ArticleLiterature Review

Vinegar: Medicinal Uses and Antiglycemic Effect

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Abstract

Vinegar folklore is as colorful as it is practical. Legend states that a courtier in Babylonia (c. 5000 BC) "discovered" wine, formed from unattended grape juice, leading to the eventual discovery of vinegar and its use as a food preservative. Hippocrates (c. 420 BC) used vinegar medicinally to manage wounds. Hannibal of Carthage (c. 200 BC), the great military leader and strategist, used vinegar to dissolve boulders that blocked his army's path. Cleopatra (c. 50 BC) dissolved precious pearls in vinegar and offered her love potion to Anthony. Sung Tse, the 10th century creator of forensic medicine, advocated hand washing with sulfur and vinegar to avoid infection during autopsies. Based on the writings of US medical practitioners dating to the late 18th century, many ailments, from dropsy to poison ivy, croup, and stomachache, were treated with vinegar, and, before the production and marketing of hypoglycemic agents, vinegar "teas" were commonly consumed by diabetics to help manage their chronic aliment. This review examines the scientific evidence for medicinal uses of vinegar, focusing particularly on the recent investigations supporting vinegar's role as an antiglycemic agent. Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials were identified by a MEDLINE title/abstract search with the following search terms: vinegar, glucose; vinegar, cancer; or vinegar, infection. All relevant randomized or case-control trials were included in this review.

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... Its richness in biomolecules allows it to be a product of preference. Vinegar is a condiment that can be found throughout the market [1][2][3][4]. It can be made from various fruits containing carbohydrates and is obtained by alcoholic fermentation and oxidation, leading to the formation of acetic acid. ...
... This production is performed with traditional or industrial fermentation processes [5]. In the traditional method, the raw material is fermented with spontaneous microorganisms, taking weeks or months, while the industrial method is carried out to produce a fast fermentation using a liquid of fruits submerging the bacterial starter culture [3,6]. The final product of vinegars produced by different methods differs in its profile. ...
... In other words, there are various factors influencing the physicochemical and phytochemical parameters of the final product of vinegar, such as the raw material, production methods, temperature, pH and microorganisms involved in the fermentation process [7][8][9]. In fact, this variability influences its pharmaceutical and medicinal effects [3]. ...
Article
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Vinegar is a natural product widely used in food and traditional medicine thanks to its physicochemical properties and its richness in bioactive molecules. However, its direct use by consumers can have complications and undesirable effects. Therefore, this study contributes to investigating the physicochemical and biological properties of eleven vinegars marketed in Morocco. Determination of pH, acetic acid, conductivity, total soluble solids and alcohol content in vinegar was carried out. The polyphenols (TP), flavonoids (TF), and condensed tannins (CT) content was determined, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Phosphomolybdenum Reduction Assay (TAC). Then, the antimicrobial activity was studied against four pathogenic bacteria and two fungal strains, using the disk diffusion and the microdilution method. This study showed a wide range of acetic acid values from 0.65 ± 0.29 to 5.15 ± 0.20%. The high value of TP, TF, and CT in our samples V10, V9, and V4 was 655.00 ± 22.2 µgGAE/mL, 244.53 ± 11.32 µgQE/mL and 84.63 ± 1.00 µgTAE/mL, respectively. The tested strains showed variable sensitivities to the different samples with inhibition zones ranging from 6.33 ± 2.08 to 34.33 ± 0.58 mm. The lowest minimum inhibition concentrations were recorded against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213 ranging from 1.95 to 7.81 µL/mL. While Aspergillus niger ATCC16404 showed resistance against all of the analyzed samples. In general, vinegar commercialized in Morocco presents a variable range of products with variable properties. Indeed, must take into account this diversity when using it. A future study is needed to identify the phytochemical composition that will further the comprehension of this variability and contribute to its valorization.
... Its richness in biomolecules allows it to be a product of preference. Vinegar is a condiment that can be found throughout the market [1][2][3][4]. It can be made from various fruits containing carbohydrates and is obtained by alcoholic fermentation and oxidation, leading to the formation of acetic acid. ...
... This production is performed with traditional or industrial fermentation processes [5]. In the traditional method, the raw material is fermented with spontaneous microorganisms, taking weeks or months, while the industrial method is carried out to produce a fast fermentation using a liquid of fruits submerging the bacterial starter culture [3,6]. The final product of vinegars produced by different methods differs in its profile. ...
... In other words, there are various factors influencing the physicochemical and phytochemical parameters of the final product of vinegar, such as the raw material, production methods, temperature, pH and microorganisms involved in the fermentation process [7][8][9]. In fact, this variability influences its pharmaceutical and medicinal effects [3]. ...
Article
Vinegar is a natural product widely used in food and traditional medicine thanks to its physicochemical properties and its richness in bioactive molecules. However, its direct use by consumers can have complications and undesirable effects. Therefore, this study contributes to investigating the physicochemical and biological properties of eleven vinegars marketed in Morocco. Determination of pH, acetic acid, conductivity, total soluble solids and alcohol content in vinegar was carried out. The polyphenols (TP), flavonoids (TF), and condensed tannins (CT) content was determined, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Phosphomolybdenum Reduction Assay (TAC). Then, the antimicrobial activity was studied against four pathogenic bacteria and two fungal strains, using the disk diffusion and the microdilution method. This study showed a wide range of acetic acid values from 0.65 ± 0.29 to 5.15 ± 0.20%. The high value of TP, TF, and CT in our samples V10, V9, and V4 was 655.00 ± 22.2 µgGAE/mL, 244.53 ± 11.32 µgQE/mL and 84.63 ± 1.00 µgTAE/mL, respectively. The tested strains showed variable sensitivities to the different samples with inhibition zones ranging from 6.33 ± 2.08 to 34.33 ± 0.58 mm. The lowest minimum inhibition concentrations were recorded against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213 ranging from 1.95 to 7.81 µL/mL. While Aspergillus niger ATCC16404 showed resistance against all of the analyzed samples. In general, vinegar commercialized in Morocco presents a variable range of products with variable properties. Indeed, must take into account this diversity when using it. A future study is needed to identify the phytochemical composition that will further the comprehension of this variability and contribute to its valorization.
... Further, acetic acid is a ubiquitous household ingredient in vinegar known to promote health complications, including increased inflammation and skin irritation in high concentrations. 6,7 Thus, we are interested in verifying the acetic acid concentration in Whole Foods brand white wine vinegar to both address this health issue and to propose an at-home methodology that can be used to address the educational gap created by online laboratory courses. ...
... Standard white vinegar is a solution that generally contains 4%-7% acetic acid by weight in approximately 93%-96% distilled water. 6 Acetic acid is a common byproduct of fermentation of carbohydrates and it has been used historically for a wide variety of medicinal purposes, including wound treatment, cures for stomachaches, and even the treatment of diabetes before modern treatments were available. 6 Vinegar has been shown to aid in weight loss when consumed with a meal by increasing feelings of satiety. ...
... 6 Acetic acid is a common byproduct of fermentation of carbohydrates and it has been used historically for a wide variety of medicinal purposes, including wound treatment, cures for stomachaches, and even the treatment of diabetes before modern treatments were available. 6 Vinegar has been shown to aid in weight loss when consumed with a meal by increasing feelings of satiety. 10 Despite its widespread use, acetic acid has been reported to have several harmful effects associated with its acidity, specifically in the form of esophageal inflammation. ...
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Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many university-level chemistry laboratory experiments transitioned online. This created an educational challenge because students are unable to access reagents and instruments typical in a university lab setting. It is also difficult for students to connect theory to practice since real-lab experimentation is not possible in a virtual online for-mat. In our online Introductory Quantitative Analysis Laboratory course (GW Chem 2123W) in spring 2021, students were required to design and perform an experiment that could be safely conducted at home which can also demonstrate key princi-ples of quantitative analysis. Herein, we conducted a reliable at-home experiment that utilizes university-level acid/base titra-tion techniques to determine the acetic acid concentration in white vinegar. The experiment used sodium bicarbonate in the form of baking soda to titrate the Whole Foods white vinegar which is advertised to contain 6% of acetic acid. We reliably obtained an equivalence point for the titration from which the actual concentration of acetic acid in the vinegar was calculated with error analysis to be 19% higher than the advertised value. The analytical techniques demonstrated in this experiment supplement practical knowledge of acid/base techniques learned in the online classroom and prompt adoption of this meth-odology in online laboratory curriculum. This experiment can also be readily applied to measure other acidic solutions such as vinegar and juice for at-home experiment
... Its richness in biomolecules allows it to be a product of preference. Vinegar is a condiment that can be found throughout the market [1][2][3][4]. It can be made from various fruits containing carbohydrates and is obtained by alcoholic fermentation and oxidation, leading to the formation of acetic acid. ...
... This production is performed with traditional or industrial fermentation processes [5]. In the traditional method, the raw material is fermented with spontaneous microorganisms, taking weeks or months, while the industrial method is carried out to produce a fast fermentation using a liquid of fruits submerging the bacterial starter culture [3,6]. The final product of vinegars produced by different methods differs in its profile. ...
... In other words, there are various factors influencing the physicochemical and phytochemical parameters of the final product of vinegar, such as the raw material, production methods, temperature, pH and microorganisms involved in the fermentation process [7][8][9]. In fact, this variability influences its pharmaceutical and medicinal effects [3]. ...
Article
Citation: Kara, M.; Assouguem, A.; Fadili, M.E.; Benmessaoud, S.; Alshawwa, S.Z.; Kamaly, O.A.; Saghrouchni, H.; Zerhouni, A.R.; Bahhou, J. Contribution to the Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties, Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Potential, and Antimicrobial Activity of Vinegar Commercialized in Morocco.
... Similar study by Fried et al. (1987) has shown that the acidic conditions created by vinegar consumption suppress the activity of alpha-amylase. pH of the commercially available vinegar is about 2 -3, and a pH value less than 4 has a significant impact on the inactivation of the amylase enzyme (Johnston and Gaas, 2006). As stated by Ostman et al. (2005), vinegar lowers the glycaemic index caused by high glycaemic index foods, and is therefore considered better at maintaining blood glucose levels. ...
... Vinegar is identified as a therapeutic agent with minimal side effects. Further, some historical records are available on the usage of vinegar as a chronic cough syrup mixed with honey (Johnston and Gaas, 2006). ...
Article
Vinegar is a well-known natural food product derived from alcoholic and subsequently acetous fermentation of carbohydrate-rich foods. Vinegar is widely used in the food industry; domestically for pickling vegetables and fruits, and as an ingredient in condiments like salad dressings, ketchups, and mayonnaise; and traditionally as a food seasoning and preservative. Historically, vinegar has been used for medicinal purposes such as a cure for stomach aches, wounds, burns, rashes, and oedema conditions. Different types of vinegar are found worldwide such as rice, black, balsamic, grain, and fruit vinegars. These are produced from different raw materials, and using different fermentation methods to give unique tastes and flavours. Vinegar, while enhancing physiological functions such as lipid metabolism, blood glucose level control, and body weight management, also possesses anticancer, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-infection properties. It is considered as a good source material for many bioactive compounds including organic acids, melanoidins, polyphenols, ligustrazine, and tryptophol. The pharmacological and metabolic benefits of vinegar are believed to be due to these bioactive compounds present in vinegar. Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is the essential component of vinegar; it is slightly volatile and has a strong and sour aroma and flavour. Regular consumption of vinegar-containing foods is considered important for keeping many life-style related diseases like diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, cancers, and obesity in check. Therefore, the present review aims at highlighting the health benefits associated with vinegar consumption for the physiological well-being of an individual.
... The amounts of acetic acid and trace elements vary according to the production processes of vinegar and the type of material used in the production (Xia et al., 2020). Vinegar has been used in the treatment of numerous disorders such as wound, inflammations, cough, ulcers, and infectious diseases for a long time in traditional medicine (Johnston and Gaas, 2006;Chen et al., 2016). Previous studies have been shown that vinegar has antimicrobial (Sengun and Karapinar, 2005), antioxidant, antiobesity (Halima et al., 2018) and antiproliferative activities (Nanda et al., 2004), and beneficial effects on atherosclerosis (Setorki et al., 2010), hypertension (Kondo at al., 2001), diabetes (Mitrou et al., 2015). ...
