Cognitive impairment and frontal-subcortical geriatric syndrome are associated with metabolic syndrome in a stroke-free population

University of São Paulo, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Neurobiology of aging (Impact Factor: 5.01). 11/2007; 28(11):1723-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2006.07.013
Source: PubMed


Metabolic syndrome (Met.S) consists of a conglomeration of obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and dislipidemia. Frontal-subcortical geriatric syndrome (FSCS) is caused by ischemic disruption of the frontal-subcortical network. It is unknown if Met.S is associated with FSCS.
We evaluated 422 community-dwelling elderly (> or =60) in Brazil. FSCS was defined as the presence of at least one frontal release sign (grasping, palmomental, snout, or glabellar) plus coexistence of > or =3 the following criteria: (1) cognitive impairment, (2) late-onset depression, (3) neuromotor dysfunction, and (4) urgency incontinence. All values were adjusted to age and gender.
Met.S was present in 39.3% of all subjects. Cases without any of the FSCS components represented 37.2% ('successful neuroaging' group). People with 1-3 of the FSCS components ('borderline pathological neuroaging' group) were majority (52.6%), whereas those with 4-5 of these components (FSCS group) were minority (10.2%). Met.S was significantly associated with FSCS (OR=5.9; CI: 1.5-23.4) and cognitive impairment (OR=2.2; CI: 1.1-4.6) among stroke-free subjects. Number of Met.S components explained 30.7% of the variance on the number of FSCS criteria (P<0.001). If Met.S were theoretically removed from this population, prevalence of FSCS would decline by 31.6% and that of cognitive impairment by 21.4%.
Met.S was significantly associated with a 5.9 and 2.2 times higher chance of FSCS and cognitive impairment, respectively. Met.S might be a major determinant of 'successful' or 'pathological' neuroaging in western societies.

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    • "So, if socioeconomic deprivation is associated with increased load of cerebrovascular disease, it cannot be underestimated [33]. Latin America, by 2040, will have many people with dementia as North America, 9.1 million and 9.2 million, respectively [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of dementia varies substantially worldwide. This is partially attributed to the lack of methodological uniformity among studies, including diagnostic criteria and different mean population ages. However, even after considering these potential sources of bias, differences in age-adjusted dementia prevalence still exist among regions of the world. In Latin America, the prevalence of dementia is higher than expected for its level of population aging. This phenomenon occurs due to the combination of low average educational attainment and high vascular risk profile. Among developed countries, Japan seems to have the lowest prevalence of dementia. Studies that evaluated the immigration effect of the Japanese and blacks to USA evidenced that acculturation increases the relative proportion of AD cases compared to VaD. In the Middle East and Africa, the number of dementia cases will be expressive by 2040. In general, low educational background and other socioeconomic factors have been associated with high risk of obesity, sedentarism, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, all of which also raise the risk of VaD and AD. Regulating these factors is critical to generate the commitment to make dementia a public health priority.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BioMed Research International
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    • "The main finding of the present study was that MetS appeared to be a risk factor of progression to dementia in MCI patients. In recent years, several studies have associated MetS with an increased risk of dementia (Kalmijn et al., 2000; Vanhanen et al., 2006; Razay et al., 2007; Roriz-Cruz et al., 2007; Raffaitin et al., 2009; Yaffe et al., 2009; Solfrizzi et al., 2009