Lifelong diet restriction and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis of the hip joint in dogs

Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 19104-6010, USA.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.56). 10/2006; 229(5):690-3. DOI: 10.2460/javma.229.5.690
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the effects of diet restriction on development of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis in dogs.
Longitudinal cohort study.
48 Labrador Retrievers from 7 litters.
Forty-eight 6-week-old puppies from 7 litters were paired with littermates by sex and weight, and each pairmate was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups of 24 dogs each. Starting at 8 weeks of age, 1 group was fed ad libitum (control fed) and the other was fed 25% less (restricted fed) of the same diet for life on a pairwise basis. The dogs' hip joints were radiographed in the standard ventrodorsal hip-extended view at multiple intervals prior to 1 year of age and at annual intervals thereafter on the basis of birth anniversary. A board-certified radiologist unaware of group assignment scored the radiographs for evidence of osteoarthritis.
Prevalence of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis in all dogs increased linearly throughout the study, from an overall prevalence of 15% at 2 years to 67% by 14 years. Restricted-fed dogs had lower prevalence and later onset of hip joint osteoarthritis. Median age at first identification of radiographic evidence of hip joint osteoarthritis was significantly lower in the control-fed group (6 years), compared with the restricted-fed group (12 years).
Restricted feeding delayed or prevented development of radiographic signs of hip joint osteoarthritis in this cohort of Labrador Retrievers. Lifetime maintenance of 25% diet restriction delayed onset and reduced severity of hip joint osteoarthritis, thus favorably affecting both duration and quality of life. In addition, the data indicated that development of hip joint osteoarthritis was not bimodal in these dogs but occurred as a continuum throughout life.

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    • "Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful, degenerative and inflammatory disease that affects the synovial joints. It is highly prevalent in dogs (Paster et al., 2005; Smith et al., 2006) with 20 % of the canine population over 1 year old presenting various degrees of OA (Aragon et al., 2007; Moreau et al., 2011). This musculoskeletal disease is related to chronic pain, lameness, functional disability and reduced quality of life, leading finally to the loss of joint function and mobility (Henrotin et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful, degenerative and inflammatory disease that affects the synovial joints and leads finally to the loss of mobility. It is highly prevalent in dogs. Nowadays, no cure exists, and the pharmacological treatment is limited to clinical signs alleviation. Some positive beneficial effects have been highlighted with dietary supplements in the course of dog OA. The goals of this narrative review are to summarize the scientific data available in the literature on dietary supplements assessed in dog OA and to discuss some trails about how to improve several aspects of research and issues with dietary supplements, such as bioavailability and dosage regimen. Chondroitin sulphate, glucosamine, undenaturated type II collagen, avocado-soya bean unsaponifiables, curcumin and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied in dog OA and therefore discussed in the present review. Most of them showed anticatabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, few data exist concerning their pharmacokinetics. Their bioavailability is low, but new formulations are developed to enhance their gastrointestinal absorption. The clinical relevance of these new formulations compared to native forms should be demonstrated in good clinical trials. Even if further investigations are needed, dietary supplements should be considered in OA management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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    • "In older patients, it is distinguished by osteophyte development and remodelling of the acetabulum and femoral head (Todhunter and Lust 2003). The inheritance of CHD is considered to be multifactorial , meaning that its expression is influenced by the effect of multiple genes and environmental factors (Bliss et al. 2002; Smith et al. 2006). Due to the complexity of the inheritance of CHD, there is a current lack of readily available genomic tests for routine clinical use. "
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: To use estimated breeding value (EBV) analysis to investigate the genetic trend of the total hip score (to assess canine hip dysplasia) in four populous breeds of dogs using the records from the New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA) Canine Hip Dysplasia Scheme database (1991 to 2011).METHODS: Estimates of heritability and EBV for the NZVA total hip score of individual dogs from the German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever and Rottweiler breeds were obtained using restricted maximum likelihood procedures with a within-breed linear animal model. The model included the fixed effects of gender, birth year, birth season, age at scoring and the random effect of animal. The pedigree file included animals recorded between 1990 and 2011. A total of 2,983 NZVA hip score records, from a pedigree of 3,172 animals, were available for genetic evaluation. Genetic trends of the NZVA total hip score were calculated as the regression coefficient of the EBV (weighted by reliabilities) on year of birth.RESULTS: The estimates of heritability for hip score were 0.32 (SE 0.08) in German Shepherd, 0.37 (SE 0.08) in Labrador Retriever, 0.29 (SE 0.08) in Golden Retriever and 0.52 (SE 0.18) in Rottweiler breeds. Genetic trend analysis revealed that only the German Shepherd breed exhibited a genetic trend towards better hip conformation over time, with a decline of 0.13 (SE 0.04) NZVA total hip score units per year (p0.1).CONCLUSIONS: Despite moderate heritability of the NZVA total hip score, there has not been substantial improvement of this trait for the four breeds analysed in the study period.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Greater improvement in reducing the prevalence of canine hip dysplasia may be possible if screening were to be compulsory as a requirement for registration of pedigree breeding stock, greater selection pressure were to be applied and selection of breeding stock made on the basis on an individual's EBV rather than the NZVA total hip score alone.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · New Zealand veterinary journal
    • "Canine hip dysplasia is a heritable and multifactorial disorder, meaning that its expression is influenced by the effect of several genes and many, often unidentified, environmental factors (Cook et al. 1996; Bliss et al. 2002; Smith et al. 2006). The disease is characterised by coxofemoral joint pain leading to lameness , stiffness and a progressive decline in function of the joint. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a developmental orthopaedic disease of the coxofemoral joints with a multifactorial mode of inheritance. Multiple gene effects are influenced by environmental factors; therefore, it is unlikely that a simple genetic screening test with which to identify susceptible individuals will be developed in the near future. In the absence of feasible methods for objectively quantifying clinical CHD, radiographic techniques have been developed and widely used to identify dogs for breeding which are less affected by the disease. A hip-extended ventrodorsal view of the pelvis has been traditionally used to identify dogs with subluxation and/or osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joints. More recently, there has been emphasis on the role of coxofemoral joint laxity as a determinant of CHD and methods have been developed to measure passive hip laxity. Though well-established worldwide, the effectiveness of traditional phenotypic scoring schemes in reducing the prevalence of CHD has been variable. The most successful implementation of traditional CHD scoring has occurred in countries or breeding colonies with mandatory scoring and open registries with access to pedigree records. Several commentators have recommended that for quantitative traits like CHD, selection of breeding stock should be based on estimated breeding values (EBV) rather than individual hip score/grade. The EBV is a reflection of the genetic superiority of an animal compared to its counterparts and is calculated from the phenotype of an individual and its relatives and their pedigree relationship. Selecting breeding stock on the basis of a dog's genetic merit, ideally based on a highly predictive phenotype, will confer the breeder with greater selection power, accelerate genetic improvement towards better hip conformation and thus more likely to decrease the prevalence of CHD.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · New Zealand veterinary journal
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