... Previous studies have been shown that vinegar has antimicrobial (Sengun and Karapinar, 2005), antioxidant, antiobesity (Halima et al., 2018) and antiproliferative activities (Nanda et al., 2004), and beneficial effects on atherosclerosis (Setorki et al., 2010), hypertension (Kondo at al., 2001), diabetes (Mitrou et al., 2015). Vinegar contains polyphenols reducing cancer risk via preventing the formation of N-nitroso-compound which causes cancer in the body (Guo et al., 1997;Nishino et al., 2005;Johnston and Gaas, 2006). There is little evidence that apple vinegar can exert antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vinegar is an aqueous food product made by a succession of yeast and acetic acid bacteria activities from fruits that contain high carbohydrates such as apples and grapes. Vinegar has been used as a dietary spice and natural remedy since ancient times due to its therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities. It has been shown that some bioactive compounds exhibiting antioxidant activity in vinegars lead to anticancer activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate antiproliferative effect of commercial and home-made apple vinegars in native and neutralized form on myeloma cells. In order to neutralize the vinegars, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was used. A serial twofold dilutions of the vinegars (50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.12%, 1.56%, 0.78%, 0.39%) prepared with cell medium were treated to the cells. The MTT (3-(4.5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay was used to determine the cellular viability in the cells treated with the vinegars. In this study, while commercial vinegar possessed a stronger antiproliferative activity than home-made vinegar, all native vinegars possessed stronger antiproliferative effect than neutralized vinegars. Interestingly, when home-made vinegar (both native and neutralized) concentrations were from 6.25 to 1.56%, the cell viability increased. Apple vinegar exhibited antiproliferative activity on myeloma cells; however, further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying this activity.
... 420 BC), described using AA for wound healing and to treat infections. 40 Acetic acid is a weak organic acid that can be effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. 41 It is commonly used to treat burn victims by applying it topically or with acetic acid-soaked gauze at concentrations of 1-5%. ...
... 37 Acetic acid has also been used to treat otitis media (i.e., middle ear infection), urinary tract infections, soft tissue ulcerations and wounds. 40 Studies suggest the potential of AA to eradicate biofilms. One study investigated the efficacy of AA concentrations, ranging from 0.16-0.31%, in their ability to eradicate common bacterial biofilms that present in patients with burn wounds. ...
Article
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INTRODUCTION Despite advancements in the field of adult reconstruction, prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a common and devastating complication of total joint arthroplasty. Eradication of these infections can often prove difficult, and they remain a source of considerable morbidity and mortality. This clinical review paper will focus on some of the more commonly used irrigation solutions; povidone-iodine (PI), chlorhexidine (CHG), acetic acid (AA), hydrogen peroxide (HP), antibiotic irrigations, taurolidine, and polyhexanide-betaine (PB) SUMMARY OF THE EVIDENCE Significant research has been performed on the prevention of PJI, including use of intraoperative joint irrigation solutions. Several solutions have been theorized to aid in infection prevention, but no evidence-based practice guidelines in this area of orthopaedics have been established. There is a paucity of prospective randomized control trials to compare the efficacy of these joint irrigation solutions. CONCLUSIONS The authors present a review regarding seven major categories of commonly used intraoperative joint irrigation solutions. The current literature fails to demonstrate a clear consensus for a preferred solution and concentration for povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, antibiotic irrigations, taurolidine, and polyhexanide-betaine. Prospective, randomized control trials directly comparing these different irrigation solutions are needed.
... The reaction is exothermic, thus increasing the temperature in the medium. The acetic acid can be further oxidized to carbon dioxide when the ethanol concentration is limited in the tricarboxylic cycle, an unwanted process in vinegar production (Johnston and Gaas, 2006). ...
... Cider vinegar benefits include many external that include soothing sunburns and insect bites, shiny hair, and dandruff treatment. Cider vinegar has functional therapeutic properties, such as antioxidative, antibacterial activity, promoting recovery from exhaustion, and regulating blood pressure and blood glucose (Johnston and Gaas, 2006;Verzelloni et al., 2007). With increasing interest in the potential health effects of cider vinegar worldwide, there have been many reports confirming the antioxidative activity of various kinds of cider vinegars (Budak et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Several quality attributes of wax apple cider vinegar (WACV) were determined every 30 days for six months at ambient temperature. Acetic acid fermentation significantly increased the acetic acid content in WACV. The lightness and yellowness gradually decreased, whereas redness increased during storage. Density, viscosity, and pH of WACV continuously retarded, and total acidity, volatile acidity, electrical conductivity, and total nitrogen content increased during storage. Phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant potentials of WACV were affected by storage. Various amino acids and volatile compounds were observed in WACV during storage. Throughout the storage period, the microbial growth in WACV was considerably low.
... Vinegar from fruits such as apple [3], orange [4], tomato [5], lemon [2], sour cherry [6] or fruit waste such as pineapple waste [7] or banana peel [8,9] were developed and produced. The biotechnological processes involved in vinegar production are: alcoholic fermentation (which implies the presence of yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and acetous fermentation (acetic acid bacteria such as Acetobacter transform the alcohol to acetic acid) [1,10]. The fermentation processes can be slow, involving the growth, on the surface of the liquid, of acetic acid bacteria for several weeks or months or fast when the liquid is oxygenized by agitation and the fermentation begins rapidly by submerging the bacteria culture. ...
... The fermentation processes can be slow, involving the growth, on the surface of the liquid, of acetic acid bacteria for several weeks or months or fast when the liquid is oxygenized by agitation and the fermentation begins rapidly by submerging the bacteria culture. Usually used as a condiment, salad dressing and flavoring for various foods [1,11], vinegar provides health beneficial effects such as anti-infective properties, antitumor activity and control of blood glucose [10]. The global vinegar market reached 1.3 billion US dollar (USD) in 2019 [12]. ...
Article
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Vinegar is a fermented food with a diversity of uses seasoning, salad dressing and flavouring for foods. Since ancient times it is considered a remedy for health and today there are different types of vinegar on the market, and many others are under development. Determination of the physicochemical characteristics of the new types of vinegar is necessary in order to improve them. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to compare the physicochemical characteristics of vinegar obtained from banana peels (with or without boiling peels) at different ages, with those of commercial vinegars. The vinegar from banana peels was obtained and aged in our laboratory, while the commercial vinegars were purchased from a local market. The physicochemical characteristics of all the samples were investigated before and after gastric and intestinal digestion. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine the mineral content of the vinegars. Additionally, statistical analysis of the results was performed by applying a one-way analysis of variance. Results showed that vinegar obtained from banana peels is clearer and total dry extract values are lower than those of commercial vinegars. Banana peel vinegars have higher antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content similar to the commercial balsamic vinegars. This study advances the knowledge in the field of vinegar production by using raw agricultural by-products.
... Ocet jest jednym z najstarszych produktów fermentacyjnych, znanym od tysięcy lat. Istnieje wiele udokumentowanych informacji, że był ulubioną przyprawą, środkiem konserwującym oraz orzeźwiającym napojem w starożytnej Babilonii [1,5,14]. Od wieków znajduje również zastosowanie w medycynie ludowej do leczenia różnych infekcji. ...
... Ocet owocowy jest powszechnie stosowany jako konserwant żywności, gdyż skutecznie hamuje rozwój mikroorganizmów zanieczyszczających produkty spożywcze [5,6]. Uzyskany w procesach fermentacji ocet owocowy jest bogaty w kwasy organiczne: octowy, cytrynowy, mlekowy, bursztynowy i jabłkowy, enzymy, pektyny oraz przeciwutleniające związki fenolowe (kwas galusowy, kawowy, chlorogenowy, katechiny, epikatechiny) o potwierdzonych walorach prozdrowotnych [4,9,13,14,15,16,18,30]. Zawiera także niezbędne we wszystkich procesach życiowych składniki, takie jak: aminokwasy, pierwiastki (żelazo, fluor, potas, wapń, miedź, magnez, sód, fosfor, siarkę, krzem) oraz witaminy, w tym: B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , C, E, P, A [4,5,12]. ...
Article
Octy owocowe uzyskane metodami fermentacyjnymi stanowią atrakcyjny rodzaj żywności funkcjonalnej, która znajduje coraz większe uznanie wśród konsumentów ze względu na swoje walory prozdrowotne. Celem badań było opracowanie innowacyjnej technologii produkcji octu owocowego z wykorzystaniem lokalnych szczepów mikroorganizmów, pochodzących z kolekcji kultur Instytutu Biotechnologii Przemysłu Rolno-Spożywczego (IBPRS). Surowcem do biosyntezy octu były naturalne, tłoczone na zimno soki jabłkowe pozyskiwane od rolników i małych przedsiębiorców rolnych z województwa łódzkiego, śląskiego oraz mazowieckiego. Soki poddano wstępnym badaniom mikrobiologicznym i fizykochemicznym, polegającym na określeniu: liczby drożdży i pleśni, zawartości ekstraktu ogólnego, cukrów ogółem, kwasowości i pH oraz zawartości kadmu i ołowiu. Pierwszy etap produkcji octu stanowiła beztlenowa fermentacja soków jabłkowych, w wyniku której otrzymano wina, w których oznaczono zawartość alkoholu i cukrów. Drugim etapem była biosynteza kwasu octowego z użyciem win jabłkowych oraz szczepów bakterii octowych Acetobacter pasterianus O4 i Acetobacter pasterianus MW3. Podczas procesu biosyntezy oznaczano zawartość alkoholu oraz moc powstającego octu. Opracowana w Zakładzie Jakości Żywności IBPRS technologia otrzymywania octu owocowego umożliwiła uzyskanie produktu o mocy w zakresie 3,3 ÷ 4,5 g kwasu octowego w 100 cm3, pozbawionego chemicznych konserwantów, o wyjątkowych walorach smakowo-zapachowych, charakteryzującego się wysoką jakością i wartością żywieniową.
... [46] In diabetic condition, lipoprotein lipase is decreased due to which level of lipoproteins increases in blood. [47] In the present study, a significant decline in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol was seen along with a significant increase in the HDL cholesterol levels after treating STZ-induced rats with quercetin, and the results were in accordance with Kobori et al. [48] who found that quercetin resulted in diminished expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and sterol regulatory element-binding-protein-1c, thus resulting in decreased synthesis of triglycerides in the liver of mice. Gnoni et al. [49] also reported that quercetin reduces the synthesis of triglycerides and fatty acid synthesis. ...
Article
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Background: Among the dietary polyphenolic, quercetin is the most common compound available in vegetables and fruits. The phytochemicals are used to treat diabetic wounds and diabetes, and specifically dietary polyphenols are being extensively studied for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant abilities. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and wound healing potential of quercetin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Induction of diabetes was done by intraperitoneally administration of STZ at the dose of 55 mg/kg in Wistar rats. An excision wound was created in diabetic rats that were treated with quercetin (100 mg/kg) orally and quercetin ointment topically to evaluate the antidiabetic and wound healing potential of quercetin. Results: Repeated oral administration of quercetin along with topical application of quercetin ointment in diabetic rats normalized the altered blood glucose, hydroxyproline, and glucosamine levels. Topical application of quercetin ointment alone on the excised wound was sufficient enough to heal the wound area in diabetic rats. Conclusions: The result of the present study indicates that quercetin produces hypoglycemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats and normalized plasma lipids and protein profiles. Besides, this quercetin also has an excellent wound healing property when applied topically on the wound area in diabetic rats.
... Vinegar is obtained from various substrates via a two-step fermentation process including alcoholic fermentation by yeast strains and acetic acid fermentation by acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Lomthong and Saithong, 2019). Vinegar is widely used as seasoning in salads, sauces, and cooking, and in pharmaceutical treatments including anti-infective, antitumor, and hyperglycaemic properties (Johnston and Gaas, 2006;Wongsudarak and Nunium, 2013;Boonsupa et al., 2019). Surface culture fermentation (SCF) is a static low cost and easy to use process for vinegar production using a two-step method which are vinegar starter culture preparation (2 d) and vinegar production (7 -10 d) (Lomthong and Saithong, 2019). ...
Article
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Unripe banana flour (UBF) from Musa (ABB) 'Kluai Namwa' was used as the substrate for sugar syrup production by microwave assisted starch degrading enzyme hydrolysis. Results showed that a concentration of 300 g/L of UBF subjected to 800 W microwave power for 2.0 min, with subsequent hydrolysis by a low temperature amylase (iKnowZyme ® LTAA) and glucoamylase (iKnowZyme ® GA) at 50°C for 9 h yielded highest sugar syrup production at 20 ± 0.89 °Brix of total soluble solids (TSS). The major hydrolysis product from UBF determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was glucose, with reduced amounts of maltose and maltotriose. Fermentation by mixed strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced alcohol content at 13.2 ± 0.07% (w/v) after 10 d at room temperature. Acetic acid fermentation achieved using Acetobacter aceti TISTR 354 by surface culture fermentation (SCF) in a stainless-steel tray chamber yielded 5.10 ± 0.12% (v/v) after cultivation at room temperature for 9 d, corresponding to standard commercial vinegar products at over 4.0%. This is the first report detailing production of sugar syrup, wine, and vinegar from UBF, using microwave assisted starch degrading enzyme hydrolysis at 50°C. Results showed that producing an alternative healthy products from natural material could be feasible with added value through biotechnological processes.
