High Torquetenovirus Loads Are Correlated With Bronchiectasis and Peripheral Airflow Limitation in Children

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 2.72). 10/2006; 25(9):804-8. DOI: 10.1097/01.inf.0000232723.58355.f4
Source: PubMed


The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of torquetenovirus (TTV) infection in a group of children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infections and radiologic evidence of bronchiectasis. Correlations between TTV loads and severity of bronchiectasis and between TTV loads and lung function were evaluated.
In 38 subjects, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and plasma tests for TTV detection and quantification were done. In 21/38 subjects, spirometry was also performed.
TTV was found in 31/38 (81.6%) patients. The correlation between TTV loads and severity of bronchiectasis was statistically significant (r = 0.548; P = 0.01). TTV loads showed inverse correlation with FEF25-75% (r = -0.541; P = 0.011), and FEF25-75%/FVC (r = -0.512; P = 0.018). Inverse correlation was found also between severity of bronchiectasis and functional lung parameters: FEF25-75% (r = -0.635; P = 0.002), FEV1/FVC (r = -0.541; P = 0.011), and FEF25-75%/FVC (r = -0.645; P = 0.002).
This study demonstrated the high prevalence of TTV infection in children with bronchiectasis. Moreover, we have shown a significant correlation between TTV loads and airflow limitation within the peripheral airways, as well as between severity of bronchiectasis and decrease of lung function.

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Available from: Attilio L Boner
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    • "It is known that the airways might be the primary route of transmission, and TTV is possibly able to replicate in airway tissues [10]. On the other hand, some studies showed that TTV concentrations have a positive correlation with disease such as asthma, bronchiectasis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and some hypotheses such as a direct viral effect or be mediated by inflammatory processes that predispose to virus replication have been constructed to explain this situations [16]. Chronic airway inflammation is the major mechanism for of COPD and it is caused generally by inhalation of harmful substances, such as smoking. "
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    ABSTRACT: Torque Teno Virus (TTV) has been identified as transfusion-transmitted virus in humans, initially. Although TTV viremia is extremely common in the general population worldwide, there is no direct causal evidence linking TTV infection to specific clinical manifestations. Our hypothesis was that TTV might play a role in Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by inducing inflammatory mechanisms previously identified. The study was conducted on 57 COPD patients and 39 healthy control groups. COPD patient groups included: the patients (n:20) with exacerbation needed noninvasive ventilation, the patients (n:19) who received only medical treatment, and the invited patients (n:18) for outpatient control. Serum samples were collected from patients and voluntary blood donors. TTV DNA quantification was carried out with a real time PCR by the hybridization probe system and viral load was interpreted through the crossing point value. TTV DNA was detected in the majority of both patients and healthy control groups. The prevalence was 94.4% (17/18) in patients for outpatient control, 94.7% (18/19) in patients who received only medical treatment, 100% (20/20) in patients with exacerbation needed noninvasive ventilation and 84.6% (33/39) in healthy controls. This difference was not statistically significant. However, CP values was statistically different in all the patient groups from the control group. TTV DNA prevalence was higher in patients than healthy individuals. More interesting thing, viral load was highest in the patients with exacerbation needed noninvasive ventilation. As a result, TTV may be associated with COPD and the severity of it.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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    • "TTV might also aggravate the symptoms caused by other respiratory viruses, or then TTV may be an indicator of the disease process as implied by the findings that TTV concentrations in nasal secretions or plasma have a positive correlation with markers of eosinophilic inflammation and a negative correlation with pulmonary function in asthma [15]. Also, the severity of bronchiectasis and of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis correlate with high TTV concentrations [115]. The association between TTV and disease, could be based on a direct viral effect or be mediated by inflammatory processes that predispose to virus replication. "
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostics of respiratory viral infections has improved markedly during the last 15 years with the development of PCR techniques. Since 1997, several new respiratory viruses and their subgroups have been discovered: influenza A viruses H5N1 and H1N1, human metapneumovirus, coronaviruses SARS, NL63 and HKU1, human bocavirus, human rhinoviruses C and D and potential respiratory pathogens, the KI and WU polyomaviruses and the torque teno virus. The detection of previously known viruses has also improved. Currently, a viral cause of respiratory illness is almost exclusively identifiable in children, but in the elderly, the detection rates of a viral etiology are below 40%, and this holds also true for exacerbations of chronic respiratory illnesses. The new viruses cause respiratory symptoms like the common cold, cough, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia. Acute respiratory failure may occur. These viruses are distributed throughout the globe and affect people of all ages. Data regarding these viruses and the elderly are scarce. This review introduces these new viruses and reviews their clinical significance, especially with regard to the elderly population.
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    • "In this study, real-time PCR using the TaqMan probe demonstrated greater sensitivity for detection of the virus in porcine and bovine plasma compared to the conventional PCR assays. Because virus titre during viremia appears to be a virulence marker in TTV (Pifferi et al. 2006; Bando et al. 2008) using this tool could lead to a better understanding of how TTV infection is established in animals and could also allow identification of replication sites and cell tropisms in the organism through quantitative comparisons in relation to the virus titre. "
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to develop and to optimize molecular tools to detect the presence of Torque teno virus (TTV) in swine and cattle. A novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a TaqMan probe was developed to detect both genogroups of TTV strains. Oligonucleotide primers and hybridization probes were designed based on sequence analysis of the noncoding region, a highly conserved part of the genome. The real-time PCR assay specifically detected bovine and porcine TTV DNA without cross-amplification of other common pathogens. The assay was compared with conventional PCR and nested-PCR assays for the detection of porcine genogroups 1 and 2 and bovine TTV on plasma and faecal samples, and the assay was found faster, more reliable and reduced the risk of false positive results. The real-time PCR assay provided better detection results for the two TTV genogroups in both swine and cattle compared to the conventional PCR assays. This new TaqMan PCR assay will be a useful tool for the detection of animal TTV strains, to evaluate the viral load from animal host and finally to identify the presence of these viruses in the agri-food continuum.
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