Mineral trioxide aggregate: A review of the constituents and biological properties of the material
This paper reviews the literature on the constituents and biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). A Medline search was conducted. The first publication on the material was in November 1993. The Medline search identified 206 papers published from November 1993 to August 2005. Specific searches on constituents and biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate, however, yielded few publications. Initially all abstracts were read to identify which fitted one of the two categories required for this review, constituents or biocompatibility. Based on this assessment and a review of the papers, 13 were included in the constituent category and 53 in the biocompatibility category. Relatively few articles addressed the constituents of MTA, whilst cytological evaluation was the most widely used biocompatibility test.
- "Ten years follow-up studies indicate 30% to 85% success rate [23,24]. MTA is a bioactive material that can be used for direct pulp capping [25,26]. It is non-resorbable, may set in wet conditions, and stimulates dentin hard tissue formation . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three types of calcium silicate-based endodontic cement after different incubation periods with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from extracted third molars and seeded in 96-well plates. MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and Biodentine were prepared and added to culture insert plates which were immediately placed into 96-well plates containing cultured cells. After incubation periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours, cell viability was determined with WST-1 assay. Data were analysed statistically by ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonferroni tests. There was no significant difference in cell viability amongst the test materials after each incubation period ( P > 0.05 ). MTA and CEM presented more than 90% cell viability after 24 and 48 hours of incubation and showed statistically significant decrease in cell viability after 72 hours of incubation ( P < 0.05 ). Biodentine showed significantly less cell viability (73%) after 24 hours of incubation, whereas more than 90% cell viability was seen after 48 and 72 hours of incubation ( P < 0.05 ). Despite the significant changes in cell viability over time, materials presented similar cytotoxicity profile. Biodentine and CEM can be considered as alternative materials for root-end surgery procedures.0Comments 0Citations
- "MTA and CEM showed a statistically significant decrease in cell viability after 72 hours of incubation whereas Biodentine showed less cell viability after 24 hours of incubation compared with other time periods. The reason for the decrease in cell viability for MTA and CEM after 72 hours of incubation may be the production of calcium hydroxide due to the hydration reaction in the materials [10, 24]. Similarly, calcium hydroxide is produced as a by-product of the reaction in Biodentine . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Regeneration of periodontal tissues is a major goal of periodontal therapy. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) show mesenchymal cell properties with the potential for dental tissue engineering. Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are examples of materials that act as signaling molecules to enhance periodontal regeneration. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been proven to be biocompatible and appears to have some osteoconductive properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of EMD, MTA, and PDGF on DPSC osteogenic differentiation. Methods Human DPSCs were cultured in medium containing EMD, MTA, or PDGF. Control groups were also established. Evaluation of the achieved osteogenesis was carried out by computer analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-stained chambers, and spectrophotometric analysis of alizarin red S-stained mineralized nodules. Results EMD significantly increased the amounts of ALP expression and mineralization compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, MTA gave variable results with slight increases in certain differentiation parameters, and PDGF showed no significant increase in the achieved differentiation. Conclusions EMD showed a very strong osteogenic ability compared with PDGF and MTA, and the present results provide support for its use in periodontal regeneration.0Comments 1Citation
- "Another material with the ability to induce regeneration is mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). MTA is a mixture of dicalcium silicate, tricalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, gypsum, and tetracalcium aluminoferrite . Torabinejad et al.  reported a favorable biologic performance of MTA when in direct contact with bone, through the deposition and formation of hydroxyl apatite on its surface. "
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