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Kinematic, Kinetic, and Blood Lactate Profiles of Continuous and Intraset Rest Loading Schemes

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the acute kinematic, kinetic, and blood lactate responses to continuous and intraset rest loading schemes that differed in terms of rest frequency but not total rest duration. Nine male subjects performed an isoinertial bench press task (6 repetition maximum load) with a continuous, an intraset rest equated by total rest time, volume, and load (ISRV), and an intraset rest equated by total rest time and load (ISRR) loading scheme. The scheme order was assigned in a block-randomized order with a minimum of 48 hours of recovery between testing sessions. Attached to the bar of the Smith machine was a linear position transducer that measured vertical displacement with an accuracy of 0.01 cm. Displacement data was sampled at 1,000 Hz and collected by a laptop computer running custom-built data acquisition software. Finger prick blood lactate samples were taken from the nondominant hand before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 5, 15 and 30 minutes after exercise. Blood glucose samples were taken before exercise only. It was observed that manipulating the rest period, by increasing the frequency but decreasing the length of each rest period, did not significantly influence the kinematics and kinetics associated with resistance training, but did have an effect on the postexercise blood lactate response when the load, rest duration, and training volume were equated (ISRV). This finding may be of practical significance if fatigue is important in strength development or conversely if power training requires minimal fatigue. It was also observed that increasing the frequency of the rest period enabled the subjects to perform a greater number of repetitions (ISRR), resulting in significantly greater kinematics, kinetics, and blood lactate accumulation.

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... This study used a crossover design to examine the electromyographic and metabolic responses of resistance training protocols differentiated by repetition duration (3:3 and 1.5:1.5 seconds) and repetitions numbers (6,12). Each volunteer attended the laboratory on 4 different days (experimental sessions 1 through 4) separated by at least 48 hours. ...
... With the production of higher maximal forces in Protocol B, additional motor units with higher glycolytic capacities were presumably recruited (6,17,28), which might promote an increase in blood lactate production compared with Protocol A. This hypothesis is supported by the EMG data from this study. Additionally, it is important to note that the realization of higher repetition numbers in Protocol B should also be taken into account, considering that some investigations have found a greater mechanical work that provides a higher metabolic response (6,12,22). ...
... It is known that the torque variation in dynamic muscle actions (13), as well as changes in the acceleration of the bar, may change the EMG signal (14) and blood lactate response (9). Knowledge of the changes in force during the acceleration and deceleration phases of the bar movement in the bench press exercise could result in a better understanding of changes in EMG (31) and blood lactate responses (12). Furthermore, the data indicate a large variability in the EMG RMS responses (large interquartile range values), especially for Protocol B. It is possible that during Protocol B the higher variation in muscle activation may be due to the need for greater acceleration of the bar in a shorter time period compared with Protocol A. However, variability in the EMG responses during strength training protocols has often been reported in the literature (16,25). ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protocols equalized by the time under tension (TUT), but composed of different repetition durations and repetitions numbers, on muscle activation and blood lactate concentration. Twenty-two males with previous experience in resistance training performed two training protocols (A and B) with the Smith machine bench press exercise, both with 3 sets, 3 minutes rest, and 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM). Protocol A consisted of 6 repetitions with a 6s repetition duration for each repetition, while in Protocol B the subjects performed 12 repetitions with a 3s repetition duration for each repetition. Muscular activation was measured in the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles while performing the two protocols and the normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) was calculated for each set. Blood lactate concentrations were measured during and up to 12 minutes after the completion of each protocol. The results showed that the EMGRMS of all muscles increased during the sets and was higher in Protocol B when compared to Protocol A. Likewise, blood lactate concentrations also increased throughout the sets and was higher in Protocol B both during and after the completion of each training session. The data obtained in this study show that training protocols conducted with the same TUT, but with different configurations, produce distinct neuromuscular and metabolic responses, so that, performing higher repetition numbers with shorter repetition durations might be a more appropriate strategy to increase muscle activation and blood lactate concentration.
... An individual's capacity to complete a high volume of RE within a given training session is inversely related to the average amount of rest taken between sets (5,7,16,27,37,39). This relationship is primarily due to the fact that shorter rest periods allow the body less time to clear function-reducing metabolites such as carbon dioxide and free hydrogen from muscle (5,30,36). ...
... The short rest intervals characteristic of hypertrophy training tend to cause an acute build-up of glycolytic byproducts (5,7,17,20,21,30) known to have a beneficial effect on testosterone (25,36) and growth hormone (12,13,33) release while having a detrimental effect on muscle contractility (7,30,32,35,37). The strength of these effects is believed to diminish with time following completion of a set (30) as a result of ongoing metabolic clearance. ...
... The short rest intervals characteristic of hypertrophy training tend to cause an acute build-up of glycolytic byproducts (5,7,17,20,21,30) known to have a beneficial effect on testosterone (25,36) and growth hormone (12,13,33) release while having a detrimental effect on muscle contractility (7,30,32,35,37). The strength of these effects is believed to diminish with time following completion of a set (30) as a result of ongoing metabolic clearance. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine if between-set rest intervals in hypertrophy-type resistance training (HTRE) are more effective when standardized to an individual marker of recovery (heart rate; HR) than when standardized to a pre-determined unit of time (60 sec). Thirty-four recreationally trained college males (22.7 ± 3.5 yrs; 7.1 ±4.2 yrs continuous RE experience ≥2 d·wk-1) performed otherwiseidentical bench press protocols (60% 1RM, max sets of >8 repetitions to failure) differing only by method used to calculate between-set rest intervals. Subjects completed significantly more (P<0.001, Cohen's d = .76) repetitions under HR-determined rest conditions (55.1 ± 29.4 vs. 39.5 ± 16.6) and experienced 25.8% faster set-to-set performance decline under time-based rest conditions (P<0.01, Cohen's d = .50). We concluded individualized rest intervals may be more effective than traditional (time-based) methods when extrapolated over the course of a prudent multi-week training program. While our study is not the first to standardize between-set rest intervals in HTRE to a physiological marker of recovery such as HR, it does appear to be the first to standardize them to values recorded after the first working set in the current exercise session.
... While the evidence for the beneficial influence of accumulated fatigue during resistance training contributing to gains in muscular strength is conflicting (Folland et al., 2002;Rooney et al., 1994), fatigue has been suggested to interfere with the development of muscular power output (Tidow, 1990). Indeed, the insertion of short interrepetition rest periods (20 -130 s) during cluster sets has been shown to ameliorate the decrease in bar velocity and power output between repetitions completed in sets of both clean pulls and the bench press exercise compared to a continuous repetitions scheme (Denton and Cronin, 2006;Haff et al., 2003;Lawton et al., 2006). Furthermore, the advantage of short interrepetition rest periods in maintaining power output during the bench press exercise appears to be unrelated to the specific configuration used, with schemes involving singles and doubles being equally effective (Lawton et al., 2006). ...
... Most of the studies investigating the use of cluster sets with resistance exercises have focused on the mechanical variables of bar velocity and power output (Denton and Cronin, 2006;Haff et al., 2003;Lawton et al., 2006). These variables do not provide sufficient information for the strength and conditioning practitioner to determine the potential efficacy of cluster sets given the potential mechanical stimuli (e.g. ...
... Despite recent researchers including other mechanical variables (e.g. impulse, work (Denton and Cronin, 2006)), all of these studies are limited by the use of technologies that preclude the measurement of the ground reaction force during the movement, bringing the validity of the data into question (Cormie et al., 2007;Crewther et al., 2011). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of different configurations of repetitions within a set of deadlifts on the mechanical variables of force, impulse, work, power, concentric time and fatigue recorded using force platforms and a motion analysis system. ...
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of different configurations of repetitions within a set of deadlifts on the mechanical variables of concentric force, concentric time under tension, impulse, work, power, and fatigue. Eleven resistance trained men (age: 21.9 ± 1.0 years; deadlift 1 repetition maximum: 183.2 ± 38.3 kg) performed four repetitions of the deadlift exercise with a load equivalent to 90% of 1 repetition maximum under three different set configurations: Traditional (continuous repetitions); Doubles cluster (repetitions 1 and 2, and 3 and 4 performed continuously with a 30 s rest inserted between repetitions 2 and 3); Singles cluster (30 s rest provided between repetitions). The order of the sessions was counterbalanced across the subjects and the mechanical variables were calculated during each repetition from the synchronized signals recorded from force platforms and a motion analysis system. Relative to the Traditional set, the insertion of rest periods in the cluster set configurations resulted in greater time under tension (p < 0.001) and therefore, greater impulse (p < 0.001) during the repetitions. Reductions in power were observed during the cluster sets compared to the Traditional set (p = 0.001). The Doubles cluster set resulted in greater fatigue scores for power compared to the Traditional set (p = 0.04). The influence of cluster sets on mechanical variables appears to be mediated by the mechanical characteristics of the exercise (i.e. stretch-shortening cycle) and the competing physiological mechanisms of fatigue and potentiation.
... Previously, researchers have shown that a CS acutely attenuates fatigue development and allows the maintenance of mechanical performance (24,39) along with creating lower metabolic and hormonal stress (7,11,26,29,30,41,43) compared with TRD configurations. However, most studies comparing mechanical performance between CS and TRD structures have used only one type of instrumentation or used solely kinetic or kinematic data (6,7,11,15,26,28,41,43), which may result in bias in the calculation of variables, especially power output (4). To date, only a few studies examining the effects of CS configuration have combined both kinetic and kinematic data (16,29,30,40), which seems to be superior when measuring force, velocity, and power (4). ...
... These findings are consistent across a variety of resistance exercises, including back squat (11,26,40,41), power clean (14,16), unloaded (28) and loaded jumps (1,15), and BP (1,7,8,25). By contrast, another study reported no differences in mean force during the BP exercise with 6RM load, comparing TRD and CS structures (6). The different loading conditions may explain the discrepancies between studies. ...
... Performance and Neuromuscular Activity During Cluster Sets (2020) 00:00 muscle activation (19). In addition, the fatigue-induced reduction in EMG frequency has been attributed to decreases in the firing rate of fatigued fast motor units (2) and impairments in action potential conduction velocity associated with metabolic byproduct accumulation and decline in intramuscular pH (3), as typically observed during TRD approaches (6,7,11,12,26). However, the EMG signal may also be affected by other factors, such as fiber membrane properties, which makes EMG interpretation limited (21). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different cluster set (CS) configurations on mechanical performance and electromyography (EMG) activity during the bench press (BP) exercise. Fourteen strength-trained men (age 23.062.4 years; height 1.7660.08 m; body mass 78.3612.2 kg) performed 3 different protocols in the BP exercise consisting of 3 sets of 12 repetitions at 60% of 1 repetition maximum with interset rests of 2 minutes, differing in the set configuration: (a) traditional sets (TRDs), (b) cluster sets of 4 repetitions (CS4), and (c) cluster sets of 2 repetitions (CS2). Intraset rests of 30 seconds were interposed for CS protocols. The mean propulsive values of force, velocity, and power output were measured for every repetition by synchronizing a linear velocity transducer with a force platform. The root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) for pectoralis major (PM) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles were also recorded for every repetition. Force, velocity, and power values progressively increased as the number of intraset rests increased (TRD,CS4,CS2). The CS2 protocol exhibited lower RMS-PM than CS4 and TRD for almost all sets. In addition, TRDs showed significantly lower MDF-TB than CS2 for all sets and lower MDF-TB than CS4 during the third set. In conclusion, more frequent intraset rests were beneficial for maintaining mechanical performance, which may be mediated, from a neuromuscular perspective, by lesser increases in EMG amplitude and attenuated reductions in EMG frequency.
... Additional rest may permit completion of a greater work volume, which may result in larger metabolic stress and subsequent endocrine response that favours increases in muscular endurance (Iglesias et al., 2010) and strength (Denton & Cronin, 2006). By manipulating the rest period, intensity, number of reps or a combination of the three within a CS protocol, specific training-phase goals can be targeted (Haff et al., 2008). ...
... It has been suggested that appropriately implemented restloading schemes (e.g. 15s rest intervals between CS of 1 and 2 reps) may provide a training stimulus that favours improved muscle size, work capacity and muscular endurance (Denton & Cronin, 2006; Haff et al., 2008). ...
... Researchers have indicated that the total degree of metabolic stress of the exercise may determine the magnitude of hormonal response to an acute exercise bout (Ahtiainen et al., 2005; Gotshalk et al., 1997; Häkkinen & Pakarinen, 1993). We observed higher BL levels directly following the TS protocol of the CP and BS exercises as compared to the CS protocol, a finding supported by previous research (Denton & Cronin, 2006; Goto et al., 2005; Iglesias- Soler et al., 2012). Perhaps the total glycolytic stress placed upon the body may have been affected by the implementation of the controlled 2-0-2 tempo for each BS repetition. ...