... Another route of vinegar's antiglycemic impact is enteral carbohydrate absorption; vinegar reduces disaccharide activity rather than glucose transport inactivation in intestinal cells. A 15-day treatment with acetic acid suppressed sucrose, maltose, lactose, and trehalase in vitro, but acetic acid had no effect on sucrose or maltase de novo synthesis either at the translational or transcriptional level, implying that suppression occurs during post-translational processing, with acetic acid invading posttranslational like intracellular trafficking [45]. Acetic acid interferes with the digestion of starch molecules, reducing the quantity of glucose absorbed into the bloodstream after a meal. ...
... The consumption of vinegar is associated with several health benefits [13][14][15][16]. Vinegars are also known for their strong antimicrobial properties [17]. ...
Article
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Nowadays, products of natural origin with health-promoting properties are increasingly more common. Research shows that fruit vinegars can be a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. Research on the total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans of grape vinegars were conducted. Moreover, gas chromatography was used to measure acetic acid content in the vine-gars. The research material consisted of vinegars produced from five different grape varieties. For each variety, two variants were prepared: with and without the addition of sugar in the fermentation process. The highest antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms was observed in vinegar produced from Solaris grapes with added sugar. The highest polyphenol content was observed in vinegar produced from the Prior grape variety with added sugar and the highest total antioxi-dant capacity is the Johanniter grape variety with added sugar. The vinegars examined in this study differed, depending on grape variety, in terms of antimicrobial properties, antioxidant capacity , total phenolic content, as well as acetic acid content. Sugar addition caused significant differences in the antioxidant capacity of vinegar samples.
... These properties are the factors influencing the growth of microorganisms, such as bacterial and fungal strains, and as a termiticide [4]. Many studies have shown that it has an effect on diabetes, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, antitumor properties, and on blood glucose control [5]. ...
Article
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Apple vinegar is a natural product widely used in food and traditional medicine as it contains many bioactive compounds. The apple variety and production methods are two factors that play a major role in determining the quality of vinegar. Therefore, this study aims to determine the quality of apple vinegar samples from different varieties (Red Delicious, Gala, Golden Delicious, and Starking Delicious) prepared by three methods using small apple pieces, apple juice, and crushed apple, through determining the physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity of these samples. The antibacterial activity was studied against five pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli (ATB: 57), Escherichia coli (ATB: 97), and Pseudomonas ae-ruginosa, using two methods, disk diffusion and microdilution, for determining the minimum in-hibitory concentrations and the minimum bactericidal concentrations. The results of this study showed that the lowest pH value was 3.6 for Stark Delicious, obtained by liquid fermentation, and the highest acetic acid values were 4.7 and 4% for the vinegar of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious , prepared by solid fermentation, respectively. The results of the antibacterial activity showed considerable activity of apple vinegar on the tested strains. Generally, the Staphylococcus aureus strain appears less sensitive and Pseudomonas aeruginosa seems to be very sensitive against all samples , while the other strains have distinct sensitivities depending on the variety studied and the method used. A higher antibacterial activity was found in vinegar obtained by the apple pieces method and the Red Delicious variety, with a low MIC and MBC recorded, at 1.95 and 3.90 µL/mL, respectively. This study has shown that the choice of both apple variety and production method is therefore an essential step in determining and aiming for the desired quality of apple vinegar.
... Apple cider vinegar is one of the most commonly known in vinegar types. Although the first known usage of vinegar dates back to a century ago (Johnston and Gaas, 2006;Tan, 2005), vinegar has been widely used in food industry in recent 20 years. There are different kinds of vinegar which are balsamic, cane, champagne, cider, vinegar, distilled, malt, rice wine, sherry, wine (Tan, 2005). ...
... They are produced in a two-stage fermentation process [2] and practically any source with a high carbohydrate content can serve as a starting material for vinegar-making [3]. Vinegars are most commonly made from molasses, dates, apples and wine [4]. In the first stage of the process, yeasts convert fermentable sugars into ethanol [5]. ...
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Fruit vinegars are widely used as a spice and food preservative. They are considered as functional food, containing many bioactive compounds with pro-health benefits. Grape vinegars can be also a source of mineral compounds. Their quantity and diversity can be determined by environmental factors and growing conditions, such as temperature, mineral composition of the soil, heavy metal contamination, sunlight availability as well as grape variety and fruit ripeness stage. The aim of the study was to determine the content of minerals in homemade grape vinegars, obtained by spontaneous fermentation. Five different grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) varieties were used in the study (Cabernet Cortis, Johanniter, Solaris, Souvignier gris and Prior). Moreover, the effect of sugar addition in the fermentation process on the mineral content was examined. The mineral content was determined using the ICP-OES method. Among the analysed samples, potassium was the most abundant element (936.07–1472.3 mg/L of vinegar). Comparative analysis showed that the content of Ca, Fe and Cr was significantly higher in vinegars prepared from red varieties than in white-coloured ones. In turn, vinegars prepared from white grape varieties contained statistically significantly higher content of potassium. Vinegar colour did not have a significant influence on the content of the remaining elements included in the analysis. Furthermore, statistical analysis did not reveal any significant differences in the content of the analysed minerals in any of the grape varieties used between the samples with and without sugar addition.
... Therefore, there is a growing demand of consumers for foods that can help regulate blood glucose or even reduce postprandial glycemia. Vinegar has been shown to be one such type of food that can reduce the dietary glycemic load [86,87]. ...
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Vinegar has been used for its health promoting properties since antiquity. Nowadays, these properties are investigated, scientifically documented, and highlighted. The health benefits of vinegar have been associated with the presence of a variety of bioactive components such as acetic acid and other organic acids, phenolic compounds, amino acids, carotenoids, phytosterols, vitamins, minerals, and alkaloids, etc. These components are known to induce responses in the human body, such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiobesity, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects. The diversity and levels of bioactive components in vinegars depend on the raw material and the production method used. Cereal vinegars, which are more common in the Asia-Pacific region, are usually made from rice, although other cereals, such as millet, sorghum, barley, malt, wheat, corn, rye, oats, bran and chaff, are also used. A variety of bioactive components, such as organic acids, polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, alkaloids, melanoidins, butenolides, and specific compounds such as γ-oryzanol, tetramethylpyrazine, γ-aminobutyric acid, etc., have been associated with the health properties of cereal vinegars. In this work, the bioactive components and the related health effects of cereal vinegars are reviewed, and the most recent scientific literature is presented and discussed.
... Weak acids, namely the acetic acid present in vinegar, have been used empirically as disinfectants for thousands of years, but research into their antibacterial effects only started to flourish in the last century [332]. Presently, in vitro and in vivo assays have proven that weak organic acids, as well as derivative drugs and salts, are extremely effective in penetrating the biofilm matrix and killing biofilm-implanted P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, as well as planktonic cells [333]. ...
Article
Notably, bacterial biofilm formation is increas-ingly recognized as a passive virulence factor facilitating many infectious disease processes. In this review we will focus on bacterial biofilms formed by human pathogens and highlight their relevance for diverse diseases. Along biofilm composition and regulation emphasis is laid on the intensively studied biofilms of Vibrio cholerae, Pseu-domonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus spp., which are commonly used as biofilm model organisms and therefore contribute to our general understanding of bacterial bio-film (patho-)physiology. Finally, therapeutical interven-tion strategies targeting biofilms will be discussed.
... Vinegar (acetic acid) is an example of fermented food. Vinegar consumption dates back to ancient times with reports of its use by Hippocrates for wound care [393]. In folk medicine, vinegar is considered a natural remedy and is used as such, whereas now it has been included in the "super foods" for its properties and claims of effects on weight loss, digestion, and even skin quality. ...
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As years progress, we are found more often in a postprandial than a postabsorptive state. Chrononutrition is an integral part of metabolism, pancreatic function, and hormone secretion. Eating most calories and carbohydrates at lunch time and early afternoon, avoiding late evening dinner, and keeping consistent number of daily meals and relative times of eating occasions seem to play a pivotal role for postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Sequence of meals and nutrients also play a significant role, as foods of low density such as vegetables, salads, or soups consumed first, followed by protein and then by starchy foods lead to ameliorated glycemic and insulin responses. There are several dietary schemes available, such as intermittent fasting regimes, which may improve glycemic and insulin responses. Weight loss is important for the treatment of insulin resistance, and it can be achieved by many approaches, such as low-fat, low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean-style diets, etc. Lifestyle interventions with small weight loss (7–10%), 150 min of weekly moderate intensity exercise and behavioral therapy approach can be highly effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes. Similarly, decreasing carbohydrates in meals also improves significantly glycemic and insulin responses, but the extent of this reduction should be individualized, patient-centered, and monitored. Alternative foods or ingredients, such as vinegar, yogurt, whey protein, peanuts and tree nuts should also be considered in ameliorating postprandial hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. This review aims to describe the available evidence about the effects of diet, chrononutrition, alternative dietary interventions and exercise on postprandial glycemia and insulin resistance.
... Last but not least, vinegar can also be added to our food as was mentioned in Sahih Muslim 2051; Aisha reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, "The best of condiments or toppings is vinegar." Many studies have also provided scientific evidence for the medicinal uses of vinegar (Johnston & Gaas, 2006). ...
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Antioxidants are technically reductant molecules that prevent the oxidation of other molecules. Like other living systems, human biological molecules are also prone to oxidation reactions. To repair all of the oxidation damage, the human body naturally produces antioxidants known as endogenous antioxidants. Unfortunately, the body's production of antioxidants declines with age and this is found to be a strong factor in contributing to premature ageing and degenerative diseases. Researchers have found that exogenous antioxidants which are obtained from foods may work together with endogenous antioxidants to maintain the redox reaction balance in the body. There are thought to be hundreds and possibly thousands of substances that can act as exogenous antioxidants including carotenoids, flavonoids, indoles, polyphenols, essential vitamins (A, C, E), and minerals such as copper, zinc, manganese, and selenium. Thus, this paper intended to give insights on the endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, supplements as antioxidants, as well as guide readers to get the benefits of antioxidants from foods for better health management. It was found that diets containing fruits and vegetables link to superior overall health effects. However, fruits and vegetables should be consumed regularly by considering the right cooking method to get the best effect since some antioxidants are sensitive to some cooking methods. Apart from diets containing high antioxidants, adopting active lifestyles with consistent exercise and stress management are also required to ensure good and long-lasting health.
... Regarding food purposes, vinegar is used as a seasoning, acidifying, and preserving agent. In the medical field, numerous functional activities of vinegar have been scientifically proven, including those antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-obesity, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering [2,[10][11][12]. Therapeutic effects are mainly attributed to acetic acid, but also to other bio-active constituents of vinegar, such as organic acids, polyphenols, melanoidins, and others [13,14]. ...
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Vinegar and vegetable oil are frequently used in emulsion formulations, allowing the fabrication of new functional foods. In the present study, a potentially functional oil/vinegar dressing was formulated using an enriched omega-3 fatty acids oil blend (high-oleic sunflower and soybean oil) and several kinds of naturally occurring biophenols (white wine, red wine, pomegranate, apple, malt, alcohol, olive, and olive leaf vinegar). In the present study, vinegar and oil were efficaciously emulsified with an ultrasound bath without any addition of emulsifiers. Accelerated oxidation tests have been carried out on the oil/vinegar dressing samples. Most types of vinegars (i.e., white and red wine, pomegranate, apple, malt, and alcohol) shown to not affect the oxidation processes of oil/vinegar dressing. Interestingly, olive vinegar, obtained by the fermentation of olive-oil-mill wastewaters, and olive leaf vinegar, obtained by the maceration of leaves in alcohol vinegar, exhibited clear antioxidant activity. Results obtained may be helpful in developing a range of natural and healthy ingredients for the formulation of novel and functional foods.
... Initially, yeasts ferment the natural food sugars to alcohol. Next, acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter) convert the alcohol to acetic acid (Johnston and Gaas 2006). ...
... Anaerobic and aerobic conditions are used for alcoholic and acetous fermentations, respectively [13]. In the past, a large portion of the population used vinegar because it is believed to have several medicinal and antibacterial properties that improve health [14,15]. Functional therapeutic properties of vinegar described include antibacterial activity, blood pressure reduction, antioxidant activity, reduction in the effects of diabetes, prevention of cardiovascular disease, and increased vigor after exercise [16][17][18][19][20]. ...
