Prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in Zimbabwe - results from analysis of data from the National Central Registry and Urban Survey 2

Michigan State University, Ист-Лансинг, Michigan, United States
Ethnicity & disease (Impact Factor: 1). 02/2006; 16(3):718-22.
Source: PubMed


The disease burden from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Africa is rapidly increasing based on projections from a limited number of reports. In the absence of national health surveys in Zimbabwe, all data nationally generated between 1990 and 1997 were analyzed. From 1990 to 1997, prevalence rates (expressed per 100,000 people) of hypertension increased from 1000 to 4000, rates of diabetes increased from 150 to 550, and rates of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) increased from 5 to 15. The case fatality rate (CFR) for CVA decreased substantially during the period of study, implying improved case management of the disease, while the CFR for most other diseases did not change significantly throughout the study period. The observation of increased prevalence of some NCDs during the study period was corroborated by findings from a blood pressure survey subsequently conducted in an urban environment of Zimbabwe, which revealed a hypertension (blood pressure > or =140/90 mm Hg) prevalence of 35% in women and 24% in men. In spite of the limitations of the centrally generated hospital-based data, its analysis is still valuable. Countries are therefore encouraged to utilize this easily accessible resource for policy formulation and resource mobilization.

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    • "Diabetes was ranked fourth (after hypertension, asthma and epilepsy) amongst the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) recorded in outpatient visits in Zimbabwean public hospitals in 2006 (Ministry of Health and Child Welfare 2009), National health survey data from which to examine the burden of diabetes in Zimbabwe are limited (Mufunda et al. 2006); one sub-national health survey conducted in three of the ten provinces estimated diabetes prevalence to be 10.2 %, with females more likely to report a history of diabetes compared to males (Hakim et al. 2005). Another study of central-hospital based data estimated that the prevalence of diabetes (expressed per 100,000 people) had increased from 150 to 550 from 1990 to 1997(Mufunda et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Diabetes appears to be a growing problem in the African region. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of diabetes in Zimbabwe by collating and analyzing previously published data. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data reporting prevalence of diabetes in Zimbabwe was conducted based on the random effects model. We searched for studies published between January 1960 and December 2013 using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus and University of Zimbabwe electronic publication libraries. In the meta-analysis, sub-groups were created for studies conducted before 1980 and after 1980, to understand the potential effect of independence on prevalence. Results: Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis with a total of 29,514 study participants. The overall pooled prevalence of diabetes before 1980 was 0.44 % (95 % CI 0.0–1.9 %), after 1980 the pooled prevalence was 5.7 % (95 % CI 3.3–8.6 %). Conclusions: This study showed that the prevalence of diabetes in Zimbabwe has increased significantly over the past three decades. This poses serious challenges to the provision of care and prevention of disabling co-morbidities in an already disadvantaged healthcare setting.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Public Health
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    • "In Zimbabwe, three consecutive readings at least 4 hours apart are used for diagnosis after which a Medical Doctor can commence treatment. However a single systolic blood pressure (SBP) above 180 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) above 110 mmHg is indication for treatment [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background From 2005 to 2011 Mazowe District recorded a gradual decline in prevalence of hypertension in the face of rising incidence of complications like stroke. This raised questions on whether diagnosis and management of hypertensive patients is being done properly. Methods We conducted an analytic cross sectional study at three hospitals in Mazowe District where we randomly selected 201 of 222 patients from out patients departments and interviewed a convenience sample of 23 healthcare workers. Structured interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect data on demographic characteristics and knowledge from patients, as well as knowledge and practices from health workers. Physical measurements were done on all patients. Frequencies; proportions, odds ratios, Chi square test and stratified & logistic regression analysis were done using Epi info version 3.5.4 while graphs were generated using Microsoft excel®. Calculations were done at 95% confidence interval. Results Prevalence, awareness, control, compliance, and complication rate of hypertension were: 69.7%, 56.2%, 22.0%, 59.8% and 20.7% respectively. Independent risk factors for hypertension were age (POR 3.09; 95% CI: 1.27-7.5), obesity (POR 4.37; 95% CI: 1.83-10.4), and previous high blood pressure reading (POR 19.86; 95% CI: 8.61-45.8). Complications included cardiac failure (8.6%), visual defects (4.3%) and stroke (3.6%). Co-morbid human immunodeficiency virus (10.7%) and diabetes mellitus (12.1%) were identified among respondents. Knowledge was poor in 47.7% of health workers. Conclusions Risk factors found in this study are consistent with other studies. Health service factors are the main reasons for poor diagnosis and management of hypertension. Health workers need training on diagnosis and management of hypertension. Guidelines, digital sphygmomanometers and adequate drug supply are needed. District has since purchased digital BP machines and requested assistance with training on clinical features of hypertension, use of digital machines, and how to properly measure BP. A policy document on non-communicable diseases including hypertension was subsequently developed by the Ministry of Health and Child Care and currently awaiting endorsement by parliament.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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    • "Studies also indicated that an epidemiological transition is occurring in Arica, especially in the urban population while people are also hard-hit by HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (38,39). This increase in non-communicable diseases is expected in the future, especially in relation to ‘Westernization’ of people's diet and lifestyle changes in the urban setting of Africa (38). "
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    ABSTRACT: Impact of non-communicable diseases is not well-documented in Ethiopia. We aimed to document the prevalence and mortality associated with four major non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Associated risk factors: hypertension, tobacco-use, harmful use of alcohol, overweight/obesity, and khat-chewing were also studied. Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature between 1960 and 2011 was done using PubMed search engines and local libraries to identify prevalence studies on the four diseases. In total, 32 studies were found, and half of these studies were from Addis Ababa. Two hospital-based studies reviewed the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and found a prevalence of 7.2% and 24%; a hospital-based study reviewed cancer prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.3%; two hospital-based studies reviewed diabetes prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.5% and 1.2%; and two hospital-based studies reviewed prevalence of asthma and found a prevalence of 1% and 3.5%. Few community-based studies were done on the prevalence of diabetes and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease among the population. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on mortality: cardiovascular disease accounts for 24% of deaths in Addis Ababa, cancer causes 10% of deaths in the urban settings and 2% deaths in rural setting, and diabetes causes 5% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causes 3% of deaths. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on hospital admissions: cardiovascular disease accounts for 3%-12.6% and found to have increased between 1970s and 2000s; cancer accounts for 1.1%-2.8%, diabetes accounts for 0.5%-1.2%, and chronic obstructive diseases account for 2.7%-4.3% of morbidity. Overall, the major non-communicable diseases and related risk factors are highly prevalent, and evidence-based interventions should be designed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Health Population and Nutrition
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