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Abstract Limited research exists on rest-pause or cluster-set (CS) protocols. Acute effects of a traditional set (TS) and CS protocols of resistance exercise on serum growth hormone (GH), cortisol (C), blood lactate (BL), countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) and standing long jump (SLJ) were compared. Eleven resistance-trained males (22.9±2.6 year; 176.9±10.6 cm; 78.5±1.6 kg; 12.9±3.1% BF) completed one repetition maximum tests for clean pull (CP), back squat (BS) and bench press (BP). Subjects were then randomly assigned to TS or CS protocols for sessions 2 and 3, and performed CP and BS lifts followed by two circuits of three sets of three exercises. GH, C, BL, CMVJ and SLJ were measured pre-exercise (Pre), mid-exercise following completion of CS or TS protocol (Mid), immediately (IP), 15 (15P) and 30 (30P) minutes post-exercise. Repeated measures ANOVAs examined differences in GH, C, BL, CMVJ and SLJ. No differences (p>0.05) existed between protocols for GH and C. GH levels 15P were elevated (p<0.05) above 30P (15.78 + 4.66 vs. 12.10 + 4.66 µg(.)L(-1)). C levels 30P were elevated (p<0.05) above Pre (716.85 + 102.56 vs. 524.79 + 75.79 nmol(.)L(-1)). Interaction (p <0.05) existed between protocol and time for BL; mid-BL was lower for CS than TS (7.69±3.73 vs. 12.78±1.90 mmol(.)L(-1)). Pooled data for CMVJ and SLJ were greater (p <0.05) across the CS protocol. The less metabolically taxing CS protocol resulted in better sustainability of jump measures.
... According to the specific adaptation to imposed demands (SAID) principle, changing variables within the application of an exercise elicits a specific response and subsequent adaptation, given adequate recovery is provided (32). Thus, intraset rest theoretically could allow CS to induce greater adaptations to training by allowing for heavier loading at the same training volume load (2,28), and potentiate explosiveness and power adaptations (13) by maintenance of forces (15,28), velocity (V) (12,15,17,28,34,35), or power (P) (12,15,19,20,25,(27)(28)(29)34,35) at a given load when compared to traditional resistance training protocols (TP). Cluster set training could be useful for a variety of purposes such as enhancing the training effect by offering a greater stimulus or varying the stimulus to promote further adaptation. ...
... In addition, Folland et al. noted a tendency toward greater high-velocity gains in the low-fatigue protocol, suggesting that velocity and perhaps power would be higher with greater interrepetition rest. Indeed, further study on CS has demonstrated increased, or maintained force, rate of force development (RFD), velocity, and power for CS compared to TP (2,10,12,13,15,17,19,20,25,26,28,29,34,35). ...
... Although CS protocols have been previously investigated, there are few studies describing both kinetic and kinematic characteristics and there are a number of limitations in these studies. A number of intraset rest periods and exercises have been used (2,4,5,6,(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)34,35). These studies have demonstrated varying results due to the variety of protocols used. ...
Article
Wetmore, A, Wagle, JP, Sams, ML, Taber, CB, DeWeese, BH, Sato, K, and Stone, MH. Cluster set loading in the back squat: Kinetic and kinematic implications. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-As athletes become well trained, they require greater stimuli and variation to force adaptation. One means of adding additional variation is the use of cluster loading. Cluster loading involves introducing interrepetition rest during a set, which in theory may allow athletes to train at higher absolute intensities for the same volume. The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinetic and kinematic implications of cluster loading as a resistance training programming tactic compared with traditional loading (TL). Eleven resistance-trained men (age = 26.75 ± 3.98 years, height = 181.36 ± 5.96 cm, body mass = 89.83 ± 10.66 kg, and relative squat strength = 1.84 ± 0.34) were recruited for this study. Each subject completed 2 testing sessions consisting of 3 sets of 5 back squats at 80% of their 1 repetition maximum with 3 minutes of interset rest. Cluster loading included 30 seconds of interrepetition rest with 3 minutes of interset rest. All testing was performed on dual-force plates sampling at 1,000 Hz, and the barbell was connected to 4 linear position transducers sampling at 1,000 Hz. Both conditions had similar values for peak force, concentric average force, and eccentric average force (p = 0.25, effect size (ES) = 0.09, p = 0.25, ES = 0.09, and p = 0.60, ES = 0.04, respectively). Cluster loading had significantly higher peak power (PP) (p < 0.001, ES = 0.77), peak and average velocities (p < 0.001, ES = 0.77, and p < 0.001, ES = 0.81, respectively), lower times to PP and velocity (p < 0.001, ES = -0.68, and p < 0.001, ES = -0.68, respectively) as well as greater maintenance of time to PP (p < 0.001, ES = 1.57). These results suggest that cluster loading may be superior to TL when maintaining power output and time point variables is the desired outcome of training.
... The current knowledge on cluster sets suggests that they allow for greater PW outputs when compared with traditional set configurations (6,(8)(9)(10)(11)13). It is suggested that cluster sets may be best suited for explosive exercises (8). ...
... This study demonstrated that cluster sets resulted in a greater maintenance of plyometric jump PW, whereas the traditional sets allowed for near-complete recovery between sets. Many prior studies performed on cluster sets were performed on strength exercises or explosive barbell exercises (6,(9)(10)(11)13) and many studies compared cluster sets with a traditional set without controlling rest time, resulting in disparate total exercise times (9,11,13). In this study, total rest time and total volume were the same in all conditions, resulting in equal total workout times. ...
... This may be explained by a psychological component in that the subjects tried to conserve energy and pace themselves in the 2 3 10 condition because of the extended number of repetitions. Overall, most studies have shown that cluster sets attenuate decreases in PW, which was attributed to PCr resynthesis and removal of lactate (6,10,11,13). ...
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Cluster sets may lead to enhanced power production by allowing for partial recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cluster sets vs. traditional sets on plyometric jump power (PW), ground reaction force (GRF), take-off velocity (TOV), and jump height (JH). Twenty-six recreationally trained college men completed three testing sessions, which involved performing repeated body-weight (BW) plyometric squat jumps across three different set configurations of: traditional (2 sets of 10 with 90 seconds rest between sets), Cluster 1 (4 sets of 5 with 30 seconds rest between sets), and Cluster 2 (10 sets of 2 with 10 seconds rest between sets). GRF results demonstrated no interaction or main effect for condition, but there was a significant (p < .05) main effect for repetition, where repetition 1 was significantly less than repetitions 3-5, 7-10, 12-15, and 17-20. For TOV, PW, and JH, there were significant interactions. TOV resulted in the following: Traditional, repetition 1 was significantly greater than repetitions 7-10 and 17-20, but was significantly less than repetition 13; Cluster 1, repetition 1 was significantly less than repetitions 2-5; Cluster 2, there were no significant differences. PW resulted in the following: Traditional, repetition 1 was significantly greater than repetitions 4-10 and 14-20; Cluster 1, repetition 1 was significantly greater than repetitions 7-10 and 12-20; Cluster 2, repetition 1 was significantly greater than repetitions 3, 6-18 and 20. JH resulted in the following: Traditional, repetition 1 was significantly greater than repetitions 18- 20, but was significantly less than repetitions 3 and 13. For Cluster 1 and Cluster 2, there were no significant differences. These results demonstrate that cluster sets, specifically 10 sets of 2, allow for a greater maintenance of PW, TOV, and JH compared to a traditional 2 sets of 10 when performing repeated BW plyometric squat jumps. A lack of training data precludes definitive recommendations; however, based on this data, coaches should have their athletes perform 2-5 jumps with 27-45 seconds rest, respectively.
... However, it is important to keep in mind that although RR set configurations (e.g., 10 sets of 3 repetitions with 1 min of inter-set rest) could be effective in inducing an acute improvement in power output and movement technique, a TR set configuration (e.g., 3 sets of 10 repetitions with 4.5 minutes of inter-set rest) might have a higher incidence on work capacity and enzymatic function (2). Therefore, it would be important to compare the effect of TR, CL and RR set configurations on neuromuscular and perceptual responses during RT sessions in which the sets are not performed to failure. ...
... These results collectively highlight that although the neuromuscular and perceptual fatigue during training could be lower for the CL and RR set configurations, the residual fatigue accumulated during RT is not affected by different set configurations. A lower level of metabolic fatigue could be responsible for the higher movement velocities observed during training for the CL and RR set configurations compared to the TR set configuration (2,4,7). However, previous research showed that metabolic fatigue drops rapidly after the last training set regardless of the set structure (i.e., TR, CL or RR) while also being consistently lower after the training than during the training (2,7,27), and this could explain the lack of differences in residual fatigue (i.e., decrements in CMJ height and throwing velocity) between the set configurations. ...
... A lower level of metabolic fatigue could be responsible for the higher movement velocities observed during training for the CL and RR set configurations compared to the TR set configuration (2,4,7). However, previous research showed that metabolic fatigue drops rapidly after the last training set regardless of the set structure (i.e., TR, CL or RR) while also being consistently lower after the training than during the training (2,7,27), and this could explain the lack of differences in residual fatigue (i.e., decrements in CMJ height and throwing velocity) between the set configurations. The similar degree of residual fatigue induced by the 3 set configurations could be explained by the fact that subjects were instructed to perform all repetitions during training with maximum intent. ...
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This study aimed to compare the acute effect of traditional (TR), cluster (CL) and rest redistribution (RR) set configurations on neuromuscular and perceptual measures of fatigue. Thirty-one resistance-trained men randomly performed a Control session and 3 experimental sessions consisting of the squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) exercises performed against the 10-repetition maximum load using TR (3 sets of 6 repetitions; 3 minutes of inter-set rest), CL (3 sets of 6 repetitions; 30 seconds of intra-set rest every 2 repetitions; 3 minutes of inter-set rest), and RR (9 sets of 2 repetitions; 45 seconds of inter-set rest) set configurations. A significant effect of “set configuration” (p=0.002) was observed for barbell velocity. The average velocity of the training session was lower for TR compared to CL (% difference = 5.09% in SQ and 5.68% in BP) and RR (% difference = 5.92% in SQ and 2.71% in BP). The 3 set configurations induced comparable decrements in countermovement jump height (% difference from -6.0% to -8.1%) and throwing velocity (% difference from -0.6% to -1.2%). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE-10) values collected after the sets were higher for TR (SQ: 6.9±0.7 a.u.; BP: 6.8±0.8 a.u.) compared to CL (SQ: 6.2±0.8 a.u.; BP: 6.4±0.7 a.u.) and RR (SQ: 6.2±0.8 a.u.; BP: 6.6±0.9 a.u.), while the session RPE did not differ between the set configurations (p=0.595). CL and RR set configurations allow for higher velocities and lower RPE values during resistance training sessions not performed to failure in comparison to a TR set configuration.
... Inherent to every strength or power exercise is the decrease of movement velocity as fatigue increases (16,23,30). Given that movement velocity is a key factor in eliciting neuromuscular adaptations (26,30), fatigue must be avoided to maximize power training effects (2,9). A simple way of avoiding fatigue is performing few repetitions per set (2,5,17). ...
... A superior mechanical stimulus of different cluster configurations has been already reported in several exercises, such as the bench press (25), parallel back squat (24), half back squat (12), power clean (18), clean pull (16), and jump squat (17), when compared with traditional continuous sets configurations. Therefore, considering the idea of executing repetitions until power output or movement velocity drops below certain threshold, the inclusion of rest periods between repetitions may considerably increase set's volume while maintaining optimal power output (9). ...
... Most of the acute studies comparing cluster and traditional sets configurations have been conducted with moderate to heavy loads ($70%RM) (9,16,18,24,25). There may be a need to explore the impact of cluster set configurations with lower loaded exercises such as those seen in powerbased training. ...
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This study investigated the effect of introducing different interrepetition rest (IRR) periods on the ability to sustain maximum bench press throw velocity with a range of loads commonly used to develop upper-body power. Thirty-four physically active collegiate men (age: 21.5 ± 2.8 years; body mass: 75.2 ± 7.2 kg; height: 176.9 ± 4.9 cm) were tested during 2 consecutive weeks. During the first week, the maximum dynamic strength (repetition maximum [RM]) in bench press exercise was determined (RM = 76.7 ± 13.2 kg). The following week, 3 testing sessions were conducted with 48 hours apart in random order. In each day of evaluation, only 1 load (30%RM, 40%RM, or 50%RM) was assessed in the bench press throw exercise. With each load, subjects performed 3 single sets of 15 repetitions (15-minute interset rest) with 3 different sets configurations: continuous repetitions (CR), 6 seconds of IRR (IRR6), and 12 seconds of IRR (IRR12). The decrease of peak velocity (PV) was significantly lower for IRR12 compared with CR and IRR6 at least since the repetition 4. No differences between CR and IRR6 protocols were found until the repetition 7 at 30%RM and 40%RM and until the repetition 5 at 50%RM. The decrease of PV during the CR protocol was virtually linear for the 3 loads analyzed (r2 > 0.99); however, this linear relationship became weaker for IRR6 (r2 = 0.79–0.95) and IRR12 (r2 = 0.35–0.87). These results demonstrate that IRR periods allow increasing the number of repetitions before the onset of significant velocity losses.
... During a set performed with a traditional configuration (without IRR intervals), an involuntary decline in velocity, force and power occurs as a consequence of fatigue accumulated during previous repetitions (Enoka & Duchateau, 2008;Lawton, Cronin, & Lindsell, 2006). The continued use of this type of efforts during RT may generate undesired neuromuscular adaptations (Denton & Cronin, 2006;Lawton et al., 2006), as it has been reported that increase in strength as a consequence of training is velocity-specific (Englund, Sharp, Selsby, Ganesan, & Franke, 2017;Jones, Bishop, Hunter, & Fleisig, 2001;Pareja-Blanco et al., 2014. In accordance with this approach, the largest increases in strength occur at or near the training velocity, while a less effective training effect occurs if training velocity deviates from the target velocity (Englund et al., 2017;Jones et al., 2001;Pareja-Blanco et al., 2014). ...
