Mineral trioxide aggregate: A review of the constituents and biological properties of the material

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Dental Institute, King's College London, London, UK. .
International Endodontic Journal (Impact Factor: 2.97). 11/2006; 39(10):747-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2006.01135.x
Source: PubMed


This paper reviews the literature on the constituents and biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). A Medline search was conducted. The first publication on the material was in November 1993. The Medline search identified 206 papers published from November 1993 to August 2005. Specific searches on constituents and biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate, however, yielded few publications. Initially all abstracts were read to identify which fitted one of the two categories required for this review, constituents or biocompatibility. Based on this assessment and a review of the papers, 13 were included in the constituent category and 53 in the biocompatibility category. Relatively few articles addressed the constituents of MTA, whilst cytological evaluation was the most widely used biocompatibility test.

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Available from: Josette Camilleri, Mar 19, 2014
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    • "MTA and CEM showed a statistically significant decrease in cell viability after 72 hours of incubation whereas Biodentine showed less cell viability after 24 hours of incubation compared with other time periods. The reason for the decrease in cell viability for MTA and CEM after 72 hours of incubation may be the production of calcium hydroxide due to the hydration reaction in the materials[10,24]. Similarly, calcium hydroxide is produced as a by-product of the reaction in Biodentine[25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three types of calcium silicate-based endodontic cement after different incubation periods with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from extracted third molars and seeded in 96-well plates. MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and Biodentine were prepared and added to culture insert plates which were immediately placed into 96-well plates containing cultured cells. After incubation periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours, cell viability was determined with WST-1 assay. Data were analysed statistically by ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonferroni tests. There was no significant difference in cell viability amongst the test materials after each incubation period ( P > 0.05 ). MTA and CEM presented more than 90% cell viability after 24 and 48 hours of incubation and showed statistically significant decrease in cell viability after 72 hours of incubation ( P < 0.05 ). Biodentine showed significantly less cell viability (73%) after 24 hours of incubation, whereas more than 90% cell viability was seen after 48 and 72 hours of incubation ( P < 0.05 ). Despite the significant changes in cell viability over time, materials presented similar cytotoxicity profile. Biodentine and CEM can be considered as alternative materials for root-end surgery procedures.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "For a clinical point of view MTA has a reasonable setting time (about 4 hours), it can be used in presence of moisture in the root canals. This property is important in teeth with necrotic pulp and inflamed periapical lesions because one of the problems found in these cases is the presence of exudate at the apex of the root [10] [12]. GIC strengthens the thinned out root canal walls in teeth with internal resorption and/or [table/Fig-4]: Microbiological culture: (a) Before (b) and after disinfecting the root canal space using 3-Mix antibiotic paste [table/Fig-5]: Perforation repair and apexification using MTA in 11 and endodontic treatment (Obturation) in 21[table/Fig-6]: GP stick (Roll cone) used for preparation for post space [table/Fig-7]: Tooth preparation to receive the full crown restoration [table/Fig-8]: Temporary crown placement [table/Fig-9]: Postoperative Photograph: Permanent crown placement on 11 and 21, 21 and 22 (Peg shaped lateral incisors) built to an aesthetic appearance "
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    ABSTRACT: Children are uniquely susceptible to craniofacial trauma. Injuries to the teeth occur often as a result of falls and sport activities. The pulp often gets infected after dental trauma resulting in to numerous complications. The authors present a case report of successful restoration of traumatized teeth with open apex which were weakened due to long standing infection and internal resorption. Initially antibiotic combination of 3- mix was used to disinfect the root canals. One tooth is treated with conventional endodontic treatment and the other tooth with open apex and perforation is managed by MTA apexification followed by canal reinforcement using glass ionomer cement and fiber reinforced composite post. Core build up is done using light cure composite resin followed by aesthetic crowns. The patient also presented with the peg shaped lateral incisors, which were built to an aesthetic appearance using light cure composite resins.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research
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    • "studies as a sealing pulp space barrier material in regenerative endodontics procedures [10] [11]. The main advantages of MTA are high biocompatibility, lack of cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity, antibacterial action, good sealing capacity, and radiopacity [12] [13] [14]. Furthermore, it has been shown to allow the adherence and proliferation of osteoblasts on its surface, whereas clinical studies have demonstrated that MTA could be used as a root-end filling material [15] [16] [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: MTA, Bio-Oss, and dentin chips have been successfully used in endodontics. The aim of this study was to assess the adhesion and migration of dental stem cells on human pulp ceiling cavities filled with these endodontic materials in an experimental model, which mimics the clinical conditions of regenerative endodontics. Cavities were formed, by a homemade mold, on untouched third molars, filled with endodontic materials, and observed with electron microscopy. Cells were seeded on cavities' surface and their morphology and number were analysed. The phenomenon of tropism was assessed in a migration assay. All three materials demonstrated appropriate microstructures for cell attachment. Cells grew on all reagents, but they showed a differential morphology. Moreover, variations were observed when comparing cells numbers on cavity's filling versus the surrounding dentine disc. The highest number of cells was recorded on dentin chips whereas the opposite was true for Bio-Oss. This was confirmed in the migration assay where a statistically significant lower number of cells migrated towards Bio-Oss as compared to MTA and dentin chips. This study highlights that MTA and dentin chips have a greater potential compared to Bio-Oss regarding the attraction of dental stem cells and are good candidates for bioengineered pulp regeneration.
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