Surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) for improved adsorption of wall coating polymers for microchip electrophoresis

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
Electrophoresis (Impact Factor: 3.03). 10/2006; 27(19):3788-96. DOI: 10.1002/elps.200600118
Source: PubMed


The development of rapid and simple wall coating strategies for high-efficiency electrophoretic separation of DNA is of crucial importance for the successful implementation of miniaturized polymeric DNA analysis systems. In this report, we characterize and compare different methods for the chemical modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces for the application of wall coating polymers. PMMA surfaces coated with 40 mol% diethylacrylamide and 60 mol% dimethylacrylamide are compared to the PMMA surfaces first oxidized and then coated with hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose or poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). PMMA oxidation was accomplished with UV/ozone or an aqueous solution of HNO(3) to yield hydrogen-bond donors for the spontaneous adsorption of the coating polymers. Contact angle measurements of UV/ozone exposed PMMA surfaces indicate increase in hydrophilicity, and polymer coated surfaces show a strong dependence on the coating polymer and the oxidation method. Fast and repeatable electrophoretic separations of a 10-base and 20-base DNA ladder were performed in PMMA micro CE devices. All analyses were completed in less than 10 min, resulting in the number of theoretical plates as high as 583 000 in a 7.7 cm long separation channel. The duration of UV/ozone treatment was found to have a considerable impact on separation performance. The microchips irradiated with UV for 10 min and coated with PVA as well as the microchips treated with HNO(3) and coated with HPMC were found to have the best separation performance. These results demonstrate facile and robust methods for the surface modification of PMMA enabling low-cost single use devices for electrophoretic DNA separations.

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    • "Both of these polymeric materials have been reportedly used on the wall coating for separations using capillary electrophoresis (Horvath and Dolník 2001; Lucy et al. 2008; Shah et al. 2006; Okada et al. 2007). Briefly, in these studies, PMMA microchannels and reservoirs were modified with hydrophilic solutions followed by a process, which includes UV/ozone treatment, filling with solution, incubating at room temperature , emptying the solution by a vacuum pump and heating (Shah et al. 2006) or just filling and heating (Okada et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we implement rotational flow control on a polymeric microfluidic “lab-on-a-disc” platform by combining serial siphoning and capillary valving for sequential release of a set of on-board stored liquid reagents into a common (assay) channel. The functionality of this integrated, multi-step, multi-reagent centrifugal assay platform critically depends on the capability to establish very reproducible, capillary-driven priming of the innately only weakly hydrophilic siphon microchannels made from common poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates. Due to the relatively high contact angle of the native PMMA substrate, it was practically impossible to ensure sequential release of on-board stored reagents using the capillary-driven serial siphon valves. In this work, we demonstrate that spin-coated hydrophilic films of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and (hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulose (HPMC) provide stable contact angles on PMMA substrates for more than 60 days. The deposited films were characterized using contact angle measurements, surface energy calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra. The PVA and HPMC films reduced the water contact angle of the PMMA substrate from 68° to 22° and 27° while increasing their surface energies from 47 to 62 and 57 mN m−1, respectively. On the centrifugal microfluidic platform, the films were validated to enable the effective and reproducible priming of the serial siphon microchannels at low rotational frequencies while ensuring that the in-line capillary valves are not opened until their respective burst frequencies are passed. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the proposed surface modification method was examined, and the platform was used to run a sandwich immunoassay for the detection of human immunoglobulin G, and its performance was proven to be comparable to dynamic coating using surfactants.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Microfluidics and Nanofluidics

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    ABSTRACT: The use of UV/ozone surface treatments for achieving low temperature bonds between PMMA and COC microfluidic substrates is evaluated. Low temperature bond strengths, approaching those of native polymer substrates bonded above their glass transition temperatures, are demonstrated for both thermoplastics. To evaluate the effects of the UV/O(3) surface treatment on the operation of bonded microfluidic devices, the relationship between UV/O(3) exposure and polymer hydrophilicity and surface chemistry are measured. Post-treatment surface chemistry is evaluated by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis, and the stability of the treated surfaces following solvent exposure is reported. Electroosmotic flow within fabricated microchannels with modified wall surfaces is also characterized. Overall, UV/O(3) treatment is found to enable strong low temperature bonds between thermoplastic microfluidic substrates using a simple, low cost, and high throughput fabrication technology.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Lab on a Chip
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