... The current knowledge on cluster set indicates that this methodology allows greater force, velocity and power output to be attained compared with traditional set configurations while reducing accumulated fatigue (Denton & Cronin, 2006;Garcia-Ramos et al., 2017;González-Hernádez et al., 2017;Haff et al., 2003;Lawton et al., 2006;Moreno, Brown, Coburn, & Judelson, 2014). However, the response to different IRR periods remains relatively unexplored. ...
... However, studies analyzing the acute effects of IRR intervals have used a single training set (Garcia-Ramos et al., 2015;Iglesias-Soler et al., 2012;Lawton et al., 2006;Moir, Graham, Davis, Guers, & Witmer, 2013) and/or a unique load magnitude González-Hernádez et al., 2017;Hansen, Cronin, & Newton, 2011;Hardee et al., 2012;Iglesias-Soler et al., 2012;Oliver et al., 2015;Rahimi et al., 2010) Therefore, it is difficult to extrapolate findings from this type of research to the responses associated with a typical RT session. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, only four studies (Denton & Cronin, 2006;Garcia-Ramos et al., 2017;Girman et al., 2014;González-Hernádez et al., 2017) have compared the acute metabolic response induced by IRR intervals with traditional set configurations. These studies (Denton & Cronin, 2006;Garcia-Ramos et al., 2017;Girman et al., 2014;González-Hernádez et al., 2017) concluded that cluster set configurations induced lower blood lactate concentrations than traditional sets, although results relating to protocols using the full squat exercise are scarce (González-Hernádez et al., 2017). ...
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This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of inter-repetition rest (IRR) intervals on mechanical and metabolic response during four resistance exercise protocols (REPs). Thirty resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to: continuous repetitions (CR), 10 s (IRR10) or 20 s (IRR20) inter-repetition rest. The REPs consisted of 3 sets of 6, 5, 4 and 3 repetitions against 60, 70, 75 and 80% 1RM, respectively, in the full squat exercise. Muscle fatigue was assessed using: percentage of velocity loss over three sets, percentage of velocity loss against the ~1 m·s⁻¹ load (V1 m·s⁻¹), and loss of countermovement jump (CMJ) height pre-post exercise. Blood lactate was measured before and after exercise. The percentage of velocity loss over three sets and lactate concentration were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for IRR groups compared to CR in all REPs. The CR group showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) velocity loss against V1 m·s⁻¹ load and loss of CMJ height pre-post exercise than IRR groups in REP against 60% 1RM. In conclusion, both IRR groups produced a significant lower degree of fatigue compared to CR group. However, no significant differences were found in any measured variables between IRR configurations.
... Previous cluster set literature has examined peak velocity (PV), 2,7,10,12,15 mean velocity (MV), 16,20 peak power (PP), 2,10,12,15,21 mean power (MP), 16,[22][23][24][25][26] peak force (PF), 2,10,12,15 and mean force (MF), 16,22,25 but none of these studies have investigated all of these variables within the same study. Also, due to the limited number of studies examining the effect of high-volume cluster set structures on these variables across multiple sets, there is a need for research on this topic. ...
... Previous cluster set literature has examined peak velocity (PV), 2,7,10,12,15 mean velocity (MV), 16,20 peak power (PP), 2,10,12,15,21 mean power (MP), 16,[22][23][24][25][26] peak force (PF), 2,10,12,15 and mean force (MF), 16,22,25 but none of these studies have investigated all of these variables within the same study. Also, due to the limited number of studies examining the effect of high-volume cluster set structures on these variables across multiple sets, there is a need for research on this topic. ...
... These results are in line with other studies comparing MF during the bench press with a 6RM load 22 and PF during bodyweight 11 and 40kg jump squats 1 using traditional and cluster set structures, but are in disagreement with others. 16 In this study, 16 the authors report that MF was greater when using cluster sets compared to traditional sets during four sets of 10 back squats at 70% 1RM; however, that statement is somewhat misleading because the load was decreased in the traditional set protocol by an average of 8% compared to a constant load used during the cluster set structure. ...
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Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of a traditional set structure and two cluster set structures on force, velocity, and power during back squats in strength-trained men. Methods: Twelve men (25.8 ± 5.1 y; 1.74 ± 0.07 m; 79.3 ± 8.2 kg) performed three sets of twelve repetitions at 60% of one repetition maximum using three different set structures: traditional sets (TS), cluster sets of four (CS4), and cluster sets of two (CS2). Results: When averaged across all repetitions, peak velocity (PV), mean velocity (MV), peak power (PP), and mean power (MP) were greater in CS2 and CS4 compared to TS (p < 0.01), with CS2 also resulting in greater values than CS4 (p < 0.02). When examining individual sets within each set structure, PV, MV, PP, and MP decreased during the course of TS (effect sizes range from 0.28 - 0.99), while no decreases were noted during CS2 (effect sizes range from 0.00 - 0.13) or CS4 (effect sizes range from 0.00 - 0.29). Conclusions: These results demonstrate that CS structures maintain velocity and power whereas TS structures do not. Furthermore, increasing the frequency of intra-set rest intervals in CS structures maximises this effect and should be used if maximal velocity is to be maintained during training.
... One potential strategy for offsetting the fatigue-induced performance decrements associated with TS could be the use of CS (33). Based on the work of Gorostiaga et al. (29)(30)(31), using CS structures to provide more frequent rest periods should result in enhanced recovery via a greater maintenance of PCr stores and increased metabolite clearance compared with TS training (19,27,75). By using CS structures, there may be an increase in substrate availability (i.e., PCr and ATP) that could result in the maintenance of movement velocity throughout an entire set and, ultimately, an entire training session. ...
... Previous research has indicated that force production remains relatively constant throughout TS and CS (19,35,68,91), but the movement velocity and power output across multiple sets seems to decrease to a greater extent during TS when compared with CS (33,37,39,91). Therefore, it has been hypothesized that a greater training stimulus for power development may be generated in response to the increased movement velocity noted in several studies comparing CS with TS (33,34,38,39,45,76). ...
... Because velocity is better maintained using CS than TS, CS structures may play a role in enhancing maximal strength (46,74). Additionally, CS allow for a greater number of repetitions to be performed with a given load (19,44), resulting in a greater volume load, which may also result in a greater stimulus for the development of maximal strength (55,79,87). ...
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When performing a set of successive repetitions, fatigue ensues and the quality of performance during subsequent repetitions contained in the set decreases. Oftentimes, this response may be beneficial, as fatigue may stimulate the neuromuscular system to adapt, resulting in a super-compensatory response. However, there are instances in which accumulated fatigue may be detrimental to training or performance adaptations (i.e. power development). In these instances, the ability to recover and maintain repetition performance would be considered essential. By providing intermittent rest between individual repetitions or groups of repetitions within a set, an athlete is able to acutely alleviate fatigue, allowing performance to remain relatively constant throughout an exercise session. Within the scientific literature, a set that includes intermittent rest between individual repetitions or groups of repetitions within a set is defined as a cluster set. Recently, cluster sets have received more attention as researchers have begun to examine the acute and chronic responses to this relatively novel set structure. However, much of the rest-period terminology within the literature lacks uniformity and many authors attempt to compare largely different protocols with the same terminology. Additionally, the present body of scientific literature has mainly focused on the effects of cluster sets on power output, leaving the effects of cluster sets on strength and hypertrophy relatively unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to further delineate cluster set terminology, describe the acute and chronic responses of cluster sets, and explain the need for further investigation of the effects of cluster sets.
... An individual's capacity to complete a high volume of RE within a given training session is inversely related to the average amount of rest taken between sets (5,7,16,27,37,39). This relationship is primarily due to the fact that shorter rest periods allow the body less time to clear function-reducing metabolites such as carbon dioxide and free hydrogen from muscle (5,30,36). ...
... The short rest intervals characteristic of hypertrophy training tend to cause an acute build-up of glycolytic byproducts (5,7,17,20,21,30) known to have a beneficial effect on testosterone (25,36) and growth hormone (12,13,33) release while having a detrimental effect on muscle contractility (7,30,32,35,37). The strength of these effects is believed to diminish with time following completion of a set (30) as a result of ongoing metabolic clearance. ...
... The short rest intervals characteristic of hypertrophy training tend to cause an acute build-up of glycolytic byproducts (5,7,17,20,21,30) known to have a beneficial effect on testosterone (25,36) and growth hormone (12,13,33) release while having a detrimental effect on muscle contractility (7,30,32,35,37). The strength of these effects is believed to diminish with time following completion of a set (30) as a result of ongoing metabolic clearance. ...
... In accordance with previous research 24, 37 , blood lactate concentration was significantly greater following hypertrophy when compared with strength resistance exercise, even when matched for mechanical work and VL. The difference in the lactate response (Fig. 2) was likely influenced by the manipulation of inter-set recovery periods, as shorter periods of inter-set recovery are associated with decreased clearance of blood lactate from the muscle 25 , which accumulates with each performed repetition 38 . We cannot disregard that other variables, that were purposely manipulated (i.e. ...
... These findings further support our hypothesis that ED metrics better represent the metabolic stress of a resistance training session when compared with more traditional methods. The moderate correlation observed with total repetitions is not surprising as lactate accumulation occurs with each repetition 38 ; thus, the higher number of total repetitions present in the hypertrophy when compared with the strength condition would have led to this finding. ...
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Common estimates of external training intensity for resistance exercise do not incorporate inter-set recovery duration, and might not reflect the overall demands of training. This study aimed to assess novel metrics of exercise density (ED) during resistance exercise, and how these related to a physiological marker of internal training intensity as well as traditional measures of external training intensity and volume. Thirteen males and seven females performed two bouts of resistance exercise focused on developing strength (5 sets of 5 repetitions with 5-repetition maximum; 180 s recovery) and hypertrophy (3 sets of 10 repetitions with 10-repetition maximum; 60 s recovery). Blood lactate concentration was measured to quantify internal training intensity. Specific metrics of external volume (mechanical work, volume load and total repetitions) and intensity (average weight lifted and ED) were calculated. Despite lower average weights and no difference in mechanical work or volume load, blood lactate was greater following hypertrophy compared with the strength condition. This finding was consistent with higher measures of ED in the hypertrophy compared with the strength condition. Greater ED during hypertrophy resistance exercise, along with the significant association with changes in blood lactate, indicates that ED metrics are reflective of the sessional intensity for resistance exercise.
... It diminishes muscular fatigue and increases power output. 1 Cluster set allows greater power output to be attained with the same training volumes compared with traditional set configurations with because of the inter-repetition and inter-set rests. 3,4 As for its positive effects, it leads to less neuromuscular fatigue during resistance training than traditional set configurations, nervous systems increases the level of muscular contraction and prevents power losses. 5 A large part of the studies comparing traditional and cluster set configurations investigated the acute effect. ...
... 6 And a very few number of them focused on elite athletes. 4,8 However, no study has compared the effects of traditional and cluster resistance training (CRT) on professional volleyball athlete's strength and power performance. It is unknown to what extent cluster set configuration affects power and strength adaptations of professional volleyball players. ...
