An illustrative case of Muir-Torre syndrome - Contribution of immunohistochemical analysis in identifying indicator sebaceous lesions

University of Geneva, Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
Archives of Dermatology (Impact Factor: 4.79). 09/2006; 142(8):1039-42. DOI: 10.1001/archderm.142.8.1039
Source: PubMed


Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by the association of at least 1 cutaneous sebaceous tumor and 1 internal malignancy, often arising in the gastrointestinal tract. It is secondary to germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, mainly MLH-1 and MSH-2.
We report the case of a 54-year-old man with a 2-year history of skin-colored papules clinically reminiscent of large sebaceous hyperplasias on the nose and back, but histologically diagnosed as sebaceous adenomas and epitheliomas. His family history was positive for colon cancer in the mother and 2 brothers. A colonoscopy done during the hospitalization revealed 2 sessile polyps in the left colon, both showing a low-grade dysplasia on the biopsy specimen. Immunohistochemical staining performed on the cutaneous and colic biopsy specimens revealed a lack of expression of MSH-2 and MSH-6. Genetic testing revealed microsatellite instability in the colon and cutaneous tumors.
The immunohistochemical testing for MSH-2, MSH-6, and MLH-1 is useful for rapid identification of an underlying mismatch repair defect and early diagnosis of MTS.

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Available from: Lars E French, May 16, 2014
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    • "However, this is unlikely because the patient's breast cancer did not recur for a period of 18 years and 2 different types of neoplasms were found in the eyelids. More importantly, immunohistochemical staining for hMSH2 and hMLH1 was consistent with a diagnosis of MTS, in addition to clinical findings that met the clinical criteria for MTS [4,8,9]. Considering these results, it would be safe to speculate that the case belonged to a spectrum of MTS conditions. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) with a very rare combination of cancers, involving bilateral eyelid cancers and breast cancer. A 71-year-old female with a history of breast cancer from 18 years prior presented with bilateral eyelid tumors. One of her siblings had lung cancer, and another had pancreatic cancer. She underwent excisional biopsy of the eyelid tumors and histopathology revealed sebaceous carcinoma of the right eyelid and basal cell carcinoma of the left. She was diagnosed with MTS: a skin cancer associated with visceral malignancy. Immunohistochemical tests for mutS homolog 2 showed a lack of expression in both eyelid carcinomas.
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    ABSTRACT: Muir-Torre syndrome is an autosomal-dominant skin condition of genetic origin, characterised by tumours of the sebaceous gland or keratoacanthoma that are associated with visceral malignant diseases. The cutaneous characteristics of Muir-Torre syndrome are sebaceous adenoma, epithelioma, carcinoma, or multiple keratoacanthomas, whereas visceral malignant diseases include colorectal, endometrial, urological, and upper gastrointestinal tumours. Although Muir-Torre syndrome has a striking familial association and features of autosomal-dominant transmission, it can arise in individuals without a family history or any known mutations. Clinical and biomolecular evidence has suggested that there are two types of Muir-Torre syndrome. The most common is a variant of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, which is characterised by defects in mismatch repair genes and early-onset tumours. The second type does not show deficiency in mismatch repair and its pathogenesis remains undefined. Diagnosis of these rare sebaceous lesions warrants the search for associated internal malignant diseases: the peculiarity of skin lesions and their biomolecular characterisation with microsatellite instability analysis and immunohistochemistry could be used to identify familial Muir-Torre syndrome, allowing clinicians to tailor a personalised programme to screen for skin and visceral malignant diseases in high-risk individuals.
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    ABSTRACT: The subtype of Muir-Torre syndrome, allelic to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is typically associated with germline mutations in the mismatch repair proteins MSH-2 and/or MLH-1. More recently, mutation in an additional mismatch repair protein MSH-6 has been documented in a patient with Muir-Torre syndrome. Given this, the aim of the present study was to ascertain the frequency of the same in unselected sebaceous gland neoplasms. Overall, we found that 59% of sebaceous neoplasms exhibited a mutation in at least one mismatch repair protein gene -- a prevalence rate similar to that reported previously by others. Of interest, we found MSH-6 to be the mismatch repair protein most commonly lost 17/41 (41%), followed by MSH-2 14/41 (34%) and MLH-18/41 (20%) and the positive predictive value of each were as follows: MLH-1 88%, MSH-6 67% and MSH-2 55%. The frequency of a MSH-6 germline mutation in our cohort indicates that it is not a rare finding. Evidence indicating microsatellite stability in three of 17 patients with a clinical history indicative of Muir-Torre syndrome and a mutation in only MSH-6 suggests that the phenotype of a germline MSH-6 mutation differs from that of MLH-1 and MSH-2 mutations and further supports the use of immunohistochemistry as a screening tool in patients with Muir-Torre syndrome with an extended panel that includes MSH-6.
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