... This antimicrobial activity was used to heal wounds and as a general antiseptic, and was even used for treating wounds during World War I. The preservative properties of vinegar laid the foundation for the development of the process of pickling vegetables [2,3]. ...
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Vinegar production is a small industry in the general economy of industrialized countries, but no less important. It is important to emphasize that the raw materials used for the production of vinegar are also a very important part of the industrial economy. Within the framework of this study, the technology of obtaining vinegar from grape and apple concentrates was analyzed in order to unify production. As well as obtaining vinegar from concentrates with the same physical and chemical parameters all year round. The influence of nutrients and salts on the fermentation process has also been studied. In this study, considered the problem associated with obtaining vinegars from concentrated juices with the maximum identical physical and chemical parameters, obtained without deviations and unnecessary costs and with better organoleptic characteristics. And also, the study of the influence of nutrients on the processes of alcoholic and acetic fermentation.
... Vinegar is a fermented liquid made from various carbohydrate sources such as fruits (apples, pomegranates, grapes, etc.) and fruit juices. It has long been used by people around the world not only as a mere salad dressing but also as a traditional method of preserving food [9]. Vinegar contains a variety of beneficial nutrients and phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, and appears to have a positive effect on the cardiometabolism by improving lipid and glycemic indices [10]. ...
Article
Introduction Studies that investigated the association between the consumption of vinegar and various cardiometabolic parameters have yielded conflicting results. In this work, we investigated the effects of vinegar consumption on cardiometabolic risk factors using a meta-analysis. Methods Relevant studies were identified using four databases (Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science) up to January 2022. Of the 2806 articles from the initial search, 11 RCTs with 12 treatment arms were included in the meta-analysis. The RCTs focused on both healthy individuals and individuals with cardiometabolic disorders. Results Consumption of vinegar was associated with significant reductions in fasting blood glucose (WMD: -9.36 mg/dL, 95% CI: -14.82, -3.91) and glycated hemoglobin (WMD: -0.67, 95% CI: -1.36, - 0.01). In terms of lipid profile, there was a significant reduction in total cholesterol (WMD: -18.87 mg/dl, 95% CI: -34.44, -3.29) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (WMD: -21.37 mg/dl, 95% CI: -37.54, -5.20), but non-significant reductions in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were noted, although the latter reduction was of clinical significance (WMD: -21.47 mg/dl, 95% CI: -49.72, 6.77). In addition, no significant changes in fat mass and waist circumference were observed, while significant reductions in body mass index (WMD: -0.39 kg/m², 95% CI: -0.74, -0.04, p = 0.028) and body weight (WMD: -0.73 kg, 95% CI: -1.45, -0.01) were noted with dubious clinical relevance. Conclusion In conclusion, the consumption of vinegar may have beneficial effects on some glycemic and lipid indices and could be considered as an intervention for weight loss.
... Anaerobic and aerobic conditions are used for alcoholic and acetous fermentations, respectively [13]. In the past, a large portion of the population used vinegar because it is believed to have several medicinal and antibacterial properties that improve health [14,15]. Functional therapeutic properties of vinegar described include antibacterial activity, blood pressure reduction, antioxidant activity, reduction in the effects of diabetes, prevention of cardiovascular disease, and increased vigor after exercise [16][17][18][19][20]. ...
... Anaerobic and aerobic conditions are used for alcoholic and acetous fermentations, respectively [13]. In the past, a large portion of the population used vinegar because it is believed to have several medicinal and antibacterial properties that improve health [14,15]. Functional therapeutic properties of vinegar described include antibacterial activity, blood pressure reduction, antioxidant activity, reduction in the effects of diabetes, prevention of cardiovascular disease, and increased vigor after exercise [16][17][18][19][20]. ...
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Post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables are very critical in developing countries. Processing excess fruits into vinegar, which can be used for preservation of some foods and snack is a helpful strategy in reducing these losses. The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the optimization of acetification process of tomato cider vinegar. Physiochemical analyses such as pH, Titratable Acidity, TSS & Alcohol content were evaluated at 4 days interval of storage for 40 days. Results showed that pH was decreased in all treatments (T1 Room temperature, T2 Incubator, T3 Dehydrator, T4 Open sun). Higher decrease was observed in T3 dehydrator (42.38%) while lower decrease was observed in T2 incubator (12.36%). The decrease in pH value greatly changed the percent acidity due to increase in acid content in all treatments (T1 Room temperature, T2 Incubator, T3 Dehydrator, T4 Open sun). Higher increase was observed in T3 dehydrator (93.78%) while lower increase was noted in T2 incubator (87.09%). Total soluble solids decreased both in yeast fermentation and acetic acid fermentation in all treatments. Higher decrease was observed in T3 dehydrator (83.18%) while lower decrease was observed in T2 incubator (64.09%). The results showed that alcohol content decreased continuously in all treatments. Higher decrease was observed in T3 dehydrator (95%) while lower decrease was observed in T2 incubator (8.8%). It is concluded that dehydrator treatment is the best and rapid process for acetic acid fermentation because the fresh air and constant temperature is available for the acetic acid bacterial growth.
... The ethnobotanical action such as anti-inflammatory effect [28] gives strength to the therapeutic result as well. Sirka has Muhallil-i Waram (anti-inflammatory), Jāli (detergent), Dāfi'-i Ta'ffun (antiseptic), and Qābiz (astringent) [26,29] along with evidence-based antibacterial and antioxidant activities [30][31][32]. Safeda Kāshgari also has Muhallil (resolvent), Mulattif (demulcent), Mujaffif (desiccant), Mudammil-i Qūrūh (cicatrizant) [27,33] along with antifungal, antibacterial and wound healing activities [34]. Sindur is Musakkin, Jāli (detergent), Munaqqi (evacuator), Mudammil-i Quruh (cicatrizant) [35] along with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities [36]. ...
Article
Objectives Chronic atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition marked by intense pruritus, dry skin, and severe impact on the life quality of the patients. Conventionally, it is managed by using emollients, calcineurin inhibitors, and topical corticosteroids. In Unani medicine, eminent scholars advocated many drug formulations including topical Marham-e-Akbar for effective healing of AD but scientific evidence is scarce. Hence, this study was designed. Methods This was a single-arm clinical trial conducted on 30 participants aged 18–65 years suffering from chronic AD after obtaining written informed consent. The trial intervention was Marham-e-Akbar consisting of Murdār Sang (Plumbi oxidum); Sindūr (red lead); olive oil (Olea europaea oil); Kath (Acacia catechu extract); Safeda Kāshgari (Zinc oxide); Sirka (vinegar); and Phitkirī (alum) to be applied twice daily for 42 days. The objective parameters were SCORAD and DLQI, while the subjective parameters included itching, scaling, and erythema assessed on a customized VAS scale and 4-point Likert scale. Results The pre-post analysis inferred statistically significant attenuation in subjective parameters (itching, scaling, and erythema) and objective scales (SCORAD) and (DLQI) with p<0.001. Conclusions The study findings deduced that Marham-e-Akbar is effective in the amelioration of chronic atopic dermatitis and quality of life of the patients as well.
... Acetic acid (AA) is a constituent of vinegar and has been used for centuries as treatment for sores and persistent coughs [1]. Further research has also demonstrated the effectiveness of diluted vinegar (2% AA solution) for the treatment of ear infections [2,3]. ...
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Background Misdiagnosed sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) are important precursors for interval colorectal cancers.AimsWe investigated the usage of acetic acid (AA) solution for improving the detection of SSLs in the right colon in a randomized controlled trial.MethodsA tandem observation of the right colon was performed in 412 consecutive patients. A first inspection was performed under white light high-definition endoscopy. In the AA group, a low concentration vinegar solution (AA: 0.005%) irrigated by a water pump in the right colon was compared with a plain solution of normal saline (NS) in the diagnostic yield of SSLs during the second inspection. Secondary outcomes in overall polyp detection were measured.ResultsQualitative comparisons showed significant differences in the detection rates of all polyps except adenomas, with remarkable improvement in the demonstration of advanced (> 20 mm), SSLs, and hyperplastic polyps during the second inspection of the right colon using the AA solution. Significant improvement was also noted in the AA group, as far as the mean number of polyps/patient detected, not only in SSLs (AA group: 0.14 vs. NS group: 0.01, P < 0.001), but also in all histological types and all size-categories in the right colon. Small (≤ 9 mm) polyps were detected at a higher rate in the sigmoid colon expanding the effect of the method in the rest of the colon.ConclusionAA-assisted colonoscopy led to a significant increase in SSLs detection rate in the right colon in a safe, quick, and effective manner.
... Besides, from the historical records, it was written that the vinegar was produced from dates in the Babylonian civilization before 5000 BC, and it was used for food preservation, especially in the pickling (Mazza and Murooka 2009), while, in the Greece civilization, vinegar was used in the medical treatment of sores and to clean ulcerations by a physician Hippocrates . Also, diluted vinegar was used by the Romanian soldiers in the war as a refreshing and safer drink instead of drinking water alone because it contains antimicrobial substances (Johnston and Gaas 2006;Mazza and Murooka 2009). ...
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Vinegar is a sour-taste liquid product produced mainly by three sequential steps: saccharification, alcohol fermentation, and acetification. Vinegar has a significant position in Chinese dishes and daily life due to its flavor characteristics and health benefits. It is directly used as a food ingredient or as a diluted solution with water. Nowadays, there are many types of vinegar, and every type has its unique and desirable flavors, differentiated based on their fermentation method and raw material used. This review summarized the fermentation techniques for producing different kinds of vinegar, especially for the four famous Chinese vinegar. Furthermore, the differences between traditional and modern techniques were also described. On the other hand, the previous studies conducted on the analysis of vinegar aroma profiles have been summarized. In addition, previous studies on the analysis of vinegar aroma compounds were elaborated, including the techniques for aroma extraction, identification, and quantification.
Article
Research suggests that the active ingredient in vinegar, acetic acid, may reduce appetite, thereby reducing energy consumption. This article aims to assess the effect of vinegar or acetic acid on appetite measures and subsequent food intake in humans. This was conducted as a systematic literature review adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. All participants were considered, regardless of age or health status. A search using MedLine (Ovid), PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library between January and April 2021 resulted in 12 studies. Outcomes included appetite, measured using an appetite rating scale or visual analog scale; satiation, measured as food intake of intervention meal; and satiety, measured as the amount of food intake after vinegar or acetic acid consumption. Some short-term interventions indicate that vinegar containing at least 24.6 mmol acetic acid, when consumed alongside a meal containing solid foods, acutely suppresses appetite up to 120 min postprandially as well as ad libitum food intake 3 and 24 h after vinegar consumption. However, longer exposure vinegar interventions suggest that vinegar does not affect overall energy intake. Further research is needed to determine whether oral vinegar consumption may lead to long-term appetite reduction, decrease energy intake, and aid in weight loss.
Article
Vinegar is a well-known natural food product derived from alcoholic and subsequently acetous fermentation of carbohydrate-rich foods. Vinegar is widely used in the food industry; domestically for pickling vegetables and fruits, and as an ingredient in condiments like salad dressings, ketchups, and mayonnaise; and traditionally as a food seasoning and preservative. Historically, vinegar has been used for medicinal purposes such as a cure for stomach aches, wounds, burns, rashes, and oedema conditions. Different types of vinegar are found worldwide such as rice, black, balsamic, grain, and fruit vinegars. These are produced from different raw materials, and using different fermentation methods to give unique tastes and flavours. Vinegar, while enhancing physiological functions such as lipid metabolism, blood glucose level control, and body weight management, also possesses anticancer, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-infection properties. It is considered as a good source material for many bioactive compounds including organic acids, melanoidins, polyphenols, ligustrazine, and tryptophol. The pharmacological and metabolic benefits of vinegar are believed to be due to these bioactive compounds present in vinegar. Acetic acid (CH3COOH) is the essential component of vinegar; it is slightly volatile and has a strong and sour aroma and flavour. Regular consumption of vinegar-containing foods is considered important for keeping many life-style related diseases like diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, cancers, and obesity in check. Therefore, the present review aims at highlighting the health benefits associated with vinegar consumption for the physiological well-being of an individual.