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ABS TRACT Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of six-week traditional and cluster resistance training (CRT) on sprint, agility, maximal strength and vertical jump parameters in professional volleyball players. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight professional male volleyball players participated in the present study. Athletes were randomly assigned into two training groups: traditional resistance training (TRT) (n=14) and CRT (n=14) groups. Both training groups performed the resistance trainings during six-week on three non-consecutive days (Monday, Wednesday and Friday). Subjects underwent countermovement vertical jump, agility t, 10-m, 20-m sprint, one repetition maximal (1RM) back squat (BS), bench press (BP), pull over (PO), military press (MP) and dead lift (DL) tests prior to and after six-week resistance training program. Results: Both training groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in 1RM, sprint times, vertical jump displacement and agility t-test (p<0.05). As compared with the TRT group, the CRT group demonstrated large significant gains in 1RM BS (CRT: 4.76%±2.34% vs. TRT: 2.21%±1.57%; p=0.002, effect size (ES)=0.51), 1RM PO (CRT: 7.59%±4.57% vs. TRT: 3.96%±3.65%; p=0.004, ES=0.91), 1RM DL (CRT: 4.19%±2.76% vs. TRT: 1.79%±2.92%; p=0.024, ES=0.875) and 1RM BP (CRT: 5.82%±4.58 vs. TRT: 2.66%±3.51; p=0.033, ES=0.31). As compared with the TRT group, the CRT group demonstrated significantly higher gains in 20-m sprint (CRT: 6.48%±4.70% vs. TRT: 1.81%±1.04%; p=0.001, ES=1.93), agility t-test performances (CRT: 11.35%±3.89% vs. TRT: 2.28%±1.85%; p=0.000, ES=0.81) and vertical jump displacement (CRT: 6.21%±0.90% vs. TRT: 2.13%±0.61%; p=0.000, ES=5.45). Conclusion: This study suggests that CRT provides more advantages than TRT for professional volleyball players. ÖZET Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, 6 hafta boyunca uygulanan gele-neksel ve kümelenmiş direnç antrenmanların sprint, çabukluk, maksi-mal kuvvet ve dikey sıçrama performansı üzerine olan etkilerini kıyaslamaktır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Yirmi sekiz profesyonel erkek vo-leybol oyuncusu bu çalışmaya katıldı. Sporcular, geleneksel direnç an-trenman (GDA; n=14) ve kümelenmiş direnç antrenman grubu (KDA; n=14) olarak randomize bir şekilde 2'ye ayrıldı. Her iki grup direnç an-trenmanlarını, 6 hafta boyunca ardışık olmayan 3 ayrı günde (Pazartesi, Çarşamba ve Cuma). Katılımcılara karşı hareket sıçrama, çabukluk t, 10-m, 20-m sprint, 1 tekrar maksimal (1TM) arka squat [back sguat (BS)] , "bench pres" (BP), "pull over" (PO), "military pres" ve "dead lift" (DL) testleri 6 haftalık antrenman öncesinde ve sonrasında uygu-landı. Bulgular: Her iki antrenman grubu 1 TM, sprint zamanı, dikey sıçrama yüksekliği ve çabukluk t-test performanslarında istatistiksel ola-rak önemli gelişmeler gösterdi (p<0,05). GDA grubuyla kıyaslandığında, KDA grubu 1TM BS'de (KDA: %4,76±%2,34'e karşı GDA: %2,21±%1,57; p=0,002, "effect size" (ES)=0,51), 1TM PO'da (KDA: %7,59±%4,57'e karşı GDA: %3,96±%3,65; p=0,004, ES=0,91), 1TM DL'de (KDA: %4,19±%2,76'e karşı GDA: %1,79±%2,92; p=0,024, ES=0,875) ve 1TM BP (CRT: %5,82±4,58'e karşı GDA: %2,66±3,51; p=0,033, ES=0,31). GDA grubuyla kıyaslandığında, KDA grubu 20-m sprint (KDA: %6,48±%4,70'e karşı GDA: %1,81±%1,04; p=0,001, ES=1,93) ve çabukluk t-testi (KDA: %11,35±%3,89'a karşı GDA: %2,28±%1,85; p=0,000, ES=0,81) ve dikey sıçramada (KDA: %6,21±%0,90'a karşı GDA: %2,13±%0,61; p=0,000, ES=5,45) istatis-tiksel anlamda daha yüksek kazanımlar sağladı. Sonuç: Bu çalışma, pro-fesyonel voleybolcularda, GDA yöntemine kıyasla daha iyi avantajlar sağlamaktadır. Anah tar Ke li me ler: Kümeleme direnç antrenmanı; kuvvet antrenmanı; geleneksel kuvvet antrenmanı; voleybol oyuncuları ORİJİNAL ARAŞTIRMA
... Por outro lado, possuem menor capacidade de manter a produção de força durante longos períodos 80 . Assim, a seleção do período adequado de descanso entre séries é fundamental para a manutenção da velocidade de execução, da taxa de produção de força e potência máxima durante o treinamento 11,34,83,[91][92][93][94][95] . ...
... Para evitar isso, a estratégia mais utilizada consiste em aumentar as recuperações entre as séries. Uma alternativa para as séries com repetições contínuas incide na introdução de recuperação entre as repetições 11,34,52,92,94,[96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104] , conhecido como "intra-set rest" (ISR). ...
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Para estimular uma melhor resposta adaptativa aos objetivos específicos do treinamento de força, a sobrecarga progressiva é a estratégia mais utilizada. A quantidade de trabalho realizada no treino com sobrecarga é aspecto determinante para a melhora do rendimento. Porém, a sobrecarga resulta em desgaste muscular mecânico, o que desencadeia o aparecimento da fadiga. A fadiga é proporcional à característica das cargas (volume, intensidade e recuperação). Neste sentido, a manipulação do intervalo de recuperação é fundamental para evitar a fadiga excessiva, possibilitando uma menor influência do desgaste mecânico na execução da série, auxiliando, assim, na manutenção do volume e intensidade adequadas. A estratégia frequentemente empregada é aumentar o tempo de recuperação entre séries. No entanto, evidências existentes na literatura científica indicam que a maneira mais eficiente de conseguir estes objetivos (diminuir a fadiga e manter o volume de treinamento necessário) é incorporar curtas recuperações no interior da série ("intra-set" ou ISR). Pode-se alcançar tal objetivo, incorporando a recuperação entre repetições ("inter-repetition rest" ou IRR), ou a cada bloco de repetições (agrupamento ou "cluster"). Estas estratégias metodológicas permitem conservar as características mecânicas do gesto (velocidade, força e potência) durante as repetições por série.
... Por outro lado, possuem menor capacidade de manter a produção de força durante longos períodos 80 . Assim, a seleção do período adequado de descanso entre séries é fundamental para a manutenção da velocidade de execução, da taxa de produção de força e potência máxima durante o treinamento 11,34,83,[91][92][93][94][95] . ...
... Para evitar isso, a estratégia mais utilizada consiste em aumentar as recuperações entre as séries. Uma alternativa para as séries com repetições contínuas incide na introdução de recuperação entre as repetições 11,34,52,92,94,[96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104] , conhecido como "intra-set rest" (ISR). ...
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The progressive training sessions with overloads are the most used strategies to elicit greater adaptive response to specific aims in strength performance. The total work with overload is a relevant factor in performance improvement. However, overload training affects mechanical muscular response, which triggers the onset of fatigue. The muscle fatigue reflects the loads characteristics (volume, intensity and recovery). In order to avoid the excessive fatigue while maintaining appropriate mechanical techniques, it is necessary to manipulate the recovery. Add more time between sets is the most applied strategy. According to the current researches, it seems that the best way to get both goals (less muscle fatigue and equal efficiency volume), is due to intra-set rest (ISR), which may be achieved by adding inter-repetition rest (IRR) in each repetition or cluster of repetitions within sets. These methodological approaches allow us to maintenance of technical characteristics (speed, strength, power) within many repetition-sets.
... By configuring sets in this manner, recovery may occur between clusters and allow the trainee to complete more repetitions than normal at a given intensity load and maintain performance across the set (Haff 2012). For instance, Denton and Cronin (2006) compared a traditional 6-repetition maximum (RM) set (302 s of rest) to a volume-equated cluster set (8 sets of 3 repetitions with 130 s of rest between sets) and a restequated cluster set (four 3-repetition sets alternated with 4 sets to failure with 130 s of rest between sets). While no differences were noted between the traditional and volume-equated cluster sets, the rest-equated cluster set resulted in a greater blood lactate response, more repetitions performed, and greater lifting kinetics (i.e., force, impulse, power, and work) during the bench press compared with the other conditions. ...
... To determine the acute effect on sprinting performance, 20-m sprint time, as well as 10-m and 10-20-m split times, were measured prior to exercise (PRE), as well as at 1, 4, 7, and 10 min postexercise on each experimental visit. Sprinting performance was selected for our dependent variable because the primary application of PAP is to facilitate athletic movement (Denton and Cronin 2006) and sprinting is a more common movement than jumping in soccer players. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if back squat cluster sets (CS) with varying inter-repetition rest periods would potentiate greater sprint performance compared to a traditional set parallel back squat in collegiate soccer players. Twelve collegiate male soccer players (21.0 ± 2.0 years; 180.0 ± 9.0 cm; 79.0 ± 9.5 kg) performed a 20-meter sprint prior to (PRE) a potentiation complex and at 1-, 4-, 7-, and 10-minutes post-exercise on three separate, randomized occasions. On each occasion, the potentiation complex consisted of 1 set of 3 repetitions at 85% one-repetition maximum (1RM) for the traditional parallel back squat. However, on one occasion the 3-repetition set was performed in a traditional manner (i.e., continuously), whereas on the other two occasions, 30- (CS30) and 60-seconds (CS60) of rest were allotted between each repetition. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed greater (p = 0.022) mean barbell velocity on CS60 compared to the traditional set. However, faster (p < 0.040) 20-meter sprint times were observed for CS30 (3.15±0.16 sec) compared to traditional (3.20±0.17 sec) only at 10-minutes post-exercise. No other differences were observed. These data suggest that a single cluster set of three repetitions with 30-second inter-repetition rest periods at 85% 1RM acutely improves 20-meter sprinting performance. Strength and conditioning professionals and their athletes might consider its inclusion during the specific warm-up to acutely improve athletic performance during the onset (≤ 10 minutes) of training or competition.
... Por outro lado, possuem menor capacidade de manter a produção de força durante longos períodos 80 . Assim, a seleção do período adequado de descanso entre séries é fundamental para a manutenção da velocidade de execução, da taxa de produção de força e potência máxima durante o treinamento 11,34,83,[91][92][93][94][95] . ...
... Para evitar isso, a estratégia mais utilizada consiste em aumentar as recuperações entre as séries. Uma alternativa para as séries com repetições contínuas incide na introdução de recuperação entre as repetições 11,34,52,92,94,[96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104] , conhecido como "intra-set rest" (ISR). ...
Article
Full-text available
Para estimular uma melhor resposta adaptativa aos objetivos específicos do treinamento de força, a sobrecarga progressiva é a estratégia mais utilizada. A quantidade de trabalho realizada no treino com sobrecarga é aspecto determinante para a melhora do rendimento. Porém, a sobrecarga resulta em desgaste muscular mecânico, o que desencadeia o aparecimento da fadiga. A fadiga é proporcional à característica das cargas (volume, intensidade e recuperação). Neste sentido, a manipulação do intervalo de recuperação é fundamental para evitar a fadiga excessiva, possibilitando uma menor influência do desgaste mecânico na execução da série, auxiliando, assim, na manutenção do volume e intensidade adequadas. A estratégia frequentemente empregada é aumentar o tempo de recuperação entre séries. No entanto, evidências existentes na literatura científica indicam que a maneira mais eficiente de conseguir estes objetivos (diminuir a fadiga e manter o volume de treinamento necessário) é incorporar curtas recuperações no interior da série ("intra-set" ou ISR). Pode-se alcançar tal objetivo, incorporando a recuperação entre repetições ("inter-repetition rest" ou IRR), ou a cada bloco de repetições (agrupamento ou "cluster"). Estas estratégias metodológicas permitem conservar as características mecânicas do gesto (velocidade, força e potência) durante as repetições por série.
... In previous cluster set and rest-redistribution studies that utilized free-weight exercises, total work is usually the same between the set structures as it goes hand-in-hand with mean force (i.e. external load) and displacement of the barbell (Denton and Cronin 2006). ...
... Unfortunately, heart rate was not measured in this study, and future research should pair these localized responses with global cardiovascular responses. Nevertheless, as our primary objective was to determine the localized demands associated with TS and RR protocols, the observation that RR facilitated increased blood flow and oxygen saturation compared to TS, irrespective of the contraction velocity, is a novel finding and could partially explain the lower lactate values of cluster set protocols reported by many (Denton and Cronin 2006;Oliver et al. 2015;, despite a lesser cardiovascular demand Mayo et al. 2017;Rio-Rodriguez et al. 2016). ...
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This study investigated redistributing long inter-set rest intervals into shorter but more frequent intervals at 2 different concentric velocities. Resistance-trained men performed 4 randomised isokinetic unilateral knee extension protocols, 2 at 60°·s ⁻¹ and 2 at 360°·s ⁻¹ . At each speed, subjects performed 40 repetitions with 285 s of rest using traditional sets (TS; 4 sets of 10 with 95 s of inter-set rest) and rest-redistribution (RR; 20 sets of 2 with 15 s inter-set rest). Before and at 2, 5, and 10 min after exercise, tensiomyography (TMG) and oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy; NIRS) were measured. NIRS was also measured during exercise, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded after every 10 repetitions. At both speeds, RR displayed greater peak torque, total work, and power output during latter repetitions, but there were no differences between TS or RR when averaging all 40 repetitions. The RPE was less during RR at both speeds (p < 0.05). RR increased select muscle oxygen saturation and blood flow at both speeds. There were no effects of protocol on TMG, but effect sizes favoured a quicker recovery after RR. RR was likely beneficial in maintaining performance compared with the latter parts of TS sets and limiting perceived and peripheral fatigue. Novelty Although effective at slow velocities, rest-redistribution was likely more effective during high-velocity movements in this study. Rest-redistribution maintained the ability to produce force throughout an entire range of motion. Rest-redistribution reduced RPE during both high-velocity and high-force movements.
... In the current study, mean and peak forces were no different between RR and TS, which is in agreement with previous findings in men. 1,12,26 When increasing total rest rather than simply redistributing rest the outcome may differ. For example, inclusion of an additional 40 seconds of inter-repetition rest, and thus greater total rest, resulted in improved maintenance of force and velocity during the power clean exercise. ...
... During the back squat, all repetitions have nearly identical bar displacement and should yield consistent force outcomes between conditions, as long as the external load remains constant during each protocol. 12,26,27 Oliver et al. reported lower force during traditional sets in the 1 st repetition and later repetitions (6-10) when collapsed across sets, which was the result of the male participants' inability to complete all repetitions. 1 In the current study, under the same protocols, all women were able to complete all repetitions for each set; therefore, the load was the same in each condition resulting in similar forces. ...
