Testing the dual pathway hypothesis to substance use in adolescence and young adulthood

Department of Psychology, Wesleyan University, 207 High Street, Middletown, CT 06459, USA.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Impact Factor: 3.42). 03/2007; 87(1):83-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.08.001
Source: PubMed


We tested the dual pathway hypothesis to substance use which posits that substance use can develop via internalizing symptoms or deviant behaviors.
Using data from the Add Health study, we used latent class analysis to define subgroups based on patterns of substance use, and logistic regression procedures to evaluate the prospective association between symptoms of depression, deviance, and the individual substance use patterns.
Groups representing similar patterns of substance use were identified in both adolescence and young adulthood. Some support for the dual pathway hypothesis was demonstrated. Deviance was prospectively associated with substance group assignment in both adolescence and young adulthood, while depression uniquely predicted assignment to the smoking group in young adulthood among females.
Further testing of the dual pathway hypothesis should be built on diverse pattern-centered approaches able to explore the presence of population subgroups.

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    • "Consistent with that pattern, Snyder and Smith (2015) found three classes of substance use: polysubstance use, marijuana and alcohol use, and low-use. The studies by Cleveland et al. (2010), Conway et al. (2013), and Dierker et al. (2007), which found the largest classes (six, four, and five classes, respectively), only included measures regarding tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. "
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    ABSTRACT: Child-welfare-involved youth may lack protective social bonds that could reduce their risk of substance use. We investigated whether caregiver, school, or peer bonds predict distinct patterns of substance use among child-welfare-involved youth. The sample included 720 participants in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II. Latent class analysis (LCA) and the three-step approach to incorporate indicator variables onto the latent classes were used. We found the following classes: (1) severe polysubstance use; (2) moderate polysubstance use; and (3) low use. Youth bonded to primary caregivers were less likely to be severe polysubstance drug users, but caregiver bonds did not protect against moderate polysubstance use. School bonds protected against severe polysubstance and moderate polysubstance. Youth bonded to deviant peers were more likely to be in the severe polysubstance use and moderate polysubstance use classes. Interventions targeting child-welfare-involved youth need to account for social bonds’ effect on substance use.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of psychoactive drugs
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    • "Studies using LCA with youth in the general population have found three to six subgroups or " classes " of substance use patterns. Despite the range in number of classes, each study contains a class of lowusing youth (17%–80%), and a class of polysubstance users (2%–18%; Cleveland, Collins, Lanza, Greenberg, & Feinberg, 2010; Conway et al., 2013; Dauber, Hogue, Paulson, & Leiferman, 2009; Dierker et al., 2007; White et al., 2013). Although several studies have used LCA to explore patterns of substance use the research applying LCA to more than two or three substances among adolescents is fairly sparse. "
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    ABSTRACT: To date studies have not explored patterns of substance use exclusively among youth in the child welfare system. Consequently, little is known about polysubstance use among child welfare-involved youth. This study aimed to explore whether physical abuse, parental substance use, depression, and demographic characteristics predict distinct patterns of substance use among child welfare-involved youth using latent class analysis (LCA). The sample included 822 11–17 year olds who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) study between March 2008 and September 2009. We found the following three classes: (1) polysubstance use, (2) alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) low use. Older youth and youth who experienced physical abuse were at greater risk of being in the polysubstance use class, while living with a biological parent reduced the likelihood of polysubstance use class membership. Youth in the alcohol and marijuana use class were more likely to be older and depressed. Results from this study illuminate important targets for interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Substance Use & Misuse
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    • "Based on prior research, gender was included in the model, given inconsistent findings concerning the relationship of gender to adolescent multiple drug use (Briere et al., 2011; Connell et al., 2010; Malmberg et al., 2010). The model also included psychological distress as some research points to the association of mental health and multiple use (Connell et al., 2010; Dierker et al., 2007; Lynskey et al., 2006; Smith et al., 2011). Perceived peer drug use was also included because peer influences are among the strongest predictors of alcohol and tobacco use (Kelly, O'Flaherty, Connor, et al., 2011; Kelly, O'Flaherty, Toumbourou, et al., 2011; Kelly, Toumbourou, et al., 2011) and simultaneous use of alcohol and marijuana (Briere et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite evidence that many Australian adolescents have considerable experience with various drug types, little is known about the extent to which adolescents use multiple substances. The aim of this study was to examine the degree of clustering of drug types within individuals, and the extent to which demographic and psychosocial predictors are related to cluster membership. A sample of 1402 adolescents aged 12-17years were extracted from the Australian 2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Extracted data included lifetime use of 10 substances, gender, psychological distress, physical health, perceived peer substance use, socioeconomic disadvantage, and regionality. Latent class analysis was used to determine clusters, and multinomial logistic regression employed to examine predictors of cluster membership. There were 3 latent classes. The great majority (79.6%) of adolescents used alcohol only, 18.3% were limited range multidrug users (encompassing alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana), and 2% were extended range multidrug users. Perceived peer drug use and psychological distress predicted limited and extended multiple drug use. Psychological distress was a more significant predictor of extended multidrug use compared to limited multidrug use. In the Australian school-based prevention setting, a very strong focus on alcohol use and the linkages between alcohol, tobacco and marijuana are warranted. Psychological distress may be an important target for screening and early intervention for adolescents who use multiple drugs.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Addictive behaviors
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