Article
The current food method in space is launching prepackaged food which is costly and unsustainable. Alternatives include growing crops and microalgae single cell protein (SCP) using artificial light photosynthesis, which are energy inefficient. Prepackaged food and microalgae food were compared to microbial electrosynthesis of acetic acid (MES-AA). Since the dominant cost of a space mission is the cost of launching mass, components of a system were converted to an equivalent mass, including power, heat rejection, and volume. Three-year roundtrip crewed missions were evaluated for the International Space Station, the Moon, and Mars. The average Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of MES-AA is 1.38x and 2.84x lower than prepackaged food and microalgae SCP, respectively. The expected electricity-to-calorie conversion efficiency of MES-AA is 19.8%, consuming 3.45 kW to fully feed five astronauts; diets would realistically include multiple foods. MES-AA has a higher energy efficiency than any currently investigated resilient food in space. MES-AA can provide diet diversity at a lower cost than customarily storing prepackaged food or growing crops in space. Producing food while contributing to closed loop life support in space can contribute to reducing global catastrophic risk and is relevant in off-grid communities, like in rural Alaska.
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In 1989, the term nutraceuticals was coined by Stephen Defelice. Nutraceuticals are defined as a combination of both “nutrition” and “pharmaceutics.” The term is applied to those products that have been isolated from herbal products, dietary supplements (nutrients), specific diets, and processed foods such as cereals, soups, and beverages, which are used as medicine rather than nutritional supplements. They create an open environment for new products that promise novel solutions to health-related issues. Since 400 BC, the Unani System of Medicine practices different dietary patterns. Unani physicians have been quoted regarding the importance of food and drink for the healthy life of an individual and selection of good and nutritional diets for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Hippocrates, the Father of Unani Medicine, states that, “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food”. Avicenna also states that food takes its shape as “Jauhar” and that food becomes an elemental agent and adopts the shape of different tissues or organs (“Badal ma yatahallul awwal”) as this clearly makes a direct connection between food and drinks in maintaining bodily health. There are different types of diet that have been mentioned in Unani pharmacopoeias that are nutraceuticals and are used in the management of different diseases. Moreover, studies have revealed that there is a consistent relationship between an unhealthy diet and the emergence of a range of communicable and noncommunicable diseases, viz., CAD, CVD, cancers, diabetes mellitus, and various bone and joint diseases. Todays, nutraceuticals have received growing interest as they provide health benefits and preventive options to the worldwide population by keeping them away from various lifestyle diseases due to potential nutritional, safety, and therapeutic effects. Hence, there is an urge to develop nutraceuticals especially from herbs that are effective on hard curative disorders related to oxidative stress, which occurs due to different diseases.
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Raw salad vegetables are evaluated for the consumer’s perceptions on taking ready to eat fresh cut-vegetables and the effectiveness of some non-chlorine disinfectants [peracetic acid (PAA), shell powder (SP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)] in improving the microbial safety, quality and shelf life of ready to eat fresh-cut vegetables (lettuce, carrot and cucumber) at ambient and refrigeration temperature. Consumer’s perception study results identified three clusters of consumers, whose preferences are related to purchasing styles and socio-demographic variables.The overall positive attitude of consumers was evident towards convenience, taste and appearance, but safety and health benefit attributes get importance while buying the ready to eat fresh-cut vegetables.The microbiological and visual observation result demonstrated that, all the non-chlorine sanitizers used were able to decrease the bacterial population in fresh-cut vegetables initially; however, microbial population increases or remain constant or decrease depending on the types of vegetables, storage temperature and duration. In addition, among the wash-sanitizers, PAA and H2O2 showed better microbial reduction for fresh-cut lettuce, and cucumber, and SP showed better microbial reduction for fresh-cut carrot. Irrespective of sanitizer treatment refrigerated storage showed better visual quality, microbial safety and shelf life of fresh-cut produce. Therefore, this study results suggested that washing fresh-cut vegetables with produce specific sanitizer and stored at refrigerated temperature keep the quality of fresh-cut produce better compared to ambient storage. Bangladesh J Microbiol, Volume 38, Number 2, December 2021, pp 51-62
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Dynameron is a Byzantine medical compendium, divided into 24 sections, in accordance with the letters of the Greek alphabet. Being the largest medical and pharmaceutical book ever written in Byzantium, Dynameron contains 2667 recipes intended to treat many pathological conditions. A lot of information convey to us through prescriptions. In addition to plants, Nikolaos Myrepsos proposes the use of many animals, animal parts and animal by-products, for the treatment of various diseases. This article presents for the first time a full account of the animal products included in Dynameron. Aim of the study In continuation to our previous studies, this paper focuses on the use of animal products in composite medicines described in Dynameron. An effort was made to trace down the use of similar or identical animal products in texts of earlier medical writers. Recording recipes with animals or animal products intended for use in everyday medical practice highlights the timeless belief in their healing properties. Materials and methods Our main source of material is the recent digital edition of Nikolaos Myrepsos’ Dynameron. This huge treatise was written in the 13th century and reflects in many ways the long medical tradition of the Greek, the Hellenistic and the Roman eras, having also received influences from the materia medica of Arabic medicine. In addition, information from dictionaries and databases were cross-checked to confirm and classify the animals and their products and to identify them. For the various pathological conditions these products are meant for, we have used the current medical terminology. Results In the present study, we could identify the therapeutic use of 93 animals. In several instances, Myrepsos suggests the use of specific organs of an animal, and for that reason he includes in his treatise 16 anatomical parts of different animals. Moreover, Dynameron comprises also 34 animal by-products, such as milk and honey. Medicines of animal origin are used in recipes concerning diseases of the respiratory, the digestive, the cardiovascular and the urinary system, as well as gynecological diseases, and ailments of the eyes, the ears and the skin. Conclusions Of the 2667 recipes of Dynameron, 344 recipes contain medicines of animal origin, which can be detected in totally 769 citations. In addition, 626 citations for animal by-products are found in 268 recipes. Honey and milk are quoted in 2136 recipes, mostly as excipients. Dietary instructions are present on many occasions, reflecting the attitude for a healthy everyday life, similar to the modern beliefs pertaining to food as an essential factor for a good health.
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There are ~1.5 million primary total joint arthroplasties (TJA) performed annually in North America, Australasia, and the United Kingdom. On average, the number of primary hip arthroplasty procedures increased by 30% between 2000 and 2015 and the number of primary knee arthroplasty procedures increased by almost 100%. The development of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI) has been shown to have major implications on patient-reported quality of life and function, healthcare costs, and risk of litigation. Cumulative treatment costs in the management of PJI in North America, Australasia, and the UK are estimated to be ~US$1.5 billion per annum. The ideal therapeutic goal in the management of PJI is generally accepted to be complete eradication of the pathogen and preservation of the joint function. This chapter reports on the contemporary incidence of PJI following knee, hip, ankle, shoulder and elbow arthroplasty as well as describes the general considerations and surgical strategies used to treat and manage PJI. This chapter also highlights the innovative approaches being developed to improve PJI on the organizational level as well as emerging treatment modalities targeted to inhibit transmission, bacterial adhesion, modulate metabolism, biofilm dispersion, novel antimicrobial agents, immunotherapy and methods designed to combat host intracellular penetration.KeywordsProsthetic joint infectionBiofilmTreatmentSurgeryKneeHipShoulderElbowNovel treatment strategies
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Health-conscious people, all over the world, focus their attention toward fitness and have shifted their preference from caffeinated and sugar-based energy drinks towards natural alternatives. Coconut water is one of the universally accepted/appealing natural beverages for proper health and metabolism due to the presence of naturally occurring bioactive enzymes. Fresh coconut water is ideally consumed as a refreshing soft drink. However, many value added products could be made using coconut water. Coconut water is considered as an energy drink since it could provide an isotonic electrolyte balance when consumed. It is also being promoted as a natural sports drink, which can be consumed before, during, or after a workout to provide optimal replenishment and rehydration applicable for all levels of activity. Many research results are available on the potential/favourable use of coconut water in plant and animal biotechnology. Mature coconut water has been extensively used as raw materials in the preparation of Nata de coco and vinegar, which offer many benefits. Coconut water can also be used in production of various innovative value-added products such as lassi (tender coconut beverage), honey and coconut spread from mature water concentrate, soufflé, yoghurt, sugar, exopolysaccharides, docosahexaenoic acid, probiotics, coconut water kefir, Gama- aminobutyric acid, bacterial cellulose, carbon dots, mannosylerythritol lipids, dihydropyrimidinone etc. This chapter amply elaborates the potential and possibility of using coconut water in the production of array of high value products.
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Background: A common problem in otological surgeries is the persistence of ear discharge in a patient who has undergone middle-ear reconstructive surgery, despite an intact graft. There is a dearth of knowledge in the literature on treatment strategies in such post-operative cases of recalcitrant otorrhoea. Method: This was a retrospective observational descriptive study conducted on 45 patients who fitted the criteria for recalcitrant post-operative otorrhoea. All 45 patients showed no response to conservative treatment for 14 days from onset of discharge. Therefore, these patients were then given antiseptic ear drops. Results: Thirty patients out of 45 showed a good response to antiseptic ear drops and achieved a dry ear at the end of the treatment. Conclusion: In patients with recalcitrant otorrhoea with or without granulations after middle-ear reconstruction surgery, this study found that topical antiseptic ear drops, particularly those using boric acid powder, are more effective than topical antibiotic drops.
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Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of bacteria that can oxidize many substrates such as alcohols and sugar alcohols and play important roles in industrial biotechnology. A majority of industrial processes that involve AAB are related to their dehydrogenases, including PQQ/FAD-dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases and NAD(P)⁺-dependent cytoplasmic dehydrogenases. These cofactor-dependent dehydrogenases must effectively regenerate their cofactors in order to function continuously. For PQQ, FAD and NAD(P)⁺ alike, regeneration is directly or indirectly related to the electron transport chain (ETC) of AAB, which plays an important role in energy generation for aerobic cell growth. Furthermore, in changeable natural habitats, ETC components of AAB can be regulated so that the bacteria survive in different environments. Herein, the progressive cascade in an application of AAB, including key dehydrogenases involved in the application, regeneration of dehydrogenase cofactors, ETC coupling with cofactor regeneration and ETC regulation, is systematically reviewed and discussed. As they have great application value, a deep understanding of the mechanisms through which AAB function will not only promote their utilization and development but also provide a reference for engineering of other industrial strains.
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Acetic acid has become more commonly used in orthopaedic surgery. The purposed roles include biofilm eradication and surgical debridement, postoperative scar reduction and managing soft tissue injuries. Current research is scarce and does not provide conclusive evidence behind acetic acid's efficacy in orthopaedic procedures such as biofilm eradication or acetic acid iontophoresis in soft tissue injuries. Current literature on acetic acid's effects on biofilm eradication is composed of in-vitro studies, which do not demonstrate the potential clinical efficacy of acetic acid. Acetic acid iontophoresis is a novel technique which is now more commonly accepted for soft tissues injuries. Our literature search identified calcifying tendonitis of the shoulder, rotator cuff tendinopathy, heel pain syndrome, plantar fasciitis, achilles tendonitis, calcifying tendonitis of the ankle, myositis ossificans and cervical spondylosis as documented clinical uses. In this narrative review, we present the current uses of acetic acid and acetic acid iontophoresis, while evaluating the evidence revolving around its efficacy, benefits and risks.
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Sekanjabin , also known as Oxymel , is an ancient beverage including honey, fermented vinegar, water, and various fruits and herbs. Great physicians Hippocrates, Galen, and Avicenna recommended treating gastrointestinal disorders, pain, asthma, thoracic, cough, sore throat, foul, and breath. Furthermore, Maulana, a symbol of tolerance that is humanism-flexible and non-violent, frequently mentions this beverage in his great masterpieces “ Divan-ı Kebir ” and “ Masnavi .” Therefore, it can be evaluated as an intangible cultural heritage of Western and near Asian civilizations and has a significant and ceremonial role in Maulana and Maulawi Culture. From a gastronomic and health perspective, this study explored the ceremonial relationship between Maulana and sekanjabin.
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Vinegar is commonly used as a home remedy for many skin problems. It is important for dermatologists to understand the evidence supporting its use in skin disease, as well as potential adverse effects, so they can properly counsel patients on the safe use of this widely available treatment. Vinegar possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that provide utility in wound care as well as bacterial and fungal infections. There is also evidence to support its use in pruritus, head lice removal, and treatment of striae gravidarum. While generally safe, inappropriate use can result in damage to the skin. In this review, we discuss the evidence supporting vinegar as a treatment for skin disease, as well as adverse events reported from misuse, to provide dermatologists the knowledge to counsel patients on the safe and appropriate use of vinegar.