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Purpose: To examine rest-redistribution (RR) effects on back-squat kinetics and kinematics in resistance-trained women. Methods: Twelve women from strength and college sports (5.0 ± 2.2 y training history) participated in the randomized crossover-design study with 72 h between sessions (3 total). Participants completed 4 sets of 10 repetitions using traditional sets (TS, 120 s interset rest) and RR (30 s intraset rest in the middle of each set; 90 s interset rest) with 70% of their 1-repetition maximum. Kinetics and kinematics were sampled via force plate and 4 linear position transducers. The greatest value of repetitions 1-3 (peak repetition) was used to calculate percentage loss, [repetition 10 - peak repetition)/peak repetition) x 100], and maintenance, {100 - [(set mean - peak repetition)/peak repetition)] x 100}, of velocity and power for each set. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for analyses (p < .05). Results: Mean and peak force did not differ between conditions. A condition x repetition interaction existed for peak power (p = .049) but not peak velocity (p = .110). Peak power was greater in repetitions 7-9 (p < .05; d = 1.12-1.27) during RR. The percentage loss of velocity (CI95% -0.22, -7.22%; p = .039) and power (CI95% -1.53, -7.87%; p = .008) were reduced in RR. Mean velocity maintenance of sets 3 (p = .036, d = 1.90) and 4 (p = .015, d = 2.30) and mean power maintenance of set 4 (p = .006, d = 2.65) were greater in RR. Conclusion: By redistributing a portion of long interset rest into the middle of a set, velocity and power were better maintained. Therefore, redistributing rest may be beneficial for reducing fatigue in resistance-trained women.
... By providing short rest periods, athletes are able to acutely attenuate fatigue, therefore attaining greater force, velocity and power in each repetition (Tufano, Conlon et al. 2016). In addition, studies have shown that the use of CS allows for a higher mechanical performance and training volume when compared with traditional set (TS) configuration (Haff, Whitley et al. 2003, Denton and Cronin 2006, Iglesias-Soler, Carballeira et al. 2014, Tufano, Conlon et al. 2016. ...
... In the study by Denton & Cronin (2006), 9 strengthtrained men performed 3 randomized experimental RT sessions using TS (4 × 6RM, 300 s rest between sets), CS with equalized volume (8 × 3, 130 s rest every three repetitions), or CS equalized only by the total rest time. ...
Article
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There are a plethora of studies that have analyzed the effects of different resistance training methods on muscle hypertrophy. Recent studies have pointed out some potential advantage of training using cluster sets (CS) compared with traditional sets. It is still unclear whether CS are an effective method. The objective of this review was to investigate and discuss the current knowledge about the effect of CS on muscle hypertrophy. Four studies investigating the effect of CS on muscle hypertrophy were found. These studies demonstrated that CS induced similar or lower muscle hypertrophy than traditional sets. Thus, CS may lead to muscle hypertrophy, but did not provide a superior stimulus when compared to traditional sets of equated load.
... Kinematical [43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50] and dynamical [51][52][53] aspects of the system are related to the linear motor's calibration [54,55] that is performed by changing PID parameters and by overlapping the obtained law of motion on the desired one, for a heart rate of 60 beats per minute. When the deviation between two laws (see Fig. 4.1 and 4.2) is acceptable, durability tests are performed by varying heart's frequency or by setting a random frequency and then by analyzing the heart valve's behaviour. ...
Article
The work described involves the implementation of a testing bench prototype, used to control the behavior of heart valves, taking into account the characteristics of the blood.
... To overcome these constraints, researchers have investigated other possible alternatives to CS, such as simply redistributing the total rest time of TS structures, to include shorter and more frequent rest intervals. While this set structure, known as rest redistribution (RR), can effectively alleviate acute mechanical [47][48][49], metabolic [50,51] and perceptual [52,53] markers of fatigue during RT, it does so without increasing total training time associated with CS. Indeed, Jukic et al. [54] recently reported alternative set structures were generally superior to TS in a systematic review and meta-analysis on their effects on mechanical, metabolic and perceptual responses to RT. ...
Article
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Background The acute effects of resistance training (RT) set structure alteration are well established; however, less is known about their effects on chronic training adaptations.Objective The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesise the available evidence on the effectiveness of traditional (TS), cluster (CS) and rest redistribution (RR) set structures in promoting chronic RT adaptations, and provide an overview of the factors which might differentially influence the magnitude of specific training adaptations between set structure types.Methods This review was performed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines encompassing the literature search of five databases. Studies in English that compared muscular strength, endurance, and/or hypertrophy adaptations, as well as vertical jump performance, velocity and power at submaximal loads and shifts in the slopes of force–velocity profiles between TS and CS or RR set structures (i.e., alternative set structures) were included. Risk of bias assessment was performed using a modified Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. Random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions were performed where possible.Results17 studies met the inclusion criteria, none had more than one risk of bias item assessed as high risk. Pooled results revealed that none of the set structures were more effective at inducing strength (standardised mean difference (SMD) = − 0.06) or hypertrophy (SMD = − 0.03). TS were more effective at improving muscular endurance compared to alternative set structures (SMD = − 0.38), whereas alternative set structures tended to be more effective for vertical jump performance gains (SMD = 0.13), but this effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.190). Greater velocity and power outputs at submaximal loads (SMD = 0.18) were observed when using alternative set structures compared to TS. In addition, alternative set structures promoted greater shifts of the slope of force–velocity profiles towards more velocity dominant profiles compared to TS (SMD = 0.28). Sub-group analyses controlling for each alternative set structure independently showed mixed results likely caused by the relatively small number of studies available for some outcomes.Conclusion Modifying TS to an alternative set structure (CS or RR) has a negligible impact on strength and hypertrophy. Using CS and RR can lead to greater vertical jump performance, velocity and power at submaximal loads and shifts to more velocity dominant force–velocity profiles compared to training using TS. However, TS may provide more favourable effects on muscle endurance when compared to CS and RR. These findings demonstrate that altering TS to alternative set structures may influence the magnitude of specific muscular adaptations indicating set structure manipulation is an important consideration for RT program design.Protocol registrationThe original protocol was prospectively registered (CRD42019138954) with the PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews).
... Although not measured in the current study, it can be hypothesized that SHT may have allowed for a better maintenance of immediate energy stores, more frequent replenishment of energy stores, or both. In previous studies, shorter but more frequent sets displayed better velocity maintenance paired with lesser metabolic by-product accumulation (5,17). As external measures such as movement velocity can provide insight regarding acute internal physiological changes, a maintenance of velocity is often indicative of immediate energy store maintenance and a decreased reliance on glycolytic pathways. ...
Article
Three to 5 minutes of interset rest is often recommended for power-based exercises, but those recommendations are largely based on performing many repetitions per set, which can induce fatigue and require such lengthy rest periods. If the number of repetitions per set is reduced before fatigue ensues, interset rest periods may also be reduced without sacrificing performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of this notion on barbell velocity and power output over multiple sets of clean pulls using different loads in strength-trained men. Fifteen strength-trained men performed 3 extended sets of 6 clean pulls using 80% (EXT80), 100% (EXT100), and 120% (EXT120) of power clean 1 repetition maximum with 180 seconds of interset rest and 9 short sets of 2 using 80% (SHT80), 100% (SHT100), and 120% (SHT120) with 45 seconds of interset rest. Peak velocity was greater during short set protocol than extended set protocol (80%: 1.74 ± 0.16 vs. 1.68 ± 0.15 m/s; 100%: 1.47 ± 0.15 vs. 1.41 ± 0.12 m/s; 120%: 1.21 ± 0.13 vs. 1.16 ± 0.15 m/s; p < 0.05). Furthermore, peak power was greater during SHT100 (1874.6 ± 267.5 vs. 1732.3 ± 250.4 W; p < 0.05) and SHT120 (1777.8 ± 226.1 vs. 1,650.4 ± 249.1 W; p < 0.05) than EXT100 and EXT120, respectively. Therefore, reducing the number of repetitions per set may allow for interset rest periods to also be reduced while better maintaining performance. However, the extent to which rest periods can be shortened warrants further investigation as total rest time was equal in this study.
... Although measurements of [La] were performed in investigations of hormonal responses to strength training (Kraemer and Ratamess, 2005;Lin et al., 2001;Vingren et al., 2008), neither transportation nor metabolism of lactate have been spe-cifically investigated. However, [La] has been documented to assess metabolic demands resultant from different exercise protocols (Skidmore et al., 2012), i.e. various additional loads (Buitrago et al., 2012a;Kang et al., 2005;Thornton and Potteiger, 2002), movement velocities (Buitrago et al., 2012b;Gentil et al., 2006;Hunter et al., 2003), exercise volumes (1-set vs. multiple-sets) (Haddock and Wilkin, 2006), rest intervals (Ahtiainen et al., 2005;Denton and Cronin, 2006;Ratamess et al., 2007), and exercise order (Bellezza et al., 2009). Special conditions in the muscle lead to a specific metabolic situation during resistance exercises as intramuscular pressure exceed blood pressure and, as a consequence, blood flow is interrupted (Longhurst and Stebbins, 1997;Miles et al., 1987;Walloe and Wesche, 1988). ...
Article
Intensive exercise like strength training increases blood lactate concentration [La]. [La] is commonly used to define the metabolic stress of an exercise and depends on the lactate production, transportation, metabolism, and elimination. This investigation compared multiple set training of different volumes to show the influence of exercise volume on [La]. Ten male subjects performed 3 sets of resistance exercises within 4 separate sessions: Arm Curl with 1 or 2 arms (AC1 or AC2), and Leg Extension with 1 or 2 legs (LE1 or LE2). Each set was performed at a standard velocity and at a previously determined 10RM load. Blood lactate samples were taken immediately before and after each set (pre1, post1, pre2, post2, pre3, post3). Maximum [La] was significantly higher after LE2 (6.8 ± 1.6mmol·L-1) and significantly lower after AC1 (2.8 ± 0.7mmol·L-1) in comparison with the other exercise protocols. There was no difference between AC2 (4.3 ± 1.1mmol·L-1) and LE1 (4.4 ± 1.1mmol·L-1). Surprisingly, [La] decreased during the 3rd set (for AC exercise), and during both the 2nd and 3rd sets (for LE exercise) and increased only during the recovery phases. In contrast to our expectations, blood [La] decreased during the 2nd and 3rd exercise sets and further increased only during recovery phases. However, from the increases observed following the first set, we know that lactate was produced and transported to the blood during our exercise protocol. We speculate that lactate is taken up and metabolized by distal muscle fibres or organs. In addition, as the decreases occurred within a short period of time, blood volume shifts and/or the muscle-to-blood gradient may account for the rapid decreases in [La].
... RI. The continuous and third intraset rest protocols resulted in higher blood lactate levels as compared with the second intraset rest protocol without concentric failure in 10 resistance-trained young men ( Denton & Cronin, 2006 ). Although lactate was higher for the third intraset protocol, mean power levels were higher as compared to the other protocols. ...
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This study compared two different rest intervals (RI) between sets of resistance exercise. Ten resistance-trained men (M age = 24.3, SD = 3.5 yr.; M weigh t= 80.0 kg, SD = 15.3; M height = 1.75 m, SD = 0.04) performed five sets of Smith machine bench presses at 60% of one repetition maximum, either with 1.5 min. or 3 min. RI between sets. Their repetition performance, total training volume, velocity, fatigue, rating of perceived exertion, and muscular power were measured. All of these measures indicated that performance was significantly better and fatigue was significantly lower in the 3 min. RI as compared with the 1.5 min. RI, except the rating of perceived exertion which did not show a significant difference. A longer RI between sets promotes superior performance for the bench press.
... Our data demonstrated that the long set configuration produced higher lactate values in comparison with the shorter one. Similar results were observed in previous studies, where sets with a continuous pattern promoted greater lactate response than a work-equated set with an intra-set rest design (Goto et al. 2005;Girman et al. 2014) and a slower recovery to the baseline values (Denton and Cronin 2006). Mechanical responses during a long set configuration session (LSC, grey bars) and a short set configuration session (SSC, black bars) for the knee extension (KE), bench press (BPR) and parallel squat (SQ) exercises. ...
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PurposeWe aimed to analyse the acute effects of set configuration on cardiac parasympathetic modulation and blood pressure (BP) after a whole-body resistance training (RT) session.Methods Thirty-two participants (23 men and 9 women) performed one control (CON) and two RT sessions differing in the set configuration but with the same intensity (15RM load), volume (200 repetitions) and total resting time (360 s between sets for each exercise and 3 min between exercises): a long set configuration (LSC: 4 sets of 10 repetitions with 2 resting minutes) and a short set configuration session (SSC, 8 sets of 5 repetitions with 51 resting seconds). Heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, the low frequency of systolic blood pressure oscillations (LFSBP), BP and lactatemia were evaluated before and after the sessions and mechanical performance was evaluated during exercise.ResultsLSC induced greater reductions on cardiac parasympathetic modulation versus SSC after the session and the CON (p < 0.001 to p = 0.024). However, no LFSBP and BP significant changes were observed. Furthermore, LSC caused a higher lactate production (p < 0.001) and velocity loss (p ≤ 0.001) in comparison with SSC.Conclusion These findings suggest that SSC attenuates the reduction of cardiac parasympathetic modulation after a whole-body RT, improving the mechanical performance and decreasing the glycolytic involvement, without alterations regarding vascular tone and BP.
