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Letter to the Editor: Will We All Become Electrosensitive?

  • Hallberg Independent Research
  • Amt der Salzburger Landesregierung

Abstract and Figures

An increasing number of people are suffering from electrosensitivity, also known as being electrically hypersensitive (EHS) in Sweden. There are also other diseases such as fibromyalgia and burn-out syndrome, that have symptoms common to those exhibited by people suffering from electosensitivity. Electrosensitivity is recognized as a handicap, with no basis and physical or medical mechanism. it is expected that electrosensitivity will more widely spread in the near future.
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Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 25: 189–191, 2006
Copyright © Informa Healthcare
ISSN 1536-8378 print
DOI: 10.1080/15368370600873377
Letter to the Editor: Will We All
Become Electrosensitive?
Hallberg Independent Research, Trångsund, Sweden
Public Health Department Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
Dear Editor,
Each year an increasing number of people claim to suffer from electrosensitivity
(see, e.g., compilation of references given in Table 1), also known as being
electrically hypersensitive (EHS). There are also other diseases, such as fibromyalgia
and burn-out syndrome, that have symptoms similar to those exhibited by people
suffering from electrosensitivity.
In Sweden, electrosensitivity is recognized as a handicap, but there is still
controversy surrounding the diagnosis of the disease. The mainstream view by
governmental and medical authorities is that this handicap is a psychological
phenomenon with no basis in physical or medical mechanisms (Swedish National
Board of Health and Welfare, SNBHW, 1995), whereby perpetuating the
misconception that only a small fraction of the population is concerned about
electrosensitivity or the proximity of new radio transmission masts.
The number of reported cases of electrosensitivity has been steadily increasing
since it was first documented in 1991. Data presented here are estimates and are
based on large sample inquiries where different sets of questions have been used. To
determine whether the statistics indicate a sub-population of electrosensitivity or if
the total population is at stake, we plotted reported prevalence estimates over time
in a normal distribution diagram (Table 1 and Figure 1).
Contrary to the views of mainstream medical authorities, Figure 1 shows that
the group of electrosensitive people around the world, including Sweden, is not just
a small fraction that deviates from the rest of the healthy population. Instead, it
points at the possibility that electrosensitivity will be more widespread in the near
future. The extrapolated trend indicates that 50% of the population can be expected
to become electrosensitive by the year 2017.
Data presented here were collected in Austria, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland,
Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States.
Address correspondence to Örjan Hallberg, Hallberg Independent Research, Polkavägen
14B, Trångsund 142 65, Sweden; E-mail:
190 Hallberg and Oberfeld
Table 1
Estimated prevalence of electrosensitive people in different years and countries
Measured % El
year sensitive Country, reported year Ref. No.
1985 006 Sweden 1991 (0.025–0.125%) National Encyclopedia Sw., 1991
1994 063 Sweden 1995 Anonymous est., 1994
1995 150 Austria 1995 Leitgeb N. et al., 1995, 2005
1996 150 Sweden 1998 SNBHW, Env. report, 1998
1997 200 Austria 1998 Leitgeb N. et al., 1998, 2005
1997 150 Sweden 1999 Hillert L. et al., 2002
1998 320 California 2002 Levallois P., 2002
1999 310 Sweden 2001 SNBHW, Env. report, 2001
2000 320 Sweden 2003 Sw Labour Union Sif, 2003
2001 600 Germany 2002 Schroeder E., 2002
2002 1330 Austria 2003 (7.6–19%) Spi
ß B., 2003
2003 800 Germany 2003 Infas, 2003
2003 900 Sweden 2004 Elöverkänsligas Riksförbund, 2005
2003 500 Schweiz 2005 Bern, Medicine Social, 2005
2003 500 Ireland 2005 This is London, 2005
2004 1100 England 2004 Fox E., 2004
2004 900 Germany 2005 Infas, 2004
2017 5000 Extrapolated to 50%
Figure 1. The prevalence (%) of people around the world who consider themselves to be
electrosensitive, plotted over time in a normal distribution graph. The endpoint at 50% is an
extrapolated value. Variation explained is 91%, the endpoint not included.