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The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of addition of commercial vinegar (10.2 % acetic acid) and different levels of purified waste date’s vinegar (2.6 % acetic acid) into drinkable water on growth of digestive tract, intestinal microflora and histology. Two hundred 1- day-old commercial broilers (Ross 308) were used over a 42-days growing period. Based on a compeletly randomized design, chicks were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 experimental groups including 0 (control), 0.5, 1, and 1.5 % of purified waste date’s vinegar and 1 % commercial vinegar into water. One chick from every replicate was killed at days 21 and 42 to measure development of digestive tissues and morphology and microbiology of small intestine. Data was statistically analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS and the means were compared using Duncen’s multiple comparisons procedure. Results showed that at day 42, relative weught of proventriculus increased by use of purified waste date’s vinegar but pH and microflora did not differ between treatments. On the other hand, use of purified waste date’s vinegar in the water extended the intestinal villus’ height.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance In African traditional medicine, there are several plant species that are used in combination with either plant species or other non-plant derived combinations such as sugar and honey, salt and vinegar, milk, fat etc. This review examines the role of these combinations and postulates the scientific and therapeutic validation of such combinations. Aim of the study This study reviewed the ethnopharmacological literature, document the use of southern African plant combinations, find a scientific rationale for such combinations, and provide recommendations for future studies. Materials and methods Ethnobotanical books and online databases such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed and Google Scholar were used to find ethnobotanical studies within the southern African context that focus on the combinations of plants with other plants or various additional ingredients. The scientific literature was examined to determine if evidence was available to substantiate such combinations. Results One hundred and eighty-seven medicinal plant (plant-to-plant) combinations that are used in the southern African traditional healing system were recorded. These plant combinations were used against infections of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and skin as well other non-infectious diseases such as reproductive and psychiatric disorders. Respiratory infections were the most documented infections to be treated using plant combinations. The plant that was documented to be most commonly used in combination with other plants was Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. While plant-plant combinations have drawn a marked interest, comparatively, plant-adjuvant (e.g. milk, sugar, honey, salt, vinegar, fats) combinations have attracted less research interest. Milk was reported as the most used additional ingredient in combination with medicinal plants. The combination of animal urine and dung with medicinal plants has been reported as a treatment for treat prostate infections, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and abdominal pains. Other ingredients such as clay and flour were also documented, and these are often mixed with medicinal plants to treat fever, stomach ailments, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and skin conditions. Although combination therapy has been frequently reported in ethnobotanical records, over 90% of the combinations reviewed still need to be scientifically validated. Conclusion Scientific reports on the antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacological effects of these combinations may offer an understanding of traditional combination therapy. In addition, investigation into the mechanisms of action of these combinations are also recommended to supplement the findings. Nonetheless, the use of plant combinations is still an untapped research area in southern Africa and there is a need to validate the use of those documented combinations to obtain a better understanding of traditional medicinal plant use.
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Background Alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) is widely used for hand disinfection in the health care sector. ABHR is, however, known to cause discomfort when applied on damaged skin emphasizing the unmet need for alternative and better tolerated types of disinfectants. Active chlorine hand disinfectants (ACHDs) are potential new candidates; however, the effect on the skin barrier function compared to ABHR remains to be assessed. Materials and methods In Study A, the forearm skin of healthy adults was repeatedly exposed to ACHD and ABHR. Skin barrier function was assessed by measurement of transepidermal water loss, electrical conductance, pH, and erythema at baseline and at follow-up after 2 days, and subjective discomfort was likewise assessed. Study B was performed in the same way; however, in order to induce an experimental irritant contact dermatitis, sodium lauryl sulfate patch tests were applied to forearms before exposure to ACHD and ABHR. Results In both studies, the skin barrier function was unaffected after repetitive exposure to ACHD and ABHR, and with no significant differences between the products. Subjective discomfort was reported as sporadic or very mild in relation to both products. Conclusion Our results illustrate that use of ACHD does not affect the skin barrier function negatively, neither in intact skin nor in skin with experimentally induced contact dermatitis. Future studies should include real-life evaluation of skin barrier function and subjective discomfort following ACHD use in individuals with and without hand eczema.
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Vinegar may be defined as a condiment made from various sugary by alcoholic and subsequent acetic fermentation. The vinegar bacteria, also called acetic acid bacteria. Aceto acetic bacteria having ability to convert ethyl alcohol (C 2 H 5 OH) into acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) by oxidation. Vinegar can be produced from various raw materials like Apple cider, Honey, Sugarcane, Pomegranate, Coconut, Orange peel, Grapes, Tomato, Rice by several major production techniques for making vinegar such as the Orleans process, generator process and Submerged acetification process. The generator process is Non compacting material is filled in the large upright wood tanks above a perforated wood grating floor. Re-circulated fermenting liquid trickles over packing material toward the bottom while air moves from the bottom inlets toward the top. The recirculation process takes about 3 to 7 days after which 2/3 of the final vinegar product is withdrawn from the tank and new alcohol solution is added. Submerged acetification in this process supply air is forced into the alcohol liquid in the tank and the material is fermented at 30°C. At the end of every cycle, 1/3 of the liquid is discharged as final product, replaced with mash containing fresh alcohol solution and a new fermentation cycle begins.The Gram stain method can be used to classify gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. Gram staining can narrow down the identity of vinegar cultures to gram-positive and negative classes, and then the cultures can be identified to a specific species by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A pink colour demonstrates gram-negative character and a blue colour indicates gram-positive. Vinegar cultures are predominantly gram-negative bacteria. The aim in the present study is to identify quality and %concentration of acetic acid in the fruit product and to characterize the species of vinegar bacteria used in acetification.
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This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementary diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) in the feeding of Primiparous Raeini does on follicular characteristics and live weight of their kids in a completely randomized design using a factorial method (2×2) in the nomads of Baft city, Kerman province. The mean initial weight and standard deviation of the dose was 25.6±2.28 kg. Forty-eight does graze daily in the pasture after supplementary feeding from the middle of the first month of pregnancy to 105 days of the lactation. The follicular characteristics measured on skin biopsies including inactive secondary follicles percentage, secondary to primary follicles ratio (S/P), secondary follicle number index (SFNI) and secondary follicle density taken from 15-120 days after birth every two weeks. The results of this study showed that kids born from the dose, receiving diets containing higher energy and protein had significantly higher follicular indices and live weight than other treatments. Overall, it would be concluded that supplementary energy and protein feeding of Raeini does is able to increase follicular population and live weight in Raeini goat kids, resulting in increased cashmere quality and quantity and weaning weight of them.
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To determine the effects of acetate and propionate on calcium absorption from the human distal colon and rectum, six healthy human subjects were given rectal infusions containing 50 mmol CaCl2/L on four separate occasions. Addition of 56.3 mmol acetate/L, 18.7 mmol propionate/L, or acetate and propionate together increased calcium disappearance (expressed as the change in the ratio of calcium to polyethylene glycol) from -5.5 +/- 1.4 to -22.6 +/- 2.8, -23.2 +/- 3.2, and -19.7 +/- 4.6, respectively; P < 0.05. To determine the effects of different acetate and propionate concentrations, six different subjects were studied further. The effects of 18.7 or 56.3 mmol acetate/L on calcium absorption were the same as those of 18.7 mmol propionate/L (-15.7 +/- 1.4), and less than those of 56.3 mmol propionate/L (-20.3 +/- 2.4, P < 0.05). We conclude that both acetate and propionate enhance calcium absorption from the human distal colon, but that propionate has a greater effect at higher concentrations. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of calcium absorption from the colon.
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To assess the efficacy of both natural products (vinegar, baking soda) and common commercial disinfectants (Vesphene IIse, TBQ, Clorox, Lysol Disinfectant Spray, Lysol Antibacterial Kitchen Cleaner, Mr. Clean Ultra, ethanol) designed for home or institutional use against potential human pathogens, including selected antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A quantitative suspension test was used to assess the efficacy of selected disinfectants following exposure times of 30 seconds and 5 minutes. Activity was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Selected disinfectants were also tested against poliovirus, vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant Enterococcus species, and methicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. aureus. The following compounds demonstrated excellent antimicrobial activity (>5.6-8.2 log10 reduction) at both exposure times: TBQ, Vesphene, Clorox, ethanol, and Lysol Antibacterial Kitchen Cleaner. Mr. Clean eliminated 4 to >6 logs10 and Lysol Disinfectant approximately 4 logs10 of pathogenic microorganisms at both exposure times. Vinegar eliminated <3 logs10 of S. aureus and E. coli, and baking soda <3 logs10 of all test pathogens. All tested chemical disinfectants completely inactivated both antibiotic-resistant and -susceptible bacteria at both exposure times. Only two disinfectants, Clorox and Lysol, demonstrated excellent activity (>3 log10 reduction) against poliovirus. A variety of commercial household disinfectants were highly effective against potential bacterial pathogens. The natural products were less effective than commercial household disinfectants. Only Clorox and Lysol disinfectant were effective against poliovirus.
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To understand how blood glucose level is lowered by oral administration of vinegar, we examined effects of acetic acid on glucose transport and disaccharidase activity in Caco-2 cells. Cells were cultured for 15 d in a medium containing 5 mmol/L of acetic acid. This chronic treatment did not affect cell growth or viability, and furthermore, apoptotic cell death was not observed. Glucose transport, evaluated with a nonmetabolizable substrate, 3-O-methyl glucose, also was not affected. However, the increase of sucrase activity observed in control cells (no acetic acid) was significantly suppressed by acetic acid (P < 0.01). Acetic acid suppressed sucrase activity in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Similar treatments (5 mmol/L and 15 d) with other organic acids such as citric, succinic, L-maric, L-lactic, L-tartaric and itaconic acids, did not suppress the increase in sucrase activity. Acetic acid treatment (5 mmol/L and 15 d) significantly decreased the activities of disaccharidases (sucrase, maltase, trehalase and lactase) and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, whereas the activities of other hydrolases (alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase-N, dipeptidylpeptidase-IV and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase) were not affected. To understand mechanisms underlying the suppression of disaccharidase activity by acetic acid, Northern and Western analyses of the sucrase-isomaltase complex were performed. Acetic acid did not affect the de novo synthesis of this complex at either the transcriptional or translational levels. The antihyperglycemic effect of acetic acid may be partially due to the suppression of disaccharidase activity. This suppression seems to occur during the post-translational processing.
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Foods with a low glycemic index are increasingly being acknowledged as beneficial in relation to the insulin resistance syndrome. Certain organic acids can lower the glycemic index of bread products. However, the possible effect of acids in fermented milk products on the glycemic index and on insulinemic characteristics has not been addressed. The metabolic effects of fermented milk or pickled products used as additives to mixed meals have also not been addressed. One objective was to characterize the glycemic and insulinemic responses after intake of regular or fermented milk products (study 1). In addition, the acute metabolic effect of fermented milk (yogurt) and pickled cucumber as supplements to a traditional breakfast based on a high-glycemic index bread was evaluated (study 2). Ten healthy volunteers were served different breakfast meals after an overnight fast. Capillary blood samples were collected before and during 2 (study 1) or 3 (study 2) h after the meal. White-wheat bread was used as a reference meal in both studies. The lactic acid in the fermented milk products did not lower the glycemic and insulinemic indexes. Despite low glycemic indexes of 15-30, all of the milk products produced high insulinemic indexes of 90-98, which were not significantly different from the insulinemic index of the reference bread. Addition of fermented milk (yogurt) and pickled cucumber to a breakfast with a high-glycemic index bread significantly lowered postprandial glycemia and insulinemia compared with the reference meal. In contrast, addition of regular milk and fresh cucumber had no favorable effect on the metabolic responses. Milk products appear insulinotropic as judged from 3-fold to 6-fold higher insulinemic indexes than expected from the corresponding glycemic indexes. The presence of organic acids may counteract the insulinotropic effect of milk in mixed meals.
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The development of intestinal cancer involves complex genetic and epigenetic alterations in the intestinal mucosa. The principal signaling pathway responsible for the initiation of tumor formation, the APC-beta-catenin-TCF4 pathway, regulates both cell proliferation and colonic cell differentiation, but many other intrinsic and extrinsic signals also modulate these cell maturation pathways. The challenge is to understand how signaling and cell maturation are also modulated by nutritional agents. Through gene expression profiling, we have gained insight into the mechanisms by which short chain fatty acids regulate these pathways and the differences in response of gene programs, and of the specific regulation of the c-myc gene, to physiological regulators of intestinal cell maturation, such as butyrate, compared with pharmacological regulators such as the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug sulindac. Moreover, we used a combination of gene expression profiling of the response of cells in culture to sulindac and the response of the human mucosa in subjects treated with sulindac for 1 month, coupled with a mouse genetic model approach, to identify the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) as an important suppressor of Apc-initiated intestinal tumor formation and a necessary component for tumor inhibition by sulindac. Finally, the mucous barrier, secreted by intestinal goblet cells, is the interface between the luminal contents and the intestinal mucosa. We generated a mouse genetic model with a targeted inactivation of the Muc2 gene that encodes the major intestinal mucin. These mice have no recognizable goblet cells due to the failure of cells to synthesize and store mucin. This leads to perturbations in intestinal crypt architecture, increased cellular proliferation and rates of cell migration, decreased apoptosis and development of adenomas and adenocarcinomas in the small and large intestine and the rectum.