... • Cluster set seems to reduce fatigue acutely [26], this rest provides greater maintenance of PCr reserves and an increased metabolite clearance [27,30,32]. In addition, cause less lactate and a attenuated hormonal response [30,32]. ...
... The resistance-training routine was designed to increase strength and muscle mass of all major muscle groups. A range of ten maximum repetitions using the highest relative load performed with the maximal possible movement velocity was chosen to induce a high level of mechanical and metabolic stress (Denton and Cronin 2006), as well as to favor strength and likely mechanical power improvements (Schoenfeld et al. 2014). ...
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Introduction Microcurrent has been used to promote tissue healing after injury or to hasten muscle remodeling post exercise post exercise. Purpose To compare the effects of resistance training in combination with either, microcurrent or sham treatment, on-body composition and muscular architecture. Additionally, changes in performance and perceived delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were determined. Methods Eighteen males (25.7 ± 7.6 years) completed an 8-week resistance training program involving 3 workouts per week (24 total sessions) wearing a microcurrent (MIC, n = 9) or a sham (SH, n = 9) device for 3-h post-workout or in the morning during non-training days. Measurements were conducted at pre and post intervention. Results Compared to baseline, both groups increased (p < 0.05) muscle thickness of the elbow flexors (MIC + 2.9 ± 1.4 mm; SH + 3.0 ± 2.4 mm), triceps brachialis (MIC + 4.3 ± 2.8 mm; SH + 2.7 ± 2.6 mm), vastus medialis (MIC + 1.5 ± 1.5 mm; SH + 0.9 ± 0.8 mm) and vastus lateralis (MIC + 6.8 ± 8.0 mm; SH + 3.2 ± 1.8 mm). Although both groups increased (p < 0.01) the pennation angle of vastus lateralis (MIC + 2.90° ± 0.95°; SH + 1.90° ± 1.35°, p < 0.01), the change measured in MIC was higher (p = 0.045) than that observed in SH. Furthermore, only MIC enlarged (p < 0.01) the pennation angle of brachialis (MIC + 1.93 ± 1.51). Both groups improved (p < 0.05) bench press strength and power but only MIC enhanced (p < 0.01) vertical jump height. At post intervention, only MIC decreased (p < 0.05) DOMS at 12-h, 24-h, and 48-h after performing an exercise-induced muscle soreness protocol. Conclusion A 3-h daily use of microcurrent maximized muscular architectural changes and attenuated DOMS with no added significant benefits on body composition and performance.
... This has been confirmed in studies that have demonstrated greater peak velocity in the clean pull at 90% and 120% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) (18), greater total power output at 85% of 1RM in the bench press (29), and greater force, velocity, and power output during the power clean at 80% of 1RM (23) when using CLU as compared with TRD. Further, acute studies have provided support to the theory of partial PCr repletion, showing greater ATP and PCr concentrations (15), and less reliance on anaerobic glycolysis (8,14) during CLU. ...
Article
This investigation compared the kinetics and kinematics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT=12, 25±1 years, 179.1±2.2 cm, 84.6±2.1 kg; UT=12, 25±1 years, 180.1±1.8 cm, 85.4±3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 x 10 120 s rest) and CLU (4 x (2 x 5) 30 s between clusters; 90 s between sets) with 70% one-repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled via force plate and linear position transducers. RT produced greater overall force, velocity, and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. CLU produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in Sets 1 -3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during Set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 ± 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 ± 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in Sets 2 through 4. Further, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. CLU produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (Set 1, five repetitions; Sets 2 and 3, six repetitions; Set 4, eight repetitions) and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power.
... This has been confirmed in studies that have demonstrated greater peak velocity in the clean pull at 90 and 120% of one repetition maximum (1RM) (18), greater total power output at 85% of 1RM in the bench press (29), and greater force, velocity, and power output during the power clean at 80% of 1RM (23) when using CLU as compared with TRD. Furthermore, acute studies have provided support to the theory of partial PCr repletion, showing greater ATP and PCr concentrations (15) and less reliance on anaerobic glycolysis (8,14) during CLU. ...
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Oliver, JM, Kreutzer, A, Jenke, SC, Phillips, MD, Mitchell, JB, and Jones, MT. Velocity drives greater power observed during back squat using cluster sets. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 235– 243, 2016—This investigation compared the kinetics and kine-matics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT = 12, 25 6 1 year, 179.1 6 2.2 cm, 84.6 6 2.1 kg; UT = 12, 25 6 1 year, 180.1 6 1.8 cm, 85.4 6 3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 3 10, 120-second rest) and CLU (4 3 (2 3 5) 30 seconds between clusters; 90 seconds between sets) with 70% one repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled through force plate and linear position transducers. Resistance-trained produced greater overall force, velocity , and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. Cluster sets produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in sets 1–3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 6 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 6 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in sets 2 through 4. Furthermore, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. Cluster sets produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (set 1, 5 repetitions; sets 2 and 3, 6 repetitions; set 4, 8 repetitions), and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power.
... Our second hypothesis was not supported as a greater increase in GM muscle activity %∆ was observed in the traditional protocol compared to the rest-pause protocol. The majority of studies assessing differences in muscle activity between rest-pause and traditional lifting protocols used protocols with matched lifting volume (Denton and Cronin 2006;Hansen et al. 2011;Hardee et al. 2012;Iglesias-Soler et al. 2012;Joy et al. 2013;Lawton et al. 2004Lawton et al. , 2006Marshall et al. 2012). To the authors' knowledge, comparisons of muscle activity to movement failure has only previously been assessed by Keogh et al. (1999), and Korak et al. (2017). ...
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Purpose: Rest-pause (4 s unloaded rest between repetitions) single session training effects on lifting volume, and muscle activity via electromyography (EMG) are currently vague in the literature and can benefit strength and conditioning professionals for resistance training program design. This study compared differences in volume lifted and muscle activity between a rest-pause vs. traditional protocol. Methods: Trained females (N = 13) completed both a rest-pause and traditional squat protocol consisting of four sets to movement failure at 80% pretest 1 repetition maximum load with 2-min rest between sets. Total volume and muscle activity of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and gluteus maximus were measured on both training days. Differences in muscle activity were viewed as a percent change (%∆). Results: A paired samples t test indicated total volume lifted was higher in the rest-pause compared to the traditional protocol (2532 vs. 2036 kg; p < .05). Furthermore, paired samples t tests showed muscle activity %∆ of the gluteus maximus was greater in the traditional protocol compared to the rest-pause protocol (p < .05). No other muscle activity differences were observed in the remaining muscles. Conclusions: The rest-pause allows for greater volume lifted via increased repetitions compared to a traditional protocol in trained women. The rest-pause method may be superior to a traditional method of training during a hypertrophy mesocycle, where a primary focus is total volume lifted. Furthermore, %∆ muscle activity in the GM will be greater while performing a traditional back squat protocol in comparison to a rest-pause.
... The load characteristics are the main regulation mechanisms of resistance exercise training [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. By varying the load characteristics such as intensity, duration and rest intervals, as well as the speed of movement; the range of motion and order of exercises, the physiological stress of the resistance training can be adjusted individually [13,14]. ...
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The knowledge about metabolic effects of different training programs is of huge importance for the regulation of resistance training. Most studies investigated the effect of the variation of a single load character on physiological parameters such as blood lactate and oxygen intake. Therefore, the present study investigates the physiological reactions on practice-oriented resistance exercise programs with different loads and training volumes. 24 male subjects (25.6 ± 5.9 years, 171 ± 4 cm, 74.3 ± 5.3 kg) were randomly assigned into three different resistance training groups (G1 = 30/30/3/60, G2 = 50/20/3/90, G3 = 70/10/4/90; respectively % of one repetition maximum /repetitions /number of sets /rest between sets). Exercises squats, bench press, biceps curl, french press, and rowing were completed in a randomized order. Heart rate (HR), breathing frequency (BF), oxygen uptake and blood lactate (La) were measured at the end of each set. Mean value of all sets in each exercise was used for statistical analysis (ANOVA). Performance was calculated using the relative power index (RPI). There were significant differences in the RPI (ANOVA p <0.01) between the three groups (G1 < G2 < G3). Mean values of all exercises showed a significant difference of the between G2 and G3 (ANOVA p<0.05), but no differences in other parameters were found (ANOVA p>0.05). The and HR showed significant differences between the exercises (ANOVA p<0.05). Independent of the three training programs, significant differences in HR, RF and but not in La were shown between the exercises. In summary, the present study shows, that the physiological effects of the three different strength training programs on HR, La and BF differs very little, despite the strongly differing RPI. The selection of the exercise seems to be especially important for the acute adaptations of and HR, but not for lactate accumulation.
... Kinematical [48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55] and dynamical [56][57][58] aspects of the system are related to the linear motor's calibration [59,60] that is performed by changing PID parameters and by overlapping the obtained law of motion on the desired one, for a heart rate of 60 beats per minute. When the deviation between two laws is acceptable, durability tests are performed by varying heart's frequency or by setting a random frequency and then by analyzing the heart valve's behaviour. ...
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The objective of this research is the creation of a testing bench prototype for comparing different types of heart valves, taking into account the variability of some important parameters involved in cardiovascular events. Thanks to performed tests and to obtained data, the comparison between the different valves allows physicians to make the most appropriate choice of heart valve for each patient. The study is still in preliminary stage: it is necessary to do many tests in order to obtain a large amount of data with which it is possible to proceed with the development and implementation of a testing bench stable and easily programmable.
... The acute effects of CS have previously been investigated and indicate that this novel method of training may produce better kinetics and kinematics (e.g., force, velocity, and power) than TS training (7,12,15,20,22,28). For example, Haff et al. (15) demonstrated that a CS of clean pulls produced higher peak velocities than a TS at 90 and 120% of 1repetition maximum (1RM) power clean. ...
Article
Nickerson, BS, Williams, TD, Snarr, RL, and Park, K-S. Individual and combined effect of inter-repetition rest and elastic bands on jumping potentiation in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine the individual and combined effects of cluster sets (CS) and elastic bands for jumping potentiation in resistance-trained men. Twelve resistance-trained men (age: 22 6 3 years) participated in this study. In a random order, participants completed 1 set of 3 repetitions at 85% 1-repetition maximum for the parallel back squat: (a) traditional set with continuous repetitions; (b) continuous repetitions with elastic bands (BANDS); (c) CS with 30 seconds of rest between each repetition (CS 30); and (d) CS with 30 seconds of rest between each repetition and elastic bands (CS + BANDS). Vertical jump height (JH) and peak power (PP) were measured before exercise (baseline) and at 1, 4, 7, and 10 minutes after exercise for each condition. Results revealed that PP at 10 minutes was significantly higher than 7 minutes for BANDS (p = 0.035) and that 4 and 7minutes were both significantly higher than baseline for CS + BANDS (p = 0.008 and 0.031, respectively). No other differences were observed. There were medium effect sizes (ESs) for PP with BANDS (ES = 0.58 at 10 minutes), CS 30 (ES = 0.53 and 0.64 at 7 and 10 minutes, respectively), and CS + BANDS (ES = 0.64, 0.78, and 0.66 at 4, 7, and 10 minutes, respectively). All remaining ES for JH and PP were trivial to small. Based on the moderate magnitude of effect, BANDS, CS 30 , and CS + BANDS were effective at potentiating vertical jump power. CS + BANDS is a more practical approach to potentiate vertical jump power when athletes are under strict time restraints.
... Enhanced metabolic accumulation as indicated by increases in BL concentration following the STR (244.84 %) and HYP (422.88 %) workouts is consistent with previous investigations (Kraemer et al. 1990;Nicholson et al. 2014). The present findings are in contrast to previous research (Denton and Cronin 2006) which reported significant increases in BL concentration following CL workouts. The heightened metabolic responses in the research most likely resulted from the equation of resting time between the regimens and the inclusion of less frequent rest intervals in the CL regimens which is often overlooked when interpreting the previous literature. ...
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute and chronic training responses to strength-, hypertrophy- and cluster-type resistance training. Methods: Thirty-four trained males were assigned to a strength [STR: 4 × 6 repetitions, 85 % of one repetition maximum, (1RM), 900 s total rest], hypertrophy (HYP: 5 × 10 repetitions, 70 % 1RM, 360 s total rest), cluster 1 (CL-1: 4 × 6/1 repetitions, 85 % 1RM, 1400 s total rest), and cluster 2 (CL-2: 4 × 6/1 repetitions, 90 % 1RM, 1400 s total rest) regimens which were performed twice weekly for a 6-week period. Measurements were taken before, during and following the four workouts to investigate the acute training stimulus, whilst similar measurements were employed to examine the training effects before and after the intervention. Results: The improvements in 1RM strength were significantly greater for the STR (12.09 ± 2.75 %; p < 0.05, d = 1.106) and CL-2 (13.20 ± 2.18 %; p < 0.001, d = 0.816) regimens than the HYP regimen (8.13 ± 2.54 %, d = 0.453). In terms of the acute responses, the STR and CL-2 workouts resulted in greater time under tension (TUT) and impulse generation in individual repetitions than the HYP workout (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the STR (+3.65 ± 2.54 mmol/L(-1)) and HYP (+6.02 ± 2.97 mmol/L(-1)) workouts resulted in significantly greater elevations in blood lactate concentration (p < 0.001) than the CL-1 and CL-2 workouts. Conclusion: CL regimens produced similar strength improvements to STR regimens even when volume load was elevated (CL-2). The effectiveness of the STR and CL-2 regimens underlines the importance of high loads and impulse generation for strength development.