Letter to the Editor 191
Anonymous estimate: 50,000 in 1994.
Elöverkänsligas Riksförbund. (2005). Funktionshindret Elöverkänslighet.
Fox, E. (2004). Rapporteurs Report. WHO Workshop on Electrical Hypersensitivity, Oct.
Hillert, L., Berglind, N., Arnetz, B. B., Bellander, T. (2002). Scand J Work Environ Health.
Infas. (2003). Ermittlungen der Befürchtungen und Ängste der breiten Öffentlichkeit
hinsichtlich möglicher Gefahren der hochfrequenten elektromagnetischen Felder des
Mobilfunks–jährliche Umfragen. B. f. Strahlenschutz. Bonn, Institut für angewandte
Sozialwissenschaft GmbH: 1–34.
Infas Institut für angewandte Sozialwissenschaft GmbH Friedrich-Wilhelm-Straße 18,
53113 Bonn. Ermittlung der Befürchtungen und Ängste der breiten Öffentlichkeit
hinsichtlich möglicher Gefahren der hochfrequenten elektromagnetischen Felder des
Mobilfunks–jährliche Umfragen–Abschlussbericht über die Befragung im Jahr 2004.
Leitgeb, N. (1995). Electrosensibilität. VBÖ J 1:51–55.
Leitgeb, N. (1998). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Proc Int Workshop on EMF and
Non-Specific Health Symp. pp. 8–16, Graz, Austria.
Leitgeb, N., Schröttner, J., Böhm, M. (2005). Does “electromagnetic pollution” cause illness?
An inquiry among Austrian general practitioners. Wien Med Wochensehr, 153:237–241.
Levallois, P. et al. (2002). Study of self-reported hypersensitity to electromagnetic fields in
California. Environ Health Persp 110(4):619–623.
Medicine Social et Preventive de l’Unirvesité de Berne, 2005.
Proof of mobile health risk (2005). This is London, Feb. 9.
Schroeder, E. (2002). Stakeholder-Perspektiven zur Novellierung der 26.BlmSchV. Ergebnisse
der bundesweiten Telefonumfrage im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Strahlenschutz
Spiß, B. (2003). Pilotstudie zu Mobilfunkstrahlung und Gesundheit–Modellierung der
Immission mit den Programmen NIRView und CORLA. Diplomarbeit an der
Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Salzburg, Oktober 2003, Salzburg,
Swedish Labour Union Sif Estimate, 2003.
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. (1995). Elektriska och Magnetiska fält och
Hälsoeffekter. Report, 1.
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. (1998). Environmental Health Report.
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. (2001). Environmental Health Report.
Swedish National Encyclopedia. (1991). Nationalencyklopedin. elöverkänslighet, 5.
... Figure 7. Estimated prevalence (%) of people around the world who consider themselves to be electrohypersensitive, plotted over time in a normal distribution graph, according to Reference [73]. ...
... Estimated prevalence (%) of people around the world who consider themselves to be electrohypersensitive, plotted over time in a normal distribution graph, according to Reference[73]. ...
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Since 2009, we built up a database which presently includes more than 2000 electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and/or multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) self-reported cases. This database shows that EHS is associated in 30% of the cases with MCS, and that MCS precedes the occurrence of EHS in 37% of these EHS/MCS-associated cases. EHS and MCS can be characterized clinically by a similar symptomatic picture, and biologically by low-grade inflammation and an autoimmune response involving autoantibodies against O-myelin. Moreover, 80% of the patients with EHS present with one, two, or three detectable oxidative stress biomarkers in their peripheral blood, meaning that overall these patients present with a true objective somatic disorder. Moreover, by using ultrasonic cerebral tomosphygmography and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, we showed that cases have a defect in the middle cerebral artery hemodynamics, and we localized a tissue pulsometric index deficiency in the capsulo-thalamic area of the temporal lobes, suggesting the involvement of the limbic system and the thalamus. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that EHS is a neurologic pathological disorder which can be diagnosed, treated, and prevented. Because EHS is becoming a new insidious worldwide plague involving millions of people, we ask the World Health Organization (WHO) to include EHS as a neurologic disorder in the international classification of diseases.
... Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a new syndrome, where the exposure to electric or magnetic fields are accused to the patients' aches and pains, headaches, depression, lethargy, sleeping disorders, and even convulsions and epileptic seizures [3] Recently, a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain/syndromes, like juvenile FMS, benign joint hypermobility syndrome, myofascial syndrome, tendinitis, bursitis, epicondylitis, and complex Peer review under responsibility of Egyptian Society of Rheumatic Diseases. regional pain syndrome, was observed in female adolescents who used at least two electronic devices [4]. ...
... A weak association between exposure to EMF and non-specific physical symptoms scores are reported in some, but not all of the electrohypersensitive persons [2]. On the other hand, Hallberg and Oberfeld stated that FMS has symptoms similar to those exhibited by people suffering from electro-sensitivity [3]. In this work, it was found that microwave users tended to have a have higher SS score and WPI than non-users. ...
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Introduction Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition characterized by generalized body pain, and mood disturbances of unknown etiology. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), where patients report “hypersensitivity” to electro-magnetic fields (EMF). They wonder whether aches and pains, headaches, depression, sleeping disorders, could be associated with EMF exposure. Aim of the work Is to investigate if fibromyalgia symptoms and scores are affected by the exposure to EMF. Patients and methods This study included 80 FMS patients. The numerical pain rating scale (NPRS), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQR) were used. A patient self-reporting questionnaire invented by the authors in Arabic for the frequency and intensity of EMF exposure was validated and used. Results The mean age of the patients was 38.7 ± 11 years and mean disease duration 4.5 ± 2.4 years. The male to female ratio was 1:2.8. A near-by cellular phone or electric tower did not significantly affect disease scores (p > 0.05), Microwave users appeared to have higher wide spread pain index (WPI) and system severity (SS) scores than non-users, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08 and 0.06) respectively. FMS scores significantly increased with higher TV watching duration, while MADRS score significantly decreased with higher cellular phone use indices. MADRS depression score was increased with shorter distance from electric tower, though not statistically significant (p = 0.76) Conclusion This study highlights a possible pathological link between fibromyalgia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation. Excess exposure to electromagnetic devices could be one of the underlying or at least augmenting factors of fibromyalgia symptoms.
... Representatives of some of the communities involved in the discussion estimated the frequency of this phenomenon at up to 50%. It was probably due to one of the alarmist estimates from 2006 (Hallberg and Oberfeld 2006) predicting that around 2017 half of the population would suffer from IEI-EMF. ...
Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic field (IEI-EMF) called electromagnetic hypersensitivity or electrosensitivity appeared in Polish society awareness due to a considerable change made at the end of 2019 in Polish telecommunication laws. The aims of the project were to access the prevalence of IEI-EMF in Poland and to define a reliable methodology to study this phenomenon. The first step was the internet survey performed at the end of 2018. The IEI-EMF prevalence estimated at the level of 39.7% suggested considerable bias affecting the results. The faults of the first approach were analysed and then a second study stage was performed as a telephone survey at the end of 2020. The latter survey allowed estimating the prevalence of IEI-EMF as less than 1.8%. These discrepancies in the results of both surveys were connected to the medium used in the first survey (Internet) indirectly causing that the group pooled was not representative. The second pitfall was the definition of the criteria used for an electrosensitive person classification. This is why the IEI-EMF prevalence was investigated in the second stage with the use of numerous criteria. The application of different criteria allowed for essential conclusions concerning the appropriate methodology for such kinds of studies. Corrections of the methodology before the second survey allowed reliable results consistent with the results obtained in similar studies performed in other countries. Our findings also show that the IEI-EMF frequency reports presented in the literature have to be treated carefully and with some dose of scepticism.