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Practical use of the glycaemic index (GI), as recommended by the FAO/WHO, requires an evaluation of the recommended method. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and sources of variation of the GI values obtained by experienced investigators in different international centres. GI values of four centrally provided foods (instant potato, rice, spaghetti and barley) and locally obtained white bread were determined in 8-12 subjects in each of seven centres using the method recommended by FAO/WHO. Data analysis was performed centrally. University departments of nutrition. Healthy subjects (28 male, 40 female) were studied. The GI values of the five foods did not vary significantly in different centres nor was there a significant centrexfood interaction. Within-subject variation from two centres using venous blood was twice that from five centres using capillary blood. The s.d. of centre mean GI values was reduced from 10.6 (range 6.8-12.8) to 9.0 (range 4.8-12.6) by excluding venous blood data. GI values were not significantly related to differences in method of glucose measurement or subject characteristics (age, sex, BMI, ethnicity or absolute glycaemic response). GI values for locally obtained bread were no more variable than those for centrally provided foods. The GI values of foods are more precisely determined using capillary than venous blood sampling, with mean between-laboratory s.d. of approximately 9.0. Finding ways to reduce within-subject variation of glycaemic responses may be the most effective strategy to improve the precision of measurement of GI values.
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The effects of the ethyl acetate extract of "Kurosu" (EK), Japanese traditional vinegar from unpolished rice, on the proliferation of a variety of human cancer cell lines were investigated by using the alamar blue assay. Cancer cell lines included colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), lung carcinoma (A549), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), bladder carcinoma (5637), and prostate carcinoma (LNCaP) cells. EK inhibited the proliferation of all tested cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with inhibition mostly pronounced in Caco-2 cells (up to 62% inhibition at a dose level of 0.025%). Flow cytometry of EK-treated Caco-2 cells showed a decrease in cell number in the G2/M phase and an increase in the sub-G1 phase (apoptotic). In addition, DNA fragmentation was detected in Caco-2 cells cultured with EK by immunostaining. RT-PCR analysis revealed p21 mRNA expression was induced in EK-treated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, PARP cleavage was promoted in EK-treated Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that EK causes G0/G1 arrest through p21 induction and, thus, is a potential apoptosis inducer in Caco-2 cells.
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The modifying effects of administering an ethyl acetate extract of Kurosu (EK), a vinegar made from unpolished rice, in drinking water on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis were investigated in male F344 rats. Animals were given 2 weekly subcutaneous injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight). They also received drinking water containing 0%, 0.05%, or 0.1% EK for 35 wk, starting 1 wk after the last dosing of AOM. EK administration significantly inhibited the incidence and multiplicity of colon adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05), compared with those in the AOM alone group. These findings suggest that EK may be effective for inhibiting colon carcinogenesis.
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A new beverage made of red wine vinegar and grape juice (Budo-no-megumi) was developed for people who wish to take effective amount of both polyphenols and vinegar. Since the beverage was recently demonstrated to exert hypotensive effect in rats, we analyzed its underlying mechanisms in this study. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital, and the blood pressure and lead II ECG were continuously monitored (n=6). The effects of recommended volume of the beverage (3 ml/kg, p.o.) on the renin-angiotensin system were assessed in vivo. At the basal control state, the increase in the mean blood pressure induced by the angiotensin I (1 microg/kg, i.v.) and norepinephrine (0.3-3 microg/kg, i.v.) were +57+/-2 and +36+/-8 mmHg, respectively. Sixty minutes after the administration of the beverage, the angiotensin I-induced pressor response decreased to +45+/-7 mmHg at 60 min (p<0.05), whereas no significant change was detected in the norepinephrine-induced pressor response. In another parallel series of the experiment using Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6), the serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity was 39.4+/-1.2 IU/l at basal control state, which was slightly but significantly decreased to 37.0+/-1.4 IU/l at 60 min after the administration of the beverage (p<0.01). These results suggest that previously described hypotensive action of the beverage may be partly induced by the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme.
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To investigate the potential of acetic acid supplementation as a means of lowering the glycaemic index (GI) of a bread meal, and to evaluate the possible dose-response effect on postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and satiety. In all, 12 healthy volunteers participated and the tests were performed at Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden. Three levels of vinegar (18, 23 and 28 mmol acetic acid) were served with a portion of white wheat bread containing 50 g available carbohydrates as breakfast in randomized order after an overnight fast. Bread served without vinegar was used as a reference meal. Blood samples were taken during 120 min for analysis of glucose and insulin. Satiety was measured with a subjective rating scale. A significant dose-response relation was seen at 30 min for blood glucose and serum insulin responses; the higher the acetic acid level, the lower the metabolic responses. Furthermore, the rating of satiety was directly related to the acetic acid level. Compared with the reference meal, the highest level of vinegar significantly lowered the blood glucose response at 30 and 45 min, the insulin response at 15 and 30 min as well as increased the satiety score at 30, 90 and 120 min postprandially. The low and intermediate levels of vinegar also lowered the 30 min glucose and the 15 min insulin responses significantly compared with the reference meal. When GI and II (insulinaemic indices) were calculated using the 90 min incremental area, a significant lowering was found for the highest amount of acetic acid, although the corresponding values calculated at 120 min did not differ from the reference meal. Supplementation of a meal based on white wheat bread with vinegar reduced postprandial responses of blood glucose and insulin, and increased the subjective rating of satiety. There was an inverse dose-response relation between the level of acetic acid and glucose and insulin responses and a linear dose-response relation between acetic acid and satiety rating. The results indicate an interesting potential of fermented and pickled products containing acetic acid.
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Background Naked-eye visual inspection of the cervix with acetic-acid wash (VIA), or cervicoscopy, is an alternative to cytology in screening for cervical cancer in poorly resourced locations. We tested the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of VIA done by nurse-midwives in a less-developed country. Methods Women were screened by six trained nurse-midwives in a two-phase, cross-sectional study at 15 primary-care clinics in Zimbabwe. VIA and Pap smears were done concurrently, and their sensitivity and specificity compared. Colposcopy, with biopsy as indicated, was used as the reference test to allow a direct comparison of the test unaffected by verification bias. Findings 10 934 women were screened. In phase II, 2148 (97.5%) of the 2203 participants for whom there was a screening result also had a reference test result. Also in phase II, VIA was more sensitive but less specific than cytology. Sensitivity (95% CI) was 76.7% (70.3-82.3) for VIA and 44.3% (37.3-51.4) for cytology, Specificity was 64.1% (61.9-66.2) for VIA and 90.6% (89.2-91.9) for cytology. Interpretation The high sensitivity of VIA shows that the test could be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of the cervix. However, there are costs to the patient and system costs associated with high numbers of false-positive results, so attention should be given to improving the specificity of VIA.
Article
Monochloroacetic acid crystals and 60% salicylic acid ointment was found to be more effective than placebo as a treatment for simple plantar warts in a double blind study on 57 patients. Nineteen (66%) patients in the active treatment group compared with five (18%) patients in the placebo group were cured after 6 weeks (P = 0.002). The active treatment was associated with a significantly higher cure rate 6 months after entry (P = 0.04). Treatments were well tolerated. IgG or IgM antibodies or both to human papilloma virus (HPV) types 1 or 2 or both were detected significantly more frequently in the actively treated group 6 weeks after entry (P = 0.0005). Twelve (50%) patients considered to be cured had no detectable secondary immune response. Our results suggest that cure does not depend primarily on the humoral system but rather on mechanical destruction of wart tissue, or occurs as a result of cell mediated immunity.
Article
To investigate the influence of sodium acetate and acetic acid from vinegar on blood glucose and acetate response to a mixed meal in healthy subjects. Five healthy subjects consumed in random order six test meals consisting of 100 g of sliced lettuce dressed with olive oil (Blank), olive oil plus 1 g acetic acid in the form of vinegar (AcOH), or olive oil plus sodium acetate in the form of vinegar neutralized to pH 6.0 with sodium bicarbonate (AcNa). On three occasions test meals were followed by a challenge consisting of 50 g carbohydrate portions of white bread (Bread). Glucose and acetate concentrations were measured in arterialized capillary blood before and until 95 min after the meals. Ultrasonography was performed in four other subjects to measure gastric emptying times after AcOH + Bread and AcNa + Bread. Blood acetate response over 95 min was markedly reduced after AcOH and AcOH+Bread meals compared to AcNa and AcNa + Bread. Similarly, the glucose response was depressed by 31.4% (P = 0.0228) after AcOH+Bread with respect to AcNa + Bread and Blank + Bread. No difference was observed between gastric emptying times after AcOH + Bread and AcNa + Bread. The results suggest that oral acetic acid and acetate might have a different effect on acetataemia and that a limited dose of vinegar, in the form of salad dressing, is sufficient to influence significantly the glycaemic response to a mixed meal in normal subjects by a mechanism related to acidity but not to gastric emptying.
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An organism must maintain a fairly constant balance of pH to survive. Most bacteria grow the best in a narrow range of pH from 6.5 to 7.5. Ninety-six patients with chronic suppurative otitis media were selected. Two weeks before the treatment they were instructed to stop taking any antibiotics; then a sterile swab culture was taken from auditory canal secretions and at the same time the pH of the secretions were measured. Otomicroscopic examination of the ear with cleaning of purulent debris was done. All patients received ear irrigation with 2% acetic acid solution three times per week for the maximum of 3 weeks without antibiotic therapy. Any patients with cholesteatoma, polyp, granulation and otomycosis were excluded. Patients were followed for up to 3 years. Fifty-five patients (57%) had resolution of their original otorrhen, whereas 19 patients (20%) developed healed ear drum perforation. The remaining 14 patients (15%) showed recurrence and 8 of them (8%) had no response to the treatment.
Article
There seems to be a resurgence of interest among healthcare professionals in treating wounds with various topical agents. There are practitioners who are recommending and/or using topical therapies for wounds without having an understanding of why or how they affect a wound. Many of these products are used based upon here-say or clinical observations, since there is a lack of researched-based practice regarding the use of such topicals in wound healing. This article reviews such non-conventional topical therapies as aloe vera, antacids, benzoyl peroxide, collagen, dilantin, gentian violet, impregnated gauzes, insulin, mercurochrome, oxygen therapy, sugar, and vinegar. Each agent is described, its mode of action is discussed, and clinical studies regarding the use of these topicals to promote wound healing are examined, if any. The reader should review this article along with other existing literature regarding topical therapies before making a decision about using such in the care of wounds. When caring for wounds, one should ask, what is the goal of wound care at this particular time? And then ask, based upon available research, what, if any, of these agents can help achieve this goal? The following information should assist one in answering these questions.
Article
The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible influence of acetic acid (administered as vinegar) on the postprandial glucose and insulin responses, and the potential involvement of a modified gastric emptying rate was studied by use of paracetamol as a marker. The white bread reference meal as well as the corresponding meal supplemented with vinegar had the same content of starch, protein and fat. The meals were served in the morning after an over-night fast and in random order. Capillary blood samples for analysis of glucose, insulin and paracetamol were collected postprandially. The study was performed at the Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden. Ten healthy volunteers, seven women and three men, aged 22-51 y, with normal body mass indices were recruited. The presence of acetic acid, given as vinegar, significantly reduced the postprandial glucose (GI=64) and insulin responses (II=65) to a starchy meal. As judged from lowered paracetamol levels after the test meal with vinegar, the mechanism is probably a delayed gastric emptying rate. Fermented foods or food products with added organic acids should preferably be included in the diet in order to reduce glycaemia and insulin demand.
