The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers of Nonimmunosuppressed Individuals Identifies High-Risk Genital Types as Possible Risk Factors

Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 12/2003; 63(21):7515-9.
Source: PubMed


Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignant disease in Caucasians. Known risk factors include fair skin, sun exposure, male gender, advancing age, and the presence of solar keratosis. No viral risk factors have been established thus far. To examine the association between nonmelanoma skin cancer and infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) types, we performed a retrospective study in which skin biopsies were collected from 496 nonimmunosuppressed patients attending dermatologic clinics during a defined period and for whom a biopsy or resection of a tumor was indicated for medical reasons. A total of 390 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis of warts (n = 209), solar keratosis or Bowen's disease (n = 91), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 72), or basal cell carcinoma (n = 18), as well as 106 control patients with normal skin was analyzed for infection with HPV and, if positive, HPV typed by sequencing. Logistic regression was performed to separately investigate association of certain HPV types with the occurrence of warts, precancerous lesions, and skin cancer compared with normal skin. For all three histological groups, both crude risk and risk adjusted for age, sex, and sun exposure were calculated. HPV DNA was detected in only 4.7% of controls, in 90.9% of benign warts, in 60.4% of precancerous lesions, in 59.7% of squamous cell carcinoma, and in 27.8% of basal cell carcinoma, which demonstrates that viral infection is specifically linked to skin disorders. The distribution of viral types found is distinctly different between warts and precancers or cancers, supporting an etiologic role of specific HPV types. This is supported by statistical analysis, where after adjusting for age, gender, and sun exposure, the odds ratio for nonmelanoma skin cancer in patients who were DNA positive for the high-risk mucosal HPV types, 16, 31, 35, and 51 was 59 (95% confidence interval, 5.4-645) with normal skin as controls. These findings suggest that persistent infections of the skin with high risk genital HPV types recently identified as significant risk factors for cervical cancer may also represent a risk factor for nonmelanoma skin cancer in a nonimmunosuppressed population.

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Available from: Thomas Iftner, Jan 22, 2014
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    • "additional nucleotides to obtain higher folds of amplification , as described (Schulz et al., 2009). To test the presence of PV DNA a PCR assay was carried out using two different sets of degenerate primers: FAP59/FAP64 (Forslund et al., 1999) and CP4/CP5 (Iftner et al., 2003). Additionally, a PCR using specific primers designed for amplification of a 183 bp fragment of the E2 gene of BPV1 and BPV2 was carried out, to assess the concomitant presence of either of these viruses in the lesion. "
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    • "Rolling circle amplification (RCA) was performed to generate full-length PV genomes following an optimized protocol (Schulz et al. 2009). PV presence was tested using the PV degenerated FAP (Forslund et al. 1999) and CP primers (Iftner et al. 2003). The FAP and CP primers amplify DNA fragments of approximately 450 bp of the L1 and E1 genes, respectively. "
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