... The number of telecommunication base stations built in residential areas has increased public concern due to substantial controversy about the potential hazard effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) emissions of base stations (D'Angelo et al., 2015;Isabona et al., 2016;Siegrist et al., 2005). According to Cousin and Siegrist, 2010;Hallberg and Oberfeld, 2006), the health effects of EMF are headaches, giddiness, nausea, skin rashes, feeling warn, depression, night sweats, memory loss, disturbances in menstruation, and insomnia. In addition, this may cause property values to diminish because the existence of these potential health effects. ...
Much of the controversy over the cause of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) lies in the absence of recognized clinical and biological criteria for a widely accepted diagnosis. However, there are presently sufficient data for EHS to be acknowledged as a distinctly well-defined and objectively characterized neurologic pathological disorder. Because we have shown that 1) EHS is frequently associated with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) in EHS patients, and 2) that both individualized disorders share a common pathophysiological mechanism for symptom occurrence; it appears that EHS and MCS can be identified as a unique neurologic syndrome, regardless its causal origin. In this overview we distinguish the etiology of EHS itself from the environmental causes that trigger pathophysiological changes and clinical symptoms after EHS has occurred. Contrary to present scientifically unfounded claims, we indubitably refute the hypothesis of a nocebo effect to explain the genesis of EHS and its presentation. We as well refute the erroneous concept that EHS could be reduced to a vague and unproven “functional impairment”. To the contrary, we show here there are objective pathophysiological changes and health effects induced by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in EHS patients and most of all in healthy subjects, meaning that excessive non-thermal anthropogenic EMFs are strongly noxious for health. In this overview and medical assessment we focus on the effects of extremely low frequencies, wireless communications radiofrequencies and microwaves EMF. We discuss how to better define and characterize EHS. Taken into consideration the WHO proposed causality criteria, we show that EHS is in fact causally associated with increased exposure to man-made EMF, and in some cases to marketed environmental chemicals. We therefore appeal to all governments and international health institutions, particularly the WHO, to urgently consider the growing EHS-associated pandemic plague, and to acknowledge EHS as a new real EMF causally-related pathology.
There is a lot of data confirming the effect of microwave radiation on psychophysiology and human health. The paper considers a method and a measuring and information system for dynamic monitoring of microwave environmental pollution in cities. It is assumed that a fully implemented system will consist of thousands of portable personal devices – mobile terminals held by volunteers who move around the city in their usual life and, possibly, a number of city vehicles will be equipped with such terminals. The structure and features of the technical implementation of the proposed distributed, non-deterministic system, which allows real-time mapping of the microwave dose load of the city population, are considered. The personal terminal records the geographic position using a GPS navigator as well as the basic parameters of microwave dosimetry. The data are transferred to a web server where they are stored in a cloud database. From there, they can be transferred to the environmental and medical services of the city, and they can also be read and displayed in a convenient form on any device with access to the corresponding Internet resource. The results of testing a prototype of the system when acquiring data on one of the routes in the city of Moscow are presented.
