Article

Diphtheria-neutralizing antibody levels in healthy adults from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 20551-030, Brasil.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Impact Factor: 1.59). 06/2006; 101(4):459-62. DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762006000400019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, until 2004, the immunization policy against diphtheria involved childhood vaccination with no official routine booster dose administered after 15 years of age. This study assessed functional antibody levels against diphtheria among blood donors. A total of 140 blood samples were collected, and diphtheria antitoxin levels were evaluated by Vero cell neutralization test. The mean age of the population was 34 years old (range: 18-61 years); 37.8% females and 62.2% males. Overall, 30.7% (95%, CI: 23.4-38.7) individuals presented neutralizing antitoxin antibody titers < 0.01 IU/ml; 42.1% (95%, CI: 34.1-50.4) showed values between 0.01-0.09 IU/ml and, 27.1% (95%, CI: 20.2-34.9) had (3) 0.1 IU/ml. In the subgroup of individuals with history of diphtheria immunization during childhood (85%), a number of 28.5% showed unprotective levels of circulating neutralizing antibody (< 0.01 IU/ml). Despite the continuous progress of immunization programs directed to Brazilian population, currently healthy adults remain susceptible to diphtheria.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Raphael Hirata, Jun 26, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A randomized, double-blinded study evaluating the immunogenicity, safety and consistency of production of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine entirely produced in Brazil by Bio-Manguinhos and Instituto Butantan (DTP/Hib-BM) was undertaken. The reference vaccine had the same DTP vaccine but the Hib component was produced using purified materials supplied by GlaxoSmithKline (DTP/Hib-GSK), which is registered and has supplied the Brazilian National Immunization Program for over more than five years. One thousand infants were recruited for the study and received vaccinations at two, four and six months of age. With respect to immunogenicity, the vaccination protocol was followed in 95.6% and 98.4% of infants in the DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK groups, respectively. For the Hib component of the study, there was 100% seroprotection (> or =0.15 microg/mL) with all three lots of DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK. The geometric mean titer (GMT) was 9.3 microg/mL, 10.3 microg/mL and 10.3 microg/mL for lots 1, 2 and 3 of DTP/Hib-BM, respectively, and the GMT was 11.3 g/mL for DTP/Hib-GSK. For diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, seroprotection was 99.7%, 100% and 99.9%, respectively, for DTP/Hib-BM, three lots altogether and 99.2%, 100% and 100% for DTP/Hib-GSK. GMTs were similar across all lots and vaccines. Adverse events rates were comparable among the vaccine groups. The Brazilian DTP/Hib vaccine demonstrated an immunogenicity and reactogenicity profile similar to that of the reference vaccine.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Serologic data on diseases that are preventable by vaccines are necessary to evaluate the success of immunization programs and to identify susceptible subgroups. In the present study, we determined serum IgG levels against diphtheria toxin of military and civilian blood donors (N = 75; 69.3% males and 30.7% females) aged 18-64 years, from the Brazilian Army Biology Institute, Rio de Janeiro, using a commercial diphtheria kit (Diphtheria IgG ELISA; IBL, Germany). Most (63%) unprotected military donors were from the older age group of 41 to 64 years. In contrast, the majority (71%) of young military donors (18 to 30 years) were fully protected. About half of the military donors aged 31 to 40 years were protected against diphtheria. Among the civilians, about 50% of persons aged 18 to 30 years and 31 to 40 years had protective antibody levels against diphtheria as also did 64% of individuals aged 41 to 64 years. All civilians had a similar antibody response (geometric mean = 0.55 IU/mL) independent of age group. Military donors aged 18-30 years had higher IgG levels (geometric mean = 0.82 IU/mL) than military donors of 41-64 years (geometric mean = 0.51 IU/mL; P > 0.05). In conclusion, the existence of a considerable proportion of susceptible adults supports the position that reliable data on the immune status of the population should be maintained routinely and emphasizes the importance of adequate immunization during adulthood.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.]
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: El articulo revisa la literatura sobre la emergencia de infecciones humanas causadas por Corynebacterium ulcerans en diversos países, incluyendo Brasil. Se realizó análisis de artículos publicados entre 1926 y 2011 en las bases Medline/Pubmed y SciELO, así como artículos e informes del Ministerio Brasileño de la Salud. Se presenta un esquema de selección, rápido, económico y de fácil ejecución, capaz de permitir la realización del diagnóstico presuntivo de C. ulcerans y C. diphtheriae en la mayoría de los laboratorios brasileños públicos y privados. La circulación de C. ulcerans en varios países, aliada a los recientes casos de aislamiento del patógeno en Rio de Janeiro (Sureste de Brasil), es un alerta a clínicos, veterinarios y microbiólogos sobre la ocurrencia de difteria zoológica y la circulación de C. ulcerans en regiones urbanas y rurales del territorio nacional y/o de América Latina
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Revista de Saúde Pública
Show more