... In this context and as an effective neuromuscular adaptation for increasing mechanical power in athletes, the National Strength and Conditioning Association advises to train with the maximal movement velocity ending each set with only half of the corresponding RTF range (34). Conversely, completing every set near or at muscular failure increases both mechanical and metabolic stress, which provides an optimal stimulus for increasing muscle mass but with a concomitant decline in movement velocity, a training setting that can be detrimental in sports involving fast actions (8). ...
Article
Karsten, DB, Fu, Y, Larumbe-Zabala, DE, Seijo, DM, and Naclerio, DF. Impact of two high-volume set configuration workouts on resistance training outcomes in recreationally trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-This study compared the effects of 2 weekly equalized by volume, loading zone and frequency resistance training designs using repetition to failure (RTF) or not to failure (NTF), on body composition, strength, and mechanical power. Based on individual baseline maximal strength, 18 recreationally resistance-trained men were pair-matched and consequently randomly assigned to an RTF (n = 9) or an NTF (n = 9) protocol. Subjects trained for 6 weeks using 2 different routines performed once per week (2 workouts per week). The RTF protocol comprised 4 sets of 10 repetitions per exercise with 2-minute rest and the NTF involved 8 sets of 5 repetitions per exercise with 1-minute rest. Subjects were tested pre- and post-intervention for maximal strength, upper- and lower-body power, fat-free mass, limb circumferences, and muscle thickness. Compared to baseline, both groups improved (p < 0.01) the maximal loads lifted in the bench press (RTF +9.44 ± 3.00 kg; NTF +7.22 ± 4.41 kg) and the squat (RTF +9.44 ± 4.64 kg; NTF +11.1 ± 10.33 kg) exercises, but only the NTF group increased (p < 0.05) upper-body power (+15.73 ± 12.59 W). Conversely, only the RTF group showed significant (p < 0.05) increase of the elbow flexors (+3.44 ± 5.11 mm) and vastus medialis (+3.28 ± 2.32 mm) thickness, whereas both groups enhanced anterior deltoid thickness (RTF +1.84 ± 1.68 mm, p < 0.05; NTF +2.76 ± 2.63 mm, p < 0.01). Although both training strategies improved strength, the RTF group elicited superior hypertrophic outcomes, whereas the NTF protocol resulted in more favorable improvements for upper-body power.
... In this regard, it appears as though the shorter but more frequent rest intervals used in RR1 may be most beneficial for maintaining movement velocity and power output. Since the relative external load was the same during each protocol, there was no difference in MF between protocols, in line with previous research (Denton and Cronin, 2006;Moir et al., 2013;Tufano et al., 2016b). There is a lack of PF data within the cluster set literature, but previously, Hardee et al. (2012) showed that PF was better maintained when longer interrepetition rest periods were used during three cluster sets of six power cleans performed with a load of 80% of 1RM. ...
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Eight resistance-trained men completed three protocols separated by 48-96 hours. Each protocol included 36 repetitions with the same rest duration, but the frequency and length of rest periods differed. The cluster sets of four (CS4) protocol included 30 s of rest after the 4th, 8th, 16th, 20th, 28th, and 32nd repetition in addition to 120 s of rest after the 12th and 24th repetition. For the other two protocols, the total 420 s rest time of CS4 was redistributed to include nine sets of four repetitions (RR4) with 52.5 s of rest after every four repetitions, or 36 sets of single repetitions (RR1) with 12 s of rest after every repetition. Mean (MF) and peak (PF) force, velocity (MV and PV), and power output (MP and PP) were measured during 36 repetitions and were collapsed into 12 repetitions for analysis. Repeated measures ANOVA 3 (protocol) x 12 (repetition) showed a protocol x repetition interaction for PF, MV, PV, MP, and PP (p-values from <0.001 to 0.012). No interaction or main effect was present for MF. During RR1, MV, PV, MP, and PP were maintained, but decreased throughout every 4-repetition sequence during CS4 and RR4. During CS4 and RR4, PF was less following a rest period compared to subsequent repetitions, whereas PF was maintained during RR1. These data indicate that rest redistribution results in similar average kinetics and kinematics, but if total rest time is redistributed to create shorter but more frequent sets, kinetics and kinematics may remain more constant.
... 4,13 Indeed, BDNF expression is indirectly associated with lactate, 4 a biomarker of physical fatigue which is elevated in response to higher exercise demands. 14 Furthermore, blood lactate accumulates with each repetition, 15 and has shown reduced clearance from the muscle with shorter periods of recovery. 16 It is possible through the manipulation of acute resistance training variables such as sets, repetitions, load, and recovery that the necessary stimulus could be provided to increase peripheral BDNF and enhance cognitive function. ...
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Objectives: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to increase in an intensity dependent manner in response to aerobic exercise. However, previous research investigating the use of resistance exercise to increase BDNF levels has been less conclusive, likely due to the low intensity nature of traditional resistance exercise programs. This study examined the influence of acute resistance exercise to-fatigue on serum BDNF levels and blood lactate. Design: Acute crossover study. Methods: Eleven untrained to intermediately trained males (age: 25.0±1.3 year) and five untrained females (age: 23.2±1.1 year) were recruited to undertake two bouts of resistance exercise. Strength (five sets of five repetitions, 180s recovery) and hypertrophy (three sets of ten repetitions, 60s recovery) based resistance exercise was implemented to-fatigue to examine the effect on serum BDNF and blood lactate levels immediately post-, and 30min post-exercise. Results: An interaction (p<0.01; ES=0.52) was observed between conditions immediately post-exercise, with hypertrophy resulting in significantly greater BDNF levels when compared with strength exercise. Changes in lactate and BDNF from baseline to post- exercise were positively correlated following hypertrophy exercise (r=0.70; p<0.01), but not correlated following strength exercise (r=0.18; p=0.56). Conclusions: The use of a to-fatigue hypertrophy based resistance exercise protocol provides the necessary stimulus to increase peripheral serum BDNF. Mechanistically, the presence of lactate does not appear to drive the BDNF response during resistance exercise.
... During recovery, the peak HR has been shown to be strongly positively correlated with lactate (29). Lactate levels were previously shown to be higher during longer, more fatiguing sets (41), and Denton and Cronin (6) observed that lactate returned to baseline levels faster after RR than TS. These data suggest that cardiovascular and metabolic recovery may be slower after TS compared with RR, and higher HR max during a TS session may be a determining factor. ...
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Boffey, D, Clark, NW, and Fukuda, DH. Efficacy of rest redistribution during squats: Considerations for strength and sex. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This study examined the kinematic, perceptual, and heart rate responses to rest redistribution (RR) and traditional sets (TS) during the barbell back squat for men and women possessing a wide range of strength levels. Forty-five resistance-trained subjects (30 men and 15 women) performed 40 repetitions of the barbell squat with 65% 1RM load with TS (4 × 10 repetitions, 3-minute rest) or RR (10 × 4 repetitions, 1-minute rest), in a randomized order on days separated by ≥72 hours. The significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all statistical analyses. The mean velocity (MV) maintenance was significantly higher for RR compared with TS (87.70 ± 4.50% vs. 84.07 ± 4.48%, respectively; p < 0.01, d = 0.35). Rating of perceived exertion (active muscles) was significantly lower for RR compared with TS (5.38 ± 1.42 vs. 6.08 ± 1.43, respectively; p = 0.02, d = -0.35). Rating of perceived exertion (overall) was also significantly lower for RR compared with TS (5.60 ± 1.40 vs. 6.48 ± 1.49, respectively; p = 0.02, d = -0.37). The relative strength ratio (relative strength ratio; squat 1RM: body mass) was significantly correlated with the difference in MV maintenance between RR and TS (r = -0.34, p = 0.02). No sex-based differences (p > 0.05) were found for any dependent variables. Rest redistribution produced significantly higher mean HR (143.25 ± 21.11 vs. 135.05 ± 20.74, p < 0.01) and minimum HR (102.77 ± 19.58 vs. 95.97 ± 22.17, p < 0.01). Subjects were better able to maintain velocity with RR compared with TS, while experiencing less perceived effort. Rest redistribution can be recommended for both men and women, but very strong individuals may not improve their velocity maintenance with RR to the same extent as less strong individuals.
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Background: The alteration of individual sets during resistance training (RT) is often used to allow for greater velocity and power outputs, reduce metabolite accumulation such as lactate and also reduce perceived exertion which can ultimately affect the resultant training adaptations. However, there are inconsistencies in the current body of evidence regarding the magnitude of the effects of alternative set structures (i.e., cluster sets and rest redistribution) on these acute mechanical, metabolic, and perceptual responses during and after RT. Objective: This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse current evidence on the differences between traditional and alternative (cluster and rest redistribution) set structures on acute mechanical, metabolic, and perceptual responses during and after RT, and to discuss potential reasons for the disparities noted in the literature. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and five databases were searched until June 2019. Studies were included when they were written in English and compared at least one acute mechanical, metabolic, or perceptual response between traditional, cluster or traditional and rest redistribution set structures in healthy adults. Random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions were performed where possible. Results: Thirty-two studies were included. Pooled results revealed that alternative set structures allowed for greater absolute mean [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.60] and peak velocity (SMD = 0.41), and mean (SMD = 0.33) and peak power (SMD = 0.38) during RT. In addition, alternative set structures were also highly effective at mitigating a decline in velocity and power variables during (SMD = 0.83-1.97) and after RT (SMD = 0.58) as well as reducing lactate accumulation (SMD = 1.61) and perceived exertion (SMD = 0.81). These effects of alternative set structures on velocity and power decline and maintenance during RT were considerably larger than for absolute velocity and power variables. Subgroup analyses controlling for each alternative set structure independently showed that cluster sets were generally more effective than rest redistribution in alleviating mechanical, metabolic, and perceptual markers of fatigue. Conclusion: Alternative set structures can reduce mechanical fatigue, perceptual exertion, and metabolic stress during and after RT. However, fundamental differences in the amount of total rest time results in cluster sets generally being more effective than rest redistribution in alleviating fatigue-induced changes during RT, which highlights the importance of classifying them independently in research and in practice. Additionally, absolute values (i.e., mean session velocity or power), as well as decline and maintenance of the mechanical outcomes during RT, and residual mechanical fatigue after RT, are all affected differently by alternative set structures, suggesting that these variables may provide distinct information that can inform future training decisions. Protocol Registration The original protocol was prospectively registered (CRD42019138954) with the PROSPERO (Inter-national Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews).
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The proper application of the principle of specificity is essential to any strength and conditioning program. However, the transfer of resistance training to sport is highly complex, difficult to predict, and challenging to assess. This brief review examines the principle of dynamic correspondence as an aid towards better understanding and predicting an exercise or training method’s potential transfer to sport. Practical training recommendations are given based on the research reviewed.
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Time under tension (TUT) is thought as an important mechanical stimulus for strength and hypertrophic adaptation. The purpose of this study was to determine if two training loads (35 and 70 % 1RM) equated by TUT, differed in terms of their kinematic and kinetic characteristics. Twelve recreationally trained men were recruited in this acute randomized within-subject cross-over design. The 35 and 70 % 1RM loading schemes were equated by TUT based on the ground reaction forces data of a half squat exercise. TUT, average force, peak force, average power, peak power, total work and total impulse were calculated for the eccentric and concentric phases of the squat. Of the 12 variables that were found to be significantly different between loads, 10 of the variables were greater in the lighter 35 % 1RM loading scheme. The major findings were that significantly (P < 0.05) greater (41.5–59.5 %) total session average and peak power were found for both the eccentric and concentric phases for the 35 % 1RM loading scheme. However, significantly greater (32.3–34.3 %) eccentric and concentric total impulses were found for the heavier loading scheme. It would seem that when equated by TUT, that lighter loading schemes offer similar peak and average forces but superior velocity and power outputs which may have interesting implications for high-velocity hypertrophic adaptation.
