedural success.

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Available from: Christopher Thompson, Apr 28, 2015
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    • "In 2004, Kalloo et al. first reported accessing the peritoneal cavity through a transgastric incision [9]. In 2006, Reina et al. reported performing a transcolonic endoscopic cholecystectomy [4]. However, these new techniques still have technical shortcomings with regard to instrument modification that must be overcome before their clinical application. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the “gold standard” for treating symptomatic gallstones. Innovative methods, such as a scarless therapeutic procedure through a natural orifice are being introduced, and include transgastric or transcolonic endoscopic cholecystectomy. However, before clinical implementation, instruments still need modification, and a more convenient treatment is still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic internal gallbladder therapy such as cholecystolithotomy in an animal survival model. Methods Four pigs underwent endoscopic-ultrasound (EUS)-guided cholecystogastrostomy and the placement of a novel covered mental stent. Four weeks later the stents were removed and an endoscope was advanced into the gallbladder via the fistula, and cholecystolithotomy was performed. Two weeks later the pigs were sacrificed, and the healing of the fistulas was assessed. Results EUS-guided cholecystogastrostomy with mental stent deployment was successfully performed in all the animals. Four weeks after the procedure, the fistulas had formed and all the stents were removed. Endoscopic cholecystolithotomy was performed through each fistula. All the animals survived until they were sacrificed 2 weeks later. The fistulas were found to be completely healed. Conclusions This study reports the first endoscopic transmural cholecystolithotomy after placement of a novel mental stent in an animal survival model.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Gastroenterology
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    • "Access via the anal canal in the form of transrectal or transcolonic NOTES appears to be an attractive option for treating both colorectal and other abdominal diseases.[34567] In fact, full thickness rectal wall excision extending into the peritoneal cavity with hand-sewn closure by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is not a new concept.[8] "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Applications for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) to access the abdominal cavity have increased in recent years. Despite potential advantages of transanal and transcolonic NOTES for colorectal pathology, it has not been widely applied in the clinical setting. This study describes a series of nine patients for whom we performed transanal retrograde (“Down-to-Up”) total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Under IRB approval, informed consent was obtained from each patient with rectal adenocarcinoma. Rectosigmoidectomy with total mesorectal excision was performed using low rectal translumenal access to the mesorectal fascia and subsequent dissection in a retrograde fashion. This was achieved using either a single port device or flexible colonoscope with endoscopic instrumentation and laparoscopic assistance. This was followed by transanal extraction of the specimen and hand-sewn anastomosis. RESULTS: Mean operative time was 311 min. Mean hospital stay was 7.56 days. Complications occurred in two patients, and consisted of one anastomotic leakage with reoperation and one intraoperative conversion to open surgery because of impossibility to dissect the specimen. TME specimen integrity was adequate in six patients. CONCLUSION: This series suggests that a retrograde mesorectal dissection via a NOTES technique is feasible in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. This technique may act as a complimentary part of operative treatment for rectal cancer alongside other minimally invasive strategies. Long-term follow up will be needed to assess oncological results.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
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    • "Soon, other natural orifices were presented as good access points for NOTES. Pai et al. published transcolonic peritoneoscopy followed by a series of transcolonic procedures [5]. The access from below gives a good, direct view of the upper abdominal cavity. "
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    ABSTRACT: The main goal of Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is performing surgery avoiding skin incisions. Theoretical advantages of NOTES include decreased postoperative pain, reduction/elimination of general anesthesia, improved cosmetic outcomes, elimination of skin incision-related complications such as wound infections and hernias, and increased overall patient satisfaction. Although various forms of port creation to accomplish thoracic NOTES procedures have been proposed, transesophageal NOTES has been shown to be the most reliable one. The evolution of endoscopic submucosal transesophageal access resulted in the development of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), which had a fast transition to clinical practice. The authors present a review of the current state of the art concerning transesophageal NOTES, looking at its potential for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions as well as the hurdles yet to be overcome.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Minimally Invasive Surgery
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