Xu F, Sternberg MR, Kottiri BJ, McQuillan GM, Lee FK, Nahmias AJ et al.Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the United States. Jama 296:964-973

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga 30333, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 08/2006; 296(8):964-73. DOI: 10.1001/jama.296.8.964
Source: PubMed


Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 are common infections worldwide. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the cause of most genital herpes and is almost always sexually transmitted. In contrast, HSV-1 is usually transmitted during childhood via nonsexual contacts. Preexisting HSV-1 antibodies can alleviate clinical manifestations of subsequently acquired HSV-2. Furthermore, HSV-1 has become an important cause of genital herpes in some developed countries.
To examine trends in HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence in the United States in 1999-2004 compared with 1988-1994.
Cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys (US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys [NHANES]), were used to compare national seroprevalence estimates from 1999-2004 with those from 1988-1994, and changes in HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence since 1976-1980 were reviewed. Persons aged 14 to 49 years were included in these analyses.
Seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies based on results from type-specific immunodot assays; diagnosis of genital herpes.
The overall age-adjusted HSV-2 seroprevalence was 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.8%-18.3%) in 1999-2004 and 21.0% (95% CI, 19.1%-23.1%) in 1988-1994, a relative decrease of 19.0% between the 2 surveys (95% CI, -28.6% to -9.5%; P<.001). Decreases in HSV-2 seroprevalence were especially concentrated in persons aged 14 to 19 years between 1988 and 2004. In adolescents aged 17 to 19 years and young adults, the decreases in HSV-2 seroprevalence were significant even after adjusting for changes in sexual behaviors. Among those infected with HSV-2, the percentage who reported having been diagnosed with genital herpes was statistically different (14.3% in 1999-2004 and 9.9% in 1988-1994; P = .02). Seroprevalence of HSV-1 decreased from 62.0% (95% CI, 59.6%-64.6%) in 1988-1994 to 57.7% (95% CI, 55.9%-59.5%) in 1999-2004, a relative decrease of 6.9% between the 2 surveys (95% CI, -11.6% to -2.3%; P = .006). Among persons infected with HSV-1 but not with HSV-2, a higher percentage reported having been diagnosed with genital herpes in 1999-2004 compared with 1988-1994 (1.8% vs 0.4%, respectively; P<.001).
These data show declines in HSV-2 seroprevalence, suggesting that the trajectory of increasing HSV-2 seroprevalence in the United States has been reversed. Seroprevalence of HSV-1 decreased but the incidence of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 may be increasing.

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Available from: Fujie Xu, Oct 16, 2014
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    • "Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 are important widespread human pathogens (Khan et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2006). Antiviral chemotherapy is a standard practice in the management of herpesvirus infections in humans, and currently there are about 11 licensed anti-herpetic drugs available (De Clercq et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Lamium (Lamiaceae) comprises of about 40 species. Lamium album L. possesses anti-inflammatory, astringent and anti-septic activity and is widely utilized in several of treatments. In our in vitro study, water extracts received by lyophilization extraction as well as ethanol extracts obtained by thermostat extraction from in vivo and in vitro propagated plants were tested for antiviral activity. The water extracts inhibited the replication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) in MDBK cells significantly without apparent cytotoxicity. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of the water in vitro extract was 1130 μg/ml for HSV-1 and 990 μg/ml for HSV-2. The EC50 of the water in vivo extract was 940 μg/ml and 1970 μg/ml, respectively. The replication of both viral types was suppressed over 95% from the in vitro extract applied in maximal nontoxic concentrations. The ethanol extracts shown no antiviral effect. The extract applied in MTC inactivated the entry of HSV-1 above 60% (∆log0,5).
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    • "numerous AD patients, particularly those who carry the type 4 allele of the gene that encodes apolipoprotein E4, another potential risk factor for AD [121] [122] [123] [124]. Indeed, viral infection has been reported to produce molecular hallmarks of neurodegeneration, such as the production and deposit of misfolded protein aggregates, oxidative stress, deficient autophagic processes, synaptopathies and neuronal death [125]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases are caused by chronic and neuropathic virus infection resulting in loss of neurons and axons in the central nervous system at old age. There exists co-evidence of systemic viral infection with some neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, autism spectrum disorders, HIV associated neurocognitive disorders. With increase in lifespan the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases are simultaneously increasing affecting around 37 million people worldwide, and are important cause of mortality. In addition to established non-viral-induced reasons for neurodegenerative diseases, neuropathic infections and virus associated neurodegenerative diseases have also been proposed. The neuronal degeneration can be affected by virus infection in both direct and indirect ways. Viruses attack human immune system, can affect nervous system along with tampering with the classical pathways of neurodegenerative diseases. Viruses can enter the central nervous system, but the exact mechanism is not understood well. Various studies have supported the viruses and non-virus mediated neurodegeneration at the cellular, molecular, genomic and proteomic levels. The main focus of this review is to show the association of virus infections in neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases, so that the possible mechanism and pathway of neurodegenerative diseases could be explained. This information will further strengthen the new concept and ideas for neurodegenerative and neurobehavioral diseases treatment.
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    • "It is likely that virus burden was increased between age 16 and 18, especially since kissing behavior is an imported way to get infected with herpes viruses. The prevalence of the herpes viruses at age 16 in our population was low compared to findings in adolescents in age group 15–19 from other countries, with 70% seroprevalence for EBV in the USA [48], 1.6% for HSV2, 39% for HSV1 in the USA [49], and 35% for CMV in Germany [50]. Factors associated with EBV seropositivity include ethnicity, crowdedness, household income, household education level and health insurance status [48], and international variability in these factors might contribute to our low EBV seroprevalence. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Infections with different herpes viruses have been associated with cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients and healthy adults. The aim of this study was to find out whether antibodies to different herpes viruses are prospectively associated with cognitive functioning in a general adolescent population. Methods This study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective general population cohort (N = 1084, 54% female, mean age 16.2 years (SD 0.6)). At age 16, immunoglobulin G antibodies against HSV1, HSV2, CMV and EBV were measured next to high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP). Two years later, immediate memory and executive functioning were assessed using the 15 words task and the self ordered pointing task. Multiple linear regression analysis with bootstrapping was performed to study the association between viral infections and cognitive function, adjusting for gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and cannabis use. Results Presence of HSV1 antibodies was associated with memory function ((B = −0.272, 95% CI = −0.556 to −0.016, p = 0.047)), while the association with executive functioning did not reach statistical significance (B = 0.560, 95% CI is −0.053 to 1.184, p = 0.075). The level of HSV1 antibodies was associated with both memory function (B = −0.160, 95% CI = −0.280 to −0.039, p = 0.014) and executive functioning (B = 0.296, 95% CI = 0.011 to 0.578, p = 0.046). Other herpes viruses and hsCRP were not associated with cognitive functioning. Conclusions Both presence and level of HSV1 antibodies are prospectively associated with reduced cognitive performance in a large cohort of adolescents.
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