Jewkes R, Dunkle K, Koss MP, et al. Rape perpetration by young, rural South African men: prevalence, patterns and risk factors

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Social Science & Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.89). 01/2007; 63(11):2949-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.07.027
Source: PubMed


Sexual violence is a well-recognised global health problem, but there has been remarkably little research on men as perpetrators. The objectives of this paper are to describe the prevalence, patterns and factors associated with rape of an intimate partner and a woman who was not a partner with men aged 15-26 years in rural South Africa. The analysis presented here is of data collected during a baseline survey of participants in a cluster randomised controlled trial of an HIV behavioural intervention. A total of 1370 male volunteers were recruited from 70 rural South African villages. They completed a questionnaire asking about background, sexual practices and perpetration of rape and intimate partner violence. Among these men 16.3% had raped a non-partner, or participated in a form of gang rape; 8.4% had been sexually violent towards an intimate partner; and 79.1% had done neither. The mean age of first rape was 17 years. There was overlap between rape of a non-partner and partner, in that 44.3% of men who raped an intimate partner had also raped a non-partner, but overall the great majority of men who raped did not disclose both types of rape. The factors associated with rape of an intimate partner and non-partner had similarities and differences. After adjusting for the other variables, both forms of rape were strongly associated with ever having been physically violent to a partner, having had transactional sex with a casual partner and more sexual partners. Non-partner rape was also associated with peer-related variables, including gang membership and peer pressure to have sex, and also drug use. Non-partner rape was more common among wealthier and relatively more socially advantaged men. Both types of rape were associated with having more adverse childhood experiences. There was considerable overlap between rape-associated factors and known HIV risk factors, suggesting a need for further research on the interface of rape and HIV, and integrated prevention programming.

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    • "Research has documented that the power imbalance that exists between men and women are important drivers of women's elevated HIV risk [2, 3]. Due to entrenched gender norms that provide men with the power and control in sexual relationships to determine the conditions, such as the timing, the level of protection, and the consensual nature of sex with their partners, men in sub-Saharan Africa are key targets for HIV prevention efforts456789. Young men are particularly important targets because they are forming sexual partnership practices that become normative and consequently persist into adulthood [10]. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · BMC Public Health
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    • "Due to entrenched gender norms that provide men with the power and control within relationships to determine the conditions, such as the timing, the level of protection, and the consensual nature of sex with their partners, men in sub-Saharan Africa are key targets for HIV and gender-based violence (GBV) prevention efforts (K. Dunkle et al., 2003; K. L. Dunkle et al., 2006; Jewkes et al., 2006; Martin et al., 1999; Noar & Morokoff, 2002; Raj et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Gender inequality is at the core of the HIV patterns that are evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender-based violence (GBV) and lack of economic opportunity are important structural determinants of HIV risk. We piloted a microfinance and health promotion intervention among social networks of primarily young men in Dar es Salaam. Twenty-two individuals participated in the microfinance component and 30 peer leaders were recruited and trained in the peer health leadership component. We collected and analysed observational data from trainings, monitoring data on loan repayment, and reports of peer conversations to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Eighteen of the loan recipients (82%) paid back their loans, and of these 15 (83%) received a second, larger loan. Among the loan defaulters, one died, one had chronic health problems, and two disappeared, one of whom was imprisoned for theft. The majority of conversations reported by peer health leaders focused on condoms, sexual partner selection, and HIV testing. Few peer leaders reported conversations about GBV. We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of this innovative HIV and GBV prevention intervention. The lessons learned from this pilot have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial of the microfinance and peer health leadership intervention.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Global Public Health
    • "There is evidence for a connection between sexual aggression and prostitution . Buying sex has been associated with men's perpetration of genderbased violence, including perpetration of physical and sexual violence against intimate partners (Decker et al., 2009; Raj, Reed, Welles, Santana, & Silverman, 2008) and perpetration of rape against both partners and nonpartners (Jewkes et al., 2006; Monto & McRee, 2005). College-aged men who used women in prostitution reported having committed more sexually coercive behaviors than men who had not used women in prostitution (Schmidt, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated attitudes and behaviors associated with prostitution and sexual aggression among 101 men who buy sex and 101 age-, education-, and ethnicity-matched men who did not buy sex. Both groups tended to accept rape myths, be aware of harms of prostitution and trafficking, express ambivalence about the nature of prostitution, and believe that jail time and public exposure are the most effective deterrents to buying sex. Sex buyers were more likely than men who did not buy sex to report sexual aggression and likelihood to rape. Men who bought sex scored higher on measures of impersonal sex and hostile masculinity and had less empathy for prostituted women, viewing them as intrinsically different from other women. When compared with non-sex-buyers, these findings indicate that men who buy sex share certain key characteristics with men at risk of committing sexual aggression as documented by research based on the leading scientific model of the characteristics of non-criminal sexually aggressive men, the Confluence Model of sexual aggression. © The Author(s) 2015.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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