Monitoring Oxygenation During the Growth of A Transplanted Tumor

ArticleinAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 578:375-80 · February 2006with7 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/0-387-29540-2_58 · Source: PubMed
    • "The EPR oximetry provides absolute values of oxygen concentration or pO 2 and is performed in real time. The probes also exhibit reasonable half-life and adequate distribution in tissue, thus enabling mapping (imaging) of oxygen concentration345. Particulate probes such as lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) and lithium octa-n-butoxynaphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO) have been extensively used for EPR oximetry [6,7]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the temporal response of particulate-based EPR oximetry probes to changes in partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)). In order to accurately evaluate the oxygen-response time, we developed a method for rapid modulation of pO(2) in a chamber containing the probe using an oscillator-driven speaker-diaphragm setup. The apparatus was capable of producing sinusoidal changes in pO(2) at frequencies up to 300 Hz or more. The pressure-modulation setup was used to evaluate the temporal response of some of the most commonly used phthalocyanine-based particulate probes. For validation, the time-response of the probes was compared to that of a high sensitivity pressure sensor. The results revealed that some particulate probes could respond to changes in pO(2) with a temporal response of 3.3 ms (300 Hz). The observations were interpreted in the light of their crystalline packing in favor of oxygen diffusion. The results of the present study should enable the selection of probes for oximetry applications requiring high temporal resolution.
    Article · Aug 2008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel procedure for in vivo imaging of the oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in implanted tumors is reported. The procedure uses electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) of oxygen-sensing nanoprobes embedded in the tumor cells. Unlike existing methods of pO2 quantification, wherein the probes are physically inserted at the time of measurement, the new approach uses cells that are preinternalized (labeled) with the oxygen-sensing probes, which become permanently embedded in the developed tumor. Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) cells, internalized with nanoprobes of lithium octa-n-butoxy-naphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO), were allowed to grow as a solid tumor. In vivo imaging of the growing tumor showed a heterogeneous distribution of the spin probe, as well as oxygenation in the tumor volume. The pO2 images obtained after the tumors were exposed to a single dose of 30-Gy X-radiation showed marked redistribution as well as an overall increase in tissue oxygenation, with a maximum increase 6 hr after irradiation. However, larger tumors with a poorly perfused core showed no significant changes in oxygenation. In summary, the use of in vivo EPR technology with embedded oxygen-sensitive nanoprobes enabled noninvasive visualization of dynamic changes in the intracellular pO2 of growing and irradiated tumors.
    Full-text · Article · May 2007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crystalline lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) can be used to sense oxygen. To enhance biocompatibility/stability of LiPc, we encapsulated LiPc in Teflon AF (TAF), cellulose acetate (CA), and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) (TAF, previously used to encapsulate LiPc, was a comparator). We identified water-miscible solvents that don't dissolve LiPc crystals, but are solvents for the polymers, and encapsulated crystals by solvent evaporation. Oxygen sensitivity of films was characterized in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulation did not change LiPc oximetry properties in vitro at anoxic conditions or varying partial pressures of oxygen (pO2). EPR linewidth of encapsulated particles was linear with pO2, responding to pO2 changes quickly and reproducibly for dynamic measurements. Encapsulated LiPc was unaffected by biological oxidoreductants, stable in vivo for four weeks. Oximetry, stability and biocompatibility properties of LiPc films were comparable, but both CA and PVAc films are cheaper, and easier to fabricate and handle than TAF films, making them superior.
    Article · Apr 2009
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