Gass, J. et al. Mutations in progranulin are a major cause of ubiquitin-positive frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Hum. Mol. Genet. 15, 2988-3001

University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States
Human Molecular Genetics (Impact Factor: 6.39). 10/2006; 15(20):2988-3001. DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddl241
Source: PubMed


Null mutations in the progranulin gene (PGRN) were recently reported to cause tau-negative frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 17. We assessed the genetic contribution
of PGRN mutations in an extended population of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) (N=378). Mutations were identified in 10% of the total FTLD population and 23% of patients with a positive family history. This
mutation frequency dropped to 5% when analysis was restricted to an unbiased FTLD subpopulation (N=167) derived from patients referred to Alzheimer's Disease Research Centers (ADRC). Among the ADRC patients, PGRN mutations were equally frequent as mutations in the tau gene (MAPT). We identified 23 different pathogenic PGRN mutations, including a total of 21 nonsense, frameshift and splice-site mutations that cause premature termination of the
coding sequence and degradation of the mutant RNA by nonsense-mediated decay. We also observed an unusual splice-site mutation
in the exon 1 5′ splice site, which leads to loss of the Kozac sequence, and a missense mutation in the hydrophobic core of
the PGRN signal peptide. Both mutations revealed novel mechanisms that result in loss of functional PGRN. One mutation, c.1477C>T
(p.Arg493X), was detected in eight independently ascertained familial FTLD patients who were shown to share a common extended
haplotype over the PGRN genomic region. Clinical examination of patients with PGRN mutations revealed highly variable onset ages with language dysfunction as a common presenting symptom. Neuropathological
examination showed FTLD with ubiquitin-positive cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in all PGRN mutation carriers.

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    • "The entire open reading frame including the noncoding exon 0 and exon-intron boundaries of exons 1–12 of the GRN gene was sequenced in FTLD patients, using specific primers, as previously described [15]. Patient's consent was obtained to perform genetic analysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinsonism can be the presenting feature of frontotemporal dementia due to Progranulin (GRN) mutations or develop over the course of the disease, mimicking idiopathic Parkinson's disease or atypical parkinsonism. Here we report on a patient carrying a novel GRN mutation who presented with asymmetric parkinsonism and developed cognitive decline and language alterations two years later. Brain MRI showed mild asymmetric fronto-parietal atrophy. Single-photon emission computed tomography with I123 ioflupane (DAT-Scan) demonstrated reduced tracer uptake in the left putamen. Larger studies are needed to clarify whether presynaptic dopaminergic deficit is present in all GRN mutation carriers or only in those with parkinsonism.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
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    • "FTLD-TDP comprises approximately 50% of clinical FTLD [9]. Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN), which codes for a growth factor with neuroprotective effects [10,11] account for ~10% of FTLD-TDP [12-14]. The majority of these autosomal dominant mutations result in premature termination codons and thus progranulin haploinsufficiency [14,15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second most common cause of dementia in individuals under 65 years old and manifests as alterations in behavior, personality, or language secondary to degeneration of the frontal and/or temporal lobes. FTLD-TDP, the largest neuropathological subset of FTLD, is characterized by hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) inclusions. Mutations in progranulin (GRN), a neuroprotective growth factor, are one of the most common Mendelian genetic causes of FTLD-TDP. Moreover, a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified multiple SNPs within the uncharacterized gene TMEM106B that significantly associated with FTLD-TDP, suggesting that TMEM106B genotype confers risk for FTLD-TDP. Indeed, TMEM106B expression levels, which correlate with TMEM106B genotype, may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013
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    • "In 2006, a mutated gene located on chromosome 17q21.31 are identified as the granule protein precursor (PGRN), only 1.7 M nucleotide away from the MAPT [68,69]. Approximately 10% of patients with FTLD is associated with this gene. "
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    ABSTRACT: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) represents a group of clinically, neuropathologically and genetically heterogeneous disorders with plenty of overlaps between the neurodegenerative mechanism and the clinical phenotype. FTLD is pathologically characterized by the frontal and temporal lobar atrophy. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) clinically presents with abnormalities of behavior and personality and language impairments variants. The clinical spectrum of FTD encompasses distinct canonical syndromes: behavioural variant of FTD (bvFTD) and primary progressive aphasia. The later includes nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (nfvPPA or PNFA), semantic variant PPA (svPPA or SD) and logopenic variant PPA (lvPPA). In addition, there is also overlap of FTD with motor neuron disease (FTD-MND or FTD-ALS), as well as the parkinsonian syndromes, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). The FTLD spectrum disorders are based upon the predominant neuropathological proteins (containing inclusions of hyperphosphorylated tau or ubiquitin protein, e.g transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) and fusedin-sarcoma protein in neurons and glial cells) into three main categories: (1) microtubule-associated protein tau (FTLD-Tau); (2) TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (FTLD-TDP); and (3) fused in sarcoma protein (FTLD-FUS). There are five main genes mutations leading clinical and pathological variants in FTLD that identified by molecular genetic studies, which are chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) gene, granulin (GRN) gene, microtubule associated protein tau gene (MAPT), the gene encoding valosin-containing protein (VCP) and the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B). In this review, recent advances on the different clinic variants, neuroimaging, genetics, pathological subtypes and clinicopathological associations of FTD will be discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Translational Neurodegeneration
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