Résumé L’électrohypersensibilité (EHS) est un phénomène, apparu dans les années 1980, qui semble attribuer la survenue de certains symptômes à une exposition aux champs électromagnétiques (CEM). Depuis cette apparition, le nombre de cas n’a cessé d’augmenter, laissant imaginer une sorte de contagion. Cependant, le lien de corrélation entre exposition et apparition des symptômes a été testé à de nombreuses reprises et n’a jamais été confirmé. L’hypothèse qu’un effet psychogénique, l’effet nocebo, pouvait être à l’œuvre a alors pris corps, amenant avec elle une prise de conscience quant à notre exposition sans cesse croissante à des informations anxiogènes sur la présence des CEM. Ce contexte d’attentes négatives démultiplie l’action de l’effet nocebo, déjà contagieux en lui-même, mais n’explique pas, à lui seul, le cheminement d’une majorité des victimes chez qui la survenue des symptômes a précédé la connaissance d’un possible effet nocif des CEM. Différents travaux ont montré que dans ce dernier cas, il pourrait s’agir d’un phénomène de mauvaise attribution des symptômes. Les victimes, laissées sans réponse par la communauté médicale, vont se mettre en recherche d’une cause et seront confrontées à l’orientation du marché cognitif vers les CEM. Cette confrontation sera d’autant plus déséquilibrée que la victime ignore qu’elle est soumise à de nombreux biais cognitifs dans sa manière d’appréhender les informations qui lui sont proposées. Dès lors que l’attribution est constituée, l’effet nocebo pourra à nouveau entrer en jeu et venir consolider la sensation, pour la personne, d’être atteinte d’EHS. Quel que soit le cheminement, la victime entre dans un cercle vicieux duquel il apparaît très compliqué de s’extraire.
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Conference Poster - Symptoms reported by Electrohypersensitive (EHS) patients – first-year summary from a specialized Pain Research Clinic These self-reported symptoms were experienced by self-diagnosed electrohypersensitive patients who came to my research clinic during the year 2018-2019 to discuss their symptoms - this took place long before the COVID-19 breakout. These symptoms are well-recognized symptoms of "Microwave sickness" according to existing medical literature since the 1960's and are NOT a result of COVID-19.
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An die Vereinten Nationen (UNO), die Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO), die Europäische Union (EU), den Europarat und die Regierungen aller Nationen Wir, die unterzeichnenden Wissenschaftler, Ärzte, Umweltschutzorganisationen und Bürger aus () Ländern, sprechen uns dringend für einen sofortigen Stopp des Ausbaus und Einsatzes des 5G Funknetzwerks (Internet der fünften Generation) aus, darin eingeschlossen auch der Einsatz von 5G Sendeanlagen auf Weltraumsatelliten. Der Einsatz von 5G wird eine massiv erhöhte Einwirkung hochfrequenter Strahlung (HF) auf den Menschen zur Folge haben, zusätzlich zu den bereits jetzt genutzten 2G-, 3G-und 4G-Telekommunikations-Netzwerken. Die gesundheitsschädigende Wirkung von Hochfrequenzstrahlung auf Mensch und Umwelt ist bewiesen. Die Anwendung von 5G stellt ein Experiment an der Menschheit und der Umwelt dar, was durch internationales Recht als Verbrechen definiert ist.
Introduction. Numerous studies in the field of electromagnetobiology, both theoretical and experimental-practical, show pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMF) to be the most biologically active, out of all the variety of electromagnetic influences. They have the ability to realize their effects indirectly through the critical systems of the body, manifesting themselves on the subcellular and cellular levels, leading to changes in homeostasis, and as a consequence to the disruption of complex regulatory and coordination relationships carried out in the whole organism. At the same time, the similar electromagnetic influences, depending on the initial functional state of the organism, can cause adaptive changes, or act as a stimulus for pronounced stress, as a result of which adaptive-adaptive reactions fail to adapt. Material and methods. In the experiment performed on laboratory male rats, starting from the age of 4 months, there was considered the dynamics of the deviations from the homeostasis condition of the control animals after 5, 7 and 10 months of the exposure to pulses of electromagnetic fields, characterized by the following parameters: density of induced currents of 0.37; 0.7; 0.8; 2.7 kA/m²; frequency of pulses per week, regardless of their fractionality of 50, 100 and 500; duration 15 ÷ 40 nsec Results. Performed adaptometric analysis of the chronodynamics of morphofunctional correlations between the structural elements of the jejunum mucous membrane made it possible to establish a correlation between the cellular populations of the epithelial-connective tissue complex of the intestinal system of the organism, speaking of it as a single system that takes part not only in the regulation of tissue homeostasis but also reflects the real manifestations of individual variability of reactive, dystrophic and adaptive processes depending on the influencing parameters of the electromagnetic factor, the radiation sources, the intensity and duration of the exposure, revealing the various consequences for the irradiated biological object with their compatibility. Conclusion. In the course of processing the results of the experiment, there were also established “amplitude-frequency windows”, previously registered under similar conditions for the effects of EMF parameters and for other highly sensitive body systems, such as nervous and endocrine, manifested by the absence of shifts in relation to the control indices and indicating possible manifestations tolerance and/or adaptation of the studied indices to individual parameters and EMF.