Article
The bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions of vinegar on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 were examined. The growth of all strains evaluated was inhibited with a 0.1% concentration of acetic acid in the vinegar. This inhibition was generally increased in the presence of sodium chloride or glucose. There was almost no difference in sensitivity to the bacteriostatic action of vinegar among the strains of pathogenic E. coli. Vinegar had a bactericidal effect on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including EHEC O157:H7. This action against EHEC O157:H7 was synergically enhanced by sodium chloride but was attenuated with glucose. For EHEC strains (O157:H7, O26:H11, O111:HNM) the difference in the inactivation rate due to vinegar among strains used was small, although an enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O111:K58:H- strain was more sensitive, being more quickly killed compared with EHEC strains. The inactivation rate due to vinegar was constant irrespective of inoculum size. However, it differed greatly depending on growth phase of the cells, where logarithmic growth phase cells were more sensitive and easily killed than stationary phase cells. The bactericidal activity of vinegar increased with the temperature. Various conditions for bactericidal effects on EHEC O157:H7 were examined by the multiparametric analysis of five factors: acetic acid concentration in the vinegar, sodium chloride concentration, temperature, incubation time, and viable cell number. The combined use of vinegar and sodium chloride, with use of an appropriate treatment temperature, was found to be markedly effective for the prevention of bacterial food poisoning.
Article
Experimental studies in laboratory animals and humans suggest that alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) may reduce the risk of arrhythmia. The objective was to examine the association between dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid and risk of fatal ischemic heart disease (IHD). This was a prospective cohort study. The intake of alpha-linolenic acid was derived from a 116-item food-frequency questionnaire completed in 1984 by 76283 women without previously diagnosed cancer or cardiovascular disease. During 10 y of follow-up, we documented 232 cases of fatal IHD and 597 cases of nonfatal myocardial infarction. After adjustment for age, standard coronary risk factors, and dietary intake of linoleic acid and other nutrients, a higher intake of alpha-linolenic acid was associated with a lower relative risk (RR) of fatal IHD; the RRs from the lowest to highest quintiles were 1.0, 0.99, 0.90, 0.67, and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.94; P for trend = 0.01). For nonfatal myocardial infarction there was only a modest, nonsignificant trend toward a reduced risk when extreme quintiles were compared (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.19; P for trend = 0.50). A higher intake of oil and vinegar salad dressing, an important source of alpha-linolenic acid, was associated with reduced risk of fatal IHD when women who consumed this food > or =5-6 times/wk were compared with those who rarely consumed this food (RR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.76; P for trend = 0.001). This study supports the hypothesis that a higher intake of alpha-linolenic acid is protective against fatal IHD. Higher consumption of foods such as oil-based salad dressing that provide polyunsaturated fats, including alpha-linolenic acid, may reduce the risk of fatal IHD.
Article
We studied the effect of dietary vinegar on calcium absorption by using ovariectomized rats fed on a low-calcium diet. The apparent absorption of calcium was higher when the rats were fed on a diet containing 1.6% vinegar for 32 days than when fed on a diet without vinegar (P < 0.05). The calcium content in the femur of the rats given diets containing 0.4% and 1.6% vinegar were also higher (P < 0.05). The serum parathyroid hormone level was lower and the crypt depth of the duodenum thicker in the rats fed on a diet containing 1.6% vinegar (P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary vinegar enhanced intestinal calcium absorption by improving calcium solubility and by the trophic effect of the acetic acid contained in vinegar, which would reduce the bone turnover caused by ovariectomy and be helpful in preventing osteoporosis.
Article
The relative importance of different dietary causes of obesity remains controversial. This review examines whether consumption of high-glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates may be a contributing factor. Although data from long-term studies are lacking, short-term investigations indicate that consumption of high-GI carbohydrates may increase hunger and promote overeating relative to consumption of items with a lower GI. As long-term research on GI and weight regulation accumulates, consumption of whole grain and lower GI cereals instead of highly refined cereals is a dietary change that may help prevent overeating and is consistent with current dietary guidelines.
Article
The in vitro antioxidative activities of various kinds of vinegar were investigated by using a linoleic acid autoxidation model detected by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical system. An ethyl acetate extract of Kurosu (EK), a vinegar made from unpolished rice, exhibited the highest antioxidative activity in both systems. EK (5 mg) inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced edema formation (14%) and myeloperoxidase activity (52%, P< 0.01) in female ICR mouse skin. Furthermore, EK significantly suppressed double TPA application-induced H2O2 generation (53%, P< 0.01) and lipid peroxidation determined by the TBA-reacting substance level (95 %, P< 0.01). In a two-stage carcinogenesis experiment with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/TPA, EK significantly reduced the number of tumors per mouse by 36% (P<0.05) at 15 weeks after promotion. These results suggest that the antitumor-promoting effect may be partially due to the antioxidative properties of EK such as the decomposition of free radicals and interference with free radical-generating leukocytes.
Article
To investigate the efficacy of the ingestion of vinegar in aiding recovery from fatigue, we examined the effect of dietary acetic acid, the main component of vinegar, on glycogen repletion in rats. Rats were allowed access to a commercial diet twice daily for 6 d. After 15 h of food deprivation, they were either killed immediately or given 2 g of a diet containing 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 g acetic acid/100 g diet for 2 h. The 0.2 g acetic acid group had significantly greater liver and gastrocnemius muscle glycogen concentration than the control group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of citrate in this group in both the liver and skeletal muscles were >1.3-fold greater than in the control group (P > 0.1). In liver, the concentration of xylulose-5-phosphate in the control group was significantly higher than in the 0.2 and 0.4 g acetic acid groups (P < 0.01). In gastrocnemius muscle, the concentration of glucose-6-phosphate in the control group was significantly lower and the ratio of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate/fructose-6-phosphate was significantly higher than in the 0.2 g acetic acid group (P < 0.05). This ratio in the soleus muscle of the acetic acid fed groups was <0.8-fold that of the control group (P > 0.1). In liver, acetic acid may activate gluconeogenesis and inactivate glycolysis through inactivation of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate synthesis due to suppression of xylulose-5-phosphate accumulation. In skeletal muscle, acetic acid may inhibit glycolysis by suppression of phosphofructokinase-1 activity. We conclude that a diet containing acetic acid may enhance glycogen repletion in liver and skeletal muscle.
Article
Human papilloma virus infection is increasing at an alarming rate. The ability of the virus to establish a subclinical infection and its association with malignancy of the lower genital tract make the statistics even more worrisome. Topical application of acetic acid solution provokes temporal alterations of the light-scattering properties of human papilloma virus-induced lesions of anogenital area. For the in vivo study of the phenomenon, an imaging system has been employed, which performs time-lapse imaging and enables the calculation and display of the kinetics of the provoked alterations in any point within the examined area. Confirmation of diagnosis has been established with conventional histology and polymerase chain reaction. It has been shown that the method provides early detection and staging of skin alteration or transformation due to human papilloma virus infection and enables mapping of the infected area.
Article
To clarify the possibility of a preventive effect of dietary vinegar on blood pressure, long-term administration of vinegar or the acetic acid to SHR was examined. As a result, it was observed that acetic acid itself, the main component of vinegar, significantly reduced both blood pressure (p<0.05) and renin activity (p<0.01) compared to controls given no acetic acid or vinegar, as well as vinegar. There were no significant differences in angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity in various organs. As for the mechanism of this function, it was suggested that this reduction in blood pressure may be caused by the significant reduction in renin activity and the subsequent decrease in angiotensin II. From this study, it was also suggested that the antihypertensive effect of vinegar is mainly due to the acetic acid in it.
Article
Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors--elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle--are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes. We randomly assigned 3234 nondiabetic persons with elevated fasting and post-load plasma glucose concentrations to placebo, metformin (850 mg twice daily), or a lifestyle-modification program with the goals of at least a 7 percent weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The mean age of the participants was 51 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34.0; 68 percent were women, and 45 percent were members of minority groups. The average follow-up was 2.8 years. The incidence of diabetes was 11.0, 7.8, and 4.8 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence by 58 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 48 to 66 percent) and metformin by 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent), as compared with placebo; the lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than metformin. To prevent one case of diabetes during a period of three years, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle-intervention program, and 13.9 would have to receive metformin. Lifestyle changes and treatment with metformin both reduced the incidence of diabetes in persons at high risk. The lifestyle intervention was more effective than metformin.
Article
To compare the therapeutic efficacy in the management of granular myringitis, 15 patients with chronic granular myringitis were treated with antibiotic ear drops that were used twice to four times a day, and another 15 patients were treated with daily irrigation of the external canal with dilute vinegar solution. All patients treated with dilute vinegar solution had resolution of their original otorrhoea within three weeks, whereas two-thirds of patients recovered within three weeks when treated with antibiotic ear drops. The disadvantages of dilute vinegar therapy were canal irritation with pain and dizziness. When the therapeutic efficacy was compared statistically, a dry ear was attained in the dilute vinegar-treated group at six weeks and six months in the antibiotic ear drop treated group (p<0.01). These results suggest that very low pH therapy using dilute vinegar solution is definitely effective in the management of granular myringitis.
Article
Changes in the aroma profile of five Sherry wine vinegars submitted to an experimental static aging in wood were followed along 24 months. Eighteen volatile compounds were determined by GC-FID. The results were subjected to multivariate analyses: principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The aroma profile of vinegar can be useful to discriminate vinegars produced from different substrates or with different aging times. During the experimental aging, volatile compounds such as methyl acetate, methanol, diacetyl, and gamma-butyrolactone underwent significant concentration increases. Moreover, the initial ethanol content of vinegars is a factor in the final aromatic richness. The formation of ethyl acetate stood out in samples with an initial ethanol content of approximately 2 alcoholic degrees.
Article
The worldwide increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming a major health concern. We aimed to assess the effect of acarbose in preventing or delaying conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. In a multicentre, placebo-controlled randomised trial, we randomly allocated patients with impaired glucose tolerance to 100 mg acarbose or placebo three times daily. The primary endpoint was development of diabetes on the basis of a yearly oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Analyses were by intention to treat. We randomly allocated 714 patients with impaired glucose tolerance to acarbose and 715 to placebo. We excluded 61 (4%) patients because they did not have impaired glucose tolerance or had no postrandomisation data. 211 (31%) of 682 patients in the acarbose group and 130 (19%) of 686 on placebo discontinued treatment early. 221 (32%) patients randomised to acarbose and 285 (42%) randomised to placebo developed diabetes (relative hazard 0.75 [95% CI 0.63-0.90]; p=0.0015). Furthermore, acarbose significantly increased reversion of impaired glucose tolerance to normal glucose tolerance (p<0.0001). At the end of the study, treatment with placebo for 3 months was associated with an increase in conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes. The most frequent side-effects to acarbose treatment were flatulence and diarrhoea. Acarbose could be used, either as an alternative or in addition to changes in lifestyle, to delay development of type 2 diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.
Article
Growth in the aging population has resulted in an increasing number of older persons requiring dentures. The microporous surfaces of an acrylic denture provide a wide range of environments to support microorganisms that can threaten the health of a physically vulnerable patient. The maintenance of denture prostheses is important for the health of patients and to maintain an esthetic, odor-free appliance. Mechanical, chemical, and a combination of mechanical and chemical strategies are available to patients to facilitate denture hygiene. Brushing is an ineffective method of denture disinfection. Household bleach or vinegar are effective as are the commercial, effervescent products sold for denture soaking. A new denture cleaner contains silicone polymer that provides a protective coating for dentures as a final step in the cleaning process. The coating helps to minimize the adhesion of accretions to the denture throughout the day until the next cleaning. Dental professionals must have a current knowledge of denture cleansing strategies in order to maximize the service offered to denture patients.
Article
A 39-year-old woman drank one tablespoon of white vinegar in order to 'soften' crab shell stuck in her throat. Endoscopy revealed inflammation of the oropharynx and second-degree caustic injury of the oesophagus extending to the cardia. She had an uneventful recovery. This case report confirmed that vinegar could cause ulcerative injury to the oropharynx and oesophagus. The folklore application of vinegar 'dislodging' a foreign body in the throat should be strongly discouraged.
Article
Diluted solutions of various household sanitizers (apple cider vinegar, white vinegar, bleach, and a reconstituted lemon juice product) were tested for their effectiveness in reducing counts of inoculated Escherichia coli and naturally present aerobic, mesophilic bacteria on lettuce. Sanitization treatments were carried out at 4 degrees C and at room temperature (ca. 21 degrees C) with and without agitation and at different exposure times (0, 1, 5, and 10 min). Of the sanitizers tested, 35% white vinegar (1.9% acetic acid) was the most effective in reducing E. coli levels (with a 5-log10 reduction after 5 min with agitation and after 10 min without agitation) and in reducing aerobic plate counts (with a >2-log10 reduction after 10 min with agitation). Lettuce samples treated with diluted household sanitizers were analyzed for consumer acceptability by sensory evaluation using a 9-point hedonic scale. The sanitized samples did not differ in acceptability (P > 0.05), except for samples treated with white vinegar. Samples treated with the white vinegar for 10 min were noticeably sour and slightly wilted in appearance. Consumer acceptability was maintained with all sanitization treatments, including those involving 35% white vinegar.