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Paulo, AC, Tricoli, V, Queiroz, ACC, Laurentino, G, and Forjaz, CLM. Blood pressure response during resistance training of different work-to-rest ratio. J Strength Cond Res 33(2): 399-407, 2019-Changes in the work-to-rest ratio (W:R) of resistance training protocols (RTPs) (i.e., decreasing work or increasing rest) reduce the marked elevation in blood pressure (BP) that occurs during RTP execution. However, whether changes in RTP structure without changing W:R can change BP responses to RTP is unknown. To investigate the effect of different structures of rest intervals and number of repetitions per set on BP response among RTP equated and nonequated for W:R, 20 normotensive participants (25 ± 4 years) performed 4 different RTP of the leg extension exercise with the same work but different W:R structures. Two protocols followed the recommendations for cardiovascular disorders: (a) HIGHW:R-3×15:44s-3×15:44s (set×reps:rest between sets), which has high W:R (45reps:88s) and (b) LOWW:R-3×15:88s-3×15:88s, which has low W:R (45reps:176s). The other 2 protocols were W:R-equated to LOWW:R (45reps:176s): (c) LOWW:R-9×5:22s and (d) LOWW:R-45×1:4s. Systolic BP (ΔSBP) and diastolic BP (ΔDBP) were assessed by finger photoplethysmography. There were significant main effects for ΔSBP after RTP (p ≤ 0.05): HIGHW:R-3×15:44s = LOWW:R-3×15:88s > LOWW:R-45×1:4s > LOWW:R-9×5:22s (+87 ± 5 and +84 ± 5 vs. +61 ± 4 vs. 57 ± 4 mm Hg). For ΔDBP, there was a significant interaction between RTP and moment (p ≤ 0.05). Thus, HIGHW:R-3×15:44 > LOWW:R-3×15:88s > LOWW:R-45×1:4s > LOWW:R-9×5:22s (+53 ± 5 vs. +49 ± 5 vs. +44 ± 4 vs. +38 ± 3 mm Hg). HIGHW:R-3×15:44s produced the highest increase in ΔDBP, and LOWW:R-9×5:22s produced the lowest increase in ΔSBP and ΔDBP. Our findings may help the development of RTP protocols that may mitigate pressure peaks without changing important exercise variables (i.e., volume or duration).
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The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) set configurations on the following: systolic blood pressure (SBP), rate pressure product (RPP), heart rate (HR) variability (HRV), and HR complexity (HRC). Ten well-trained males performed three parallel squat sets until failure (traditional training; TT) with the four repetitions maximum load (4RM), and a rest of 3 min between sets. Thereafter, participants performed a cluster training session (CT) of equated load but with resting time distributed between each repetition. Dependent variables were recorded before, during, and after RE. Mean SBP (25·7 versus 10·9% percentage increase; P = 0·016) and RPP (112·5 versus 69·9%; P = 0·01) were significantly higher in TT. The decrease in HRV after exercise and the drop of HRC during exercise were similar in CT and TT. Change of standard deviation of normal RR intervals after TT correlated with change in SBP (r = 0·803; P = 0·009) while the change of Sample Entropy during exercise correlated with the increment of RPP during CT (ρ = −0·667; P = 0·05). This study suggests that set configuration influences acute cardiovascular responses during RE. When intensity, volume and work-to-rest ratio are equated, CT is less demanding in terms of SBP and RPP. A greater hemodynamic response during exercise would be associated with a faster parasympathetic recovery.
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The present study examined the effects of exercise utilising traditional resistance training (leg press) or 'cardio' exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry) modalities upon acute physiological responses. Nine healthy males underwent a within session randomised crossover design where they completed both the leg press and recumbent cycle ergometer conditions. Conditions were approximately matched for effort and duration (leg press: 4 × 12RM using a 2 s concentric and 3 s eccentric repetition duration controlled with a metronome, thus each set lasted 60 s; recumbent cycle ergometer: 4 × 60 s bouts using a resistance level permitting 80-100 rpm but culminating with being unable to sustain the minimum cadence for the final 5-10 s). Measurements included VO 2 , respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood lactate, energy expenditure, muscle swelling, and electromyography. Perceived effort was similar between conditions and thus both were well matched with respect to effort. There were no significant effects by 'condition' in any of the physiological responses examined (all p > 0.05). The present study shows that, when both effort and duration are matched, resistance training (leg press) and 'cardio' exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry) may produce largely similar responses in VO 2 , RER, blood lactate, energy expenditure, muscle swelling, and electromyography. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that both may offer a similar stimulus to produce chronic physiological adaptations in outcomes such as cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and hypertrophy. Future work should look to both replicate the study conducted here with respect to the same, and additional physiological measures, and rigorously test the comparative efficacy of effort and duration matched exercise of differing modalities with respect to chronic improvements in physiological fitness
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Ho, IMK, Luk, JTC, Ngo, JK, and Wong, DP. Effects of different intraset rest durations on lifting performance and self-perceived exertion during bench press exercise. J Strength Cond Res 35(8): 2114-2120, 2021-This study compared the number of successful repetitions, failure rates, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) among intraset rest (ISR) protocols (0-, 20-, or 40-second rest between third and fourth repetitions) during bench press exercise with total 3 sets and 6 repetitions per set at 6 repetition maximum (6RM) load. Thirty-four college-aged men performed 6RM loads with ISR 0, 20, and 40 on 3 separate visits in a counterbalanced order while the total rest time and duration of each protocol was equated. Results showed failure rates of 32.4% for ISR0 (11 subjects with failed repetition), 14.7% for ISR20, and 2.9% for ISR40. The ISR had a small positive effect on increasing successful repetitions in: second set, ISR40 vs. ISR0 and ISR20 vs. ISR0 (both +0.2 rep, d = 0.28); third set, ISR40 vs. ISR0 (+0.5 rep, d = 0.55) and ISR20 vs. ISR0 (+0.4 rep, d = 0.39); and total number of repetition: ISR40 vs. ISR0 (+0.7 rep, d = 0.46) and ISR20 vs. ISR0 (+0.5 rep, d = 0.36). The ISR also had small effect on decreasing RPE in: second set, ISR40 vs. ISR0 (-0.6, d = -0.21); third set, ISR40 vs. ISR0 (-0.7, d = -0.26); and average RPE of the 3 sets, ISR40 vs. ISR0 (-0.6, d = -0.24). The longer ISR could further decrease RPE only in the third set (ISR40 vs. ISR20: -0.6, d = -0.23, small effect). Strength coaches may use the ISR40 rest redistribution to reduce RPE and enhance repetition sustainability.
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any training intervention that has the capability of acutely enhancing power performance has the potential to directly enhance sports performance. Prior to the effective integration of any training intervention into the training of athletes, any such phenomenon needs to be subjected to effective research to determine both its potential for performance enhancement, along with methods of optimal application. One training intervention that has been the focus of an increasing degree of research into its potential power enhancement properties is post activation potentiation (PAP). PAP refers to an excited or sensitive neuromuscular condition following intense loading, 43 a situation where power output can be potentially augmented. This potential has led to the development of systems such as complex training, 9 based around this phenomenon, whereby power performance can potentially be enhanced via the application of a preconditioning exercise, for example a squat. 9 While an increasing body of research now exists into the application of PAP to performance, 26 much of the evidence is still contradictory. This paper attempts to produce an effective summary of the current research, starting with an examination of the scientific underpinning of PAP and also examining its application to the acute enhancement of power performance. The coexistence of potentiation and fatigue PAP involves the use of a preconditioning activity, to potentially augment the power output of a subsequent activity, e.g. the use of a pre-conditioning squat to augment counter movement jump (CMJ) performance. Any conditioning activity, whilst potentially enhancing PAP, will also have a fatiguing effect on skeletal muscle. In this way, any conditioning activity will initiate both potentiating and fatiguing responses, 8 and despite the contradictory effects of PAP and fatigue " these two presumed mechanisms can coexist ". 32 Fatigue can be defined as "an exercise induced reduction in the maximal force capacity of muscle ". 28 In relation to PAP, fatigue is associated with a reduction in maximum force output on the subsequent effort, caused by the initial exercise. However, in addition to the fatiguing effects of an activity, a brief period of activity can increase both the electrical and mechanical output of a muscle above resting values. 16 In this way, a potentiation effect can be elicited via a preceding exercise, in addition to any fatiguing effects. The net effect on human performance of prior contractile history is therefore the net balance between fatigue inducing processes and the simultaneous processes that result in potentiation. 26 Trade off between PAP and fatigue The time lines of fatigue and PAP will influence the post-stimulus state, 42 and the optimal recovery window is dependent upon the amplitude and rate of decay of PAP and fatigue. Thus, any PAP inducing activity is going to have a trade off effect on fatigue, and this must be accounted for when planning for PAP, and also when evaluating the effectiveness of PAP in enhancing performance. Peak PAP will occur immediately after the conditioning activity,
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To compare the physiological and performance adaptations between periodized and nonperiodized resistance training in women collegiate tennis athletes. Thirty women (19 +/- 1 yr) were assigned to either a periodized resistance training group (P), nonperiodized training group (NV), or a control group (C). Assessments for body composition, anaerobic power, VO2(max), speed, agility, maximal strength, jump height, tennis-service velocity, and resting serum hormonal concentrations were performed before and after 4, 6, and 9 months of resistance training performed 2-3 d.wk (-1). Nine months of resistance training resulted in significant increases in fat-free mass; anaerobic power; grip strength; jump height; one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press, bench press, and shoulder press; serve, forehand, and backhand ball velocities; and resting serum insulin-like growth factor-1, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations. Percent body fat and VO2(max) decreased significantly in the P and NV groups after training. During the first 6 months, periodized resistance training elicited significantly greater increases in 1-RM leg press (9 +/- 2 vs 4.5 +/- 2%), bench press (22 +/- 5 vs 11 +/- 8%), and shoulder press (24 +/- 7 vs 18 +/- 6%) than the NV group. The absolute 1-RM leg press and shoulder press values in the P group were greater than the NV group after 9 months. Periodized resistance training also resulted in significantly greater improvements in jump height (50 +/- 9 vs 37 +/- 7%) and serve (29 +/- 5 vs 16 +/- 4%), forehand (22 +/- 3 vs 17 +/- 3%), and backhand ball velocities (36 +/- 4 vs 14 +/- 4%) as compared with nonperiodized training after 9 months. These data demonstrated that periodization of resistance training over 9 months was superior for enhancing strength and motor performance in collegiate women tennis players.
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The endocrine system plays an important role in strength and power development by mediating the remodelling of muscle protein. Resistance training scheme design regulates muscle protein turnover by modifying the anabolic (testosterone, growth hormone) and catabolic (cortisol) responses to a workout. Although resistance exercise increases the concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 in blood following exercise, the effect of scheme design is less clear, most likely due to the different release mechanisms of this growth factor (liver vs muscle). Insulin is non-responsive to the exercise stimulus, but in the presence of appropriate nutritional intake, elevated blood insulin levels combined with resistance exercise promotes protein anabolism. Factors such as sex, age, training status and nutrition also impact upon the acute hormonal environment and, hence, the adaptive response to resistance training. However, gaps within research, as well as inconsistent findings, limit our understanding of the endocrine contribution to adaptation. Research interpretation is also difficult due to problems with experimental design (e.g. sampling errors) and various other issues (e.g. hormone rhythms, biological fluid examined). In addition to the hormonal responses to resistance exercise, the contribution of other acute training factors, particularly those relating to the mechanical stimulus (e.g. forces, work, time under tension) must also be appreciated. Enhancing our understanding in these areas would also improve the prescription of resistance training for stimulating strength and power adaptation.
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In February 2002, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) published a Position Stand entitled Progression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy Adults. The ACSM claims that the programmed manipulation of resistance-training protocols such as the training modality, repetition duration, range of repetitions, number of sets, and frequency of training will differentially affect specific physiological adaptations such as muscular strength, hypertrophy, power, and endurance. The ACSM also asserts that for progression in healthy adults, the programs for intermediate, advanced, and elite trainees must be different from those prescribed for novices. An objective evaluation of the resistance-training studies shows that these claims are primarily unsubstantiated. In fact, the preponderance of resistance-training studies suggest that simple, low-volume, time-efficient, resistance training is just as effective for increasing muscular strength, hypertrophy, power, and endurance - regardless of training experience - as are the complex, high-volume, time-consuming protocols that are recommended in the Position Stand. This document examines the basis for many of the claims in the Position Stand and provides an objective review of the resistance training literature.
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In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary. The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of both concentric and eccentric muscle actions and the performance of both single- and multiple-joint exercises. It is also recommended that the strength program sequence exercises to optimize the quality of the exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher intensity before lower intensity exercises). For initial resistances, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) be used in novice training. For intermediate to advanced training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range, from 1-12 RM in a periodized fashion, with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using at least 3-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s concentric, 1-2 s eccentric). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 d·wk-1 for novice and intermediate training and 4-5 d·wk-1 for advanced training. Similar program designs are recommended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion, with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training, and 2) use of light loads (30-60% of 1 RM) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 2-3 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise. It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (> 15) using short rest periods (< 90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand, as with prior ones, the recommendations should be viewed in context of the individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training status.
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Ballistic resistance training involves explosive movements against resistance at the fastest velocity possible. This study examined the effect of a ballistic resistance training program on baseball throwing and base running speed. Eighteen National League baseball players from two teams took part in the 10-week training study in conjunction with their normal preseason baseball training. Nine subjects from one team served as the control group and did not take part in any form of ballistic resistance training. Nine from the other team served as the training group and performed explosive squat jumps and bench throws with a light load that maximized power output (approx. 30-50% 1-RM). Both groups also participated in normal baseball training. Pre- and posttraining throwing speed and average running speed were recorded. The training group significantly improved throwing speed by 2.0 ± 1.5% (p ≤ 0.05); no change was recorded for the control group. Both groups increased running speed, but the increases were significantly greater for the training group. It is concluded that ballistic resistance training can increase performance in baseball throwing and base running, thus such training methods should be incorporated in baseball training programs.
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