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Immer mehr von ihrer elektromagnetischen Überempfindlichkeit überzeugte Patienten suchen ärztliche Hilfe. Um das Vorkommen dieser Fälle und die Meinung der österreichischen Ärzte über die potentielle Gesundheitsrelevanz elektromagnetischer Felder im Alltag (Elektrosmog) zu erfassen, wurde eine statistische Untersuchung unter den Allgemeinmedizinern Österreichs durchgeführt, die zu überraschenden Ergebnissen geführt hat. Nur ein Drittel der befragten Ärzte berichtet, niemals von Patienten über die gesundheitliche Bedeutung von Elektrosmog befragt zu werden, zwei Drittel geben an, gelegentlich oder häufig von Patienten konsultiert zu werden, die von ihrer elektromagnetischen Überempfindlichkeit überzeugt sind. Ein überwältigender Prozentsatz von bis zu 96 % schließt einen gesundheitsrelevanten Einfluss von Elektrosmog nicht aus und nur 39 % diagnostizieren niemals einen Zusammenhang zwischen Gesundheitsbeschwerden und Elektrosmog. Allerdings scheint ein großer Informationsmangel zu herrschen. Das Wissen über Elektrosmog, die bestehenden Grenzwerte und die Größe der elektromagnetischen Umgebungsfelder im Vergleich zu ihnen ist gering, und 99 % der Ärzte empfinden die Informationen über elektromagnetische Überempfindlichkeit als nicht ausreichend. Es ist bemerkenswert, dass die Behörden eine marginale Rolle bei der Information spielen. Nur 4 % der Ärzte geben an, von ihnen Informationen über Elektrosmog zu erhalten. Es ist eher einzigartig, dass es einen derartig weit verbreiteten Widerspruch zwischen den Meinungen von Ärzten und der anerkannten nationalen und internationalen Risikobewertung gibt. Angesichts der Häufigkeit der Begegnung mit dieser Thematik zeigen die Ergebnisse einen dringenden Handlungsbedarf auf.
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More and more self-declared electromagnetic hypersensitive patients are entering physicians' practices seeking help. To assess the prevalence of cases and the opinion of Austrian physicians regarding the potential health-relevance of environmental electromagnetic fields ("electromagnetic pollution"), a statistical investigation among general practitioners was undertaken, with surprising results. Only one-third report on never having been asked about the health impact of electromagnetic pollution by patients. An overwhelming percentage of general practitioners (up to 96%) to some degree, or totally, believe in a health-relevant role of environmental electromagnetic fields, and only 39% have never associated health symptoms with "electromagnetic pollution". Two-thirds are consulted occasionally or even frequently by self-declared electromagnetic hypersensitive patients. However, sound information seems to be lacking. Knowledge on existing electromagnetic exposure limits and on environmental field levels in relation to them is poor. It is remarkable that authorities play a marginal role in informing physicians. Only 4% mention having received information on "electromagnetic pollution" from such a source. It is rather remarkable that there is such a widespread contradiction between physicians' opinions and established national and international health risk assessment. With respect to the frequency with which doctors are confronted with this issue, the results demonstrate an urgent need for action.
