Field infestation, life history and demographic parameters of the fruit fly Bactrocera invadens (Diptera : Tephritidae) in Africa

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772-00100 GPO, Nairobi, Kenya.
Bulletin of Entomological Research (Impact Factor: 1.91). 08/2006; 96(4):379-86. DOI: 10.1079/BER2006442
Source: PubMed


Field infestation rates of an invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera invadens Drew Tsuruta & White on mango was determined at different localities in Kenya. At most of the locations and especially at low elevations, B. invadens frequently shared the same fruit with the indigenous fruit fly species Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) but often occurred at higher numbers than C. cosyra. The level of infestation varied with location ranging from 3.0 to 97.2 flies per kg of fruit. There was a significant inverse relationship between numbers of flies per kg of fruit and elevation at which fruit was collected, suggesting that B. invadens is a predominantly lowland pest. On an artificial diet, development of B. invadens immatures lasted 25 days; egg incubation required 1.2 days, larval development 11.1 days and puparia-adult development 12.4 days. About 55% of eggs developed to the adult stage. Life expectancy at pupal eclosion was 75.1 days in females and 86.4 days in males. Average net fecundity and net fertility were 794.6 and 608.1 eggs, respectively, while average daily oviposition was 18.2 eggs. Daily population increase was 11% and mean generation time was 31 days. Results are discussed in relation to the biology and ecology of the insect and in the development of mass rearing and control measures for B. invadens.

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    • "Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) etc), as well as diseases such as anthracnose and powdery mildew (Lux et al., 2003; Sebstad and Snodgrass, 2004; Ekesi et al., 2011; USAID-KHCP, 2013). Tephritid fruit flies cause direct damage by reducing mango productivity (Ekesi et al., 2006; Rwomushana et al., 2008) and quality, thus reducing the market value of the mangoes, and subsequently lowering revenues to farmers (Kibira et al., 2015). Moreover, quarantine restrictions on fruit fly-infested produce limit exports to lucrative markets abroad. "
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    ABSTRACT: We utilized two waves of data collected from a sample of mango farmers in Meru County in Kenya to evaluate the impact of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy for controlling fruit flies in mango-production. We specifically explored the effect of five IPM practices including parasitoids (p) and Metarhizium anisopliae-based biopesticides (biop), orchard sanitation (os), spot spray of food bait (fb) and male annihilation technique (mat) on three outcome indicators: farmer pesticide expenditure, farm-level mango fruit yield losses and profit. We fitted difference-in-difference and household fixed effects regression models that account for unobserved heterogeneity across households. Our estimates differentiated the impact of the different IPM components, in comparison to farmers' practices as a control group. The descriptive statistics of the study show that application of the IPM strategy resulted in a 48% average increase in mango net income compared to the previous season irrespective of the IPM combination component used. The extent of improvement in net income, however, varied across treatments; treatments posfb and posmatfb registering the greatest improvements whereas the pos treatment generated the smallest increase in net income. The study findings further show mango yield losses due to fruit fly infestation reduced by an average of 19% among the IPM users. We also found a reduction in expenditure on pesticides, albeit across all the households. Regression model estimates show that, except for IPM combinations posbiop and pos, farmers using the rest of the IPM practices recorded significantly higher incomes from mango compared to their counterparts in the control group. We also noted that although average expenditure on pesticides decreased across all mango farmer households, the reduction was comparable between the treated and control farmer households. Our findings however, show significant decreases in mango damage due to fruit fly infestations among all farmers using the different IPM treatments. Our study recommends combinations of affordable and easy to apply and maintain IPM strategies that could yield significant impact on mango fruit fly control.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · Crop Protection
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    • "In Africa, it is generally considered a lowland pest, decreasing in abundance with an increase in altitude (Ekesi et al., 2006; Mwatawala et al., 2006a, b; Geurts et al., 2012). In equatorial regions such as Tanzania and Kenya, it has been found to occur at altitudes of above 1600 m above sea level (Ekesi et al., 2006; Geurts et al., 2012). The potential geographical distribution of B. dorsalis has previously been modelled using two correlative species distribution models (GARP and MaxEnt) trained with known occurrence records in Africa and Asia (De Meyer et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: A species in the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex was detected in Kenya during 2003 and classified as Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White. Having spread rapidly throughout Africa, it threatens agriculture due to crop damage and loss of market access. In a recent revision of the B. dorsalis complex, B. invadens was incorporated into the species B. dorsalis. The potential distribution of B. dorsalis has been previously modelled. However, previous models were based on presence data and did not incorporate information on the seasonal phenology of B. dorsalis, nor on the possible influence that irrigation may have on its distribution. Methyl eugenol-baited traps were used to collect B. dorsalis in Africa. Seasonal phenology data, measured as fly abundance throughout the year, was related to each location's climate to infer climatic growth response parameters. These functions were used along with African distribution records and development studies to fit the niche model for B. dorsalis, using independent global distribution records outside Africa for model validation. Areas at greatest risk of invasion by B. dorsalis are South and Central America, Mexico, southernmost USA, parts of the Mediterranean coast, parts of Southern and Eastern Australia and New Zealand's North Island. Under irrigation, most of Africa and Australia appear climatically suitable.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Bulletin of entomological research
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    • "From an economic perspective, they 1) inflict extensive direct damage to hundreds of species of fruits, 2) instigate quarantine restrictions on infested areas, requiring that commercial fruits undergo protective and quarantine treatment prior to export, and 3) provide a breeding reservoir for introduction of invasive fruit fly species into other parts of the world (Vargas et al. 2008). The recent introduction of Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White into Africa and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock into South America, coupled with the continuous threats of introductions elsewhere, has increased the need for effective suppression methods (Malavasi et al. 2000, Ekesi et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait’s effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Economic Entomology
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