Daytime naps improve procedural motor memory

ArticleinSleep Medicine 7(6):508-12 · October 2006with79 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2006.04.002 · Source: PubMed
To investigate the impact of a short daytime nap on procedural and declarative memory consolidation. Following a normal night's sleep, 34 young healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a nap or wake condition of about 45min in the early afternoon after learning procedural and declarative memory tasks. Subjects were controlled for alertness and cortisol secretion. The afternoon naps were dominated by sleep stage 2 but contained some slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as well. Naps significantly improved procedural, but not declarative, memory. Females showed more improvement than males in the declarative memory tasks irrespective of nap or wake. There was no difference between groups with respect to cortisol secretion or alertness. A short nap is favorable for consolidation of procedural memory. The possibly confounding effect of gender should always be considered in research on sleep and memory.
    • "En effet, même si la rétention de paires de mots suit une courbe d'oubli tout au long de [119] ou de la navigation spatiale [107, 108]). Ainsi, dans une étude IRMf [120], le rappel correct des paires de mots deux jours après l'encodage était associé à une activité hippocampique accrue ainsi qu'à une connectivité fonctionnelle entre l'hippocampe et le [117,[123][124][125][126]; pour une absence d'effet voir toutefois [127]). car ils favoriseraient la plasticité cérébrale [52, 129]. "
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    • "Deterioration, as found here, is a hint that sleep can neither stop decline of trivial knowledge nor enhance non-important declarative content. In addition, it cannot be ruled out that the combination of declarative and motor tasks may hamper the consolidation of each individual task, as was previously seen (Backhaus and Junghanns, 2006; Mednick et al., 2008). The recuperative values of naps in the aging population has been previously shown (Tamaki et al., 1999; Campbell et al., 2005 Campbell et al., , 2011 Scullin and Bliwise, 2015). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of sleep on motor learning in the aging brain was investigated using an experimental diurnal nap setup. As the brain ages several components of learning as well as motor performance change. In addition, aging is also related to sleep architectural changes. This combination of slowed learning processes and impaired sleep behavior raises the question of whether sleep can enhance learning and specifically performance of procedural tasks in healthy, older adults. Previous research was able to show sleep-dependent consolidation overnight for numerous tasks in young adults. Some of these study findings can also be replicated for older adults. This study aims to clarify whether sleep-dependent consolidation can also be found during shorter periods of diurnal sleep. The impact of midday naps on motor consolidation was analyzed by comparing procedural learning using a sequence and a motor adaptation task, in a crossover fashion in healthy, non-sleep deprived, older adults randomly subjected to wake (45 min), short nap (10-20 min sleep) or long nap (50-70 min sleep) conditions. Older adults exhibited learning gains, these were not found to be sleep-dependent in either task. The results suggest that daytime naps do not have an impact on performance and motor learning in an aging population.
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    • "This aspect could not be considered as our participants napped after learning and not prior to, as in the mentioned study. At last it may also be that the combination of declarative and motor learning tasks, as was also done by Backhaus and Junghanns (2006) and Mednick et al. (2008) may hamper the consolidation of both. Genzel et al. (2012Genzel et al. ( , 2015) also combined both task types and revealed an modulatory role especially of the menstrual cycle on declarative learning and enhancement of offline learning in both tasks related to the use of oral contraceptives. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep has previously been claimed to be essential for the continued learning processes of declarative information as well as procedural learning. This study was conducted to examine the importance of sleep, especially the effects of midday naps, on motor sequence and visuomotor adaptation learning. Thirty-five (27 females) healthy, young adults aged between 18 and 30 years of age participated in the current study. Addressing potential differences in explicit sequence and motor adaptation learning participants were asked to learn both, a nine-element explicit sequence and a motor adaptation task, in a crossover fashion on two consecutive days. Both tasks were performed with their non-dominant left hand. Prior to learning, each participant was randomized to one of three interventions; (1) power nap: 10-20 min sleep, (2) long nap: 50-80 min sleep or (3) a 45-min wake-condition. Performance of the motor learning task took place prior to and after a midday rest period, as well as after a night of sleep. Both sleep conditions were dominated by Stage N2 sleep with embedded sleep spindles, which have been described to be associated with enhancement of motor performance. Significant performance changes were observed in both tasks across all interventions (sleep and wake) confirming that learning took place. In the present setup, the magnitude of motor learning was not sleep-dependent in young adults - no differences between the intervention groups (short nap, long nap, no nap) could be found. The effect of the following night of sleep was not influenced by the previous midday rest or sleep period. This finding may be related to the selectiveness of the human brain enhancing especially memory being thought of as important in the future. Previous findings on motor learning enhancing effects of sleep, especially of daytime sleep, are challenged.
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