The prevalence of medically unexplained symptoms attributed to exposure to electromagnetic fields is still largely unknown. Previous studies have investigated reported hypersensitivity to electricity in selected groups recruited from workplaces or outpatient clinics. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity to electric or magnetic fields in the general population and to describe characteristics of the group reporting such hypersensitivity with regard to demographics, other complaints, hypersensitivities, and traditional allergies. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 1997 among 15,000 men and women between 19 and 80 years of age in Stockholm County. The response rate was 73%. One and a half percent of the respondents reported hypersensitivity to electric or magnetic fields. Prevalence was highest among women and in the 60- to 69-year age group. The hypersensitive group reported all symptoms, allergies, and other types of hypersensitivities included in the survey (as well as being disturbed by various factors in the home) to a significantly greater extent than the rest of the respondents. No specific symptom profile set off the hypersensitive group from the rest of the respondents. The results should be interpreted with caution. But they suggest that there is widespread concern among the general population about risks to health posed by electric and magnetic fields. More research is warranted to explore ill health among people reporting hypersensitivity to electric or magnetic fields.
Cases of alleged hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been reported for more than 20 years, and some authors have suggested some connection with the "multiple chemical sensitivity" illness. We report the results of a telephone survey among a sample of 2,072 Californians. Being "allergic or very sensitive" to being near electrical devices was reported by 68 subjects, resulting in an adjusted prevalence of 3.2% (95% confidence interval = 2.8, 3.7). Twenty-seven subjects (1.3%) reported sensitivity to electrical devices but no sensitivity to chemicals. Characteristics of the people reporting hypersensitivity to EMFs were generally different from those of people reporting being allergic to everyday chemicals. Alleging environmental illness or multiple chemical sensitivity diagnosed by a doctor was the strongest predictor of reporting being hypersensitive to EMFs in this population. Other predictive factors apart from self-reporting chemical sensitivity were race/ethnicity other than White, Black, or Hispanic; having low income; and being unable to work. The perception of risk of exposure to EMFs through the use of hair dryers (vs. exposure to power and distribution lines) was the factor the most associated with self-reporting about hypersensitivity to EMFs. However, risk perception was not sufficient to explain the characteristics of people reporting this disorder.
Environmental Health Report. Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. (1998). Environmental Health Report. Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. (2001). Environmental Health Report. Swedish National Encyclopedia. (1991). Nationalencyklopedin. elöverkänslighet, 5.
Pilotstudie zu Mobilfunkstrahlung und Gesundheit–Modellierung der Immission mit den Programmen NIRView und CORLA. Diplomarbeit an der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der
  • B Spiß
Ermittlungen der Befürchtungen und Ängste der breiten Öffentlichkeit hinsichtlich möglicher Gefahren der hochfrequenten elektromagnetischen Felder des Mobilfunks–jährliche Umfragen. B. f. Strahlenschutz
  • Infas
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Proc Int Workshop on EMF and Non-Specific Health Symp
  • N Leitgeb
Leitgeb, N. (1998). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Proc Int Workshop on EMF and Non-Specific Health Symp. pp. 8-16, Graz, Austria.
Stakeholder-Perspektiven zur Novellierung der 26
  • E Schroeder
Schroeder, E. (2002). Stakeholder-Perspektiven zur Novellierung der 26.BlmSchV. Ergebnisse der bundesweiten Telefonumfrage im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Strahlenschutz (BfS).
Ermittlungen der Befürchtungen und Ängste der breiten Öffentlichkeit hinsichtlich möglicher Gefahren der hochfrequenten elektromagnetischen Felder des Mobilfunks-jährliche Umfragen
  • Infas
Infas. (2003). Ermittlungen der Befürchtungen und Ängste der breiten Öffentlichkeit hinsichtlich möglicher Gefahren der hochfrequenten elektromagnetischen Felder des Mobilfunks-jährliche Umfragen. B. f. Strahlenschutz. Bonn, Institut für angewandte Sozialwissenschaft GmbH: 1-34.