Heat stress (HS) is an important environmental stress factor affecting poultry production on a global scale. With the rise in ambient temperature and increasing effects of global warming, it becomes pertinent to understand the effects of HS on poultry production and the strategies that can be adopted to mitigate its detrimental impacts on the performance, health, welfare, immunity, and survival of birds. Amino acids (AAs) have been increasingly adopted as nutritional modifiers in animals to ameliorate the adverse effects of HS. They are essential for protein synthesis, growth, maintenance, reproduction, immunity, stress response, and whole-body homeostasis. However, HS tends to adversely affect the availability, transport, absorption, and utilization of these AAs. Studies have investigated the provision of these AAs to poultry during HS conditions, and variable findings have been reported. Taurine, L-theanine, and L-citrulline are non-essential amino acids that are increasingly gaining attention as nutritional supplements in HS animals. Similarly, betaine is an amino acid derivative that possesses favorable biological properties which contributes to its role as a functional additive during HS. Of particular note, taurine is negligible in plants, while betaine, L-theanine, and L-citrulline can be found in selected plants. These nutrients are barely found in feed ingredients, but their supply has been shown to elicit important physiological roles including anti-stress effects, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, gut promoting, and immunomodulatory functions. The present review provides information on the use of these nutritionally and physiologically beneficial nutrients as functional additives to poultry diets during HS conditions. Presently, although several studies have reported on the positive effects of these additives in human and murine studies, however, there is limited information regarding their utilization during heat stress in poultry nutrition. Therefore, this review aims to expound on the functional properties of these nutrients, their potentials for HS alleviation, and to stimulate further researches on their biological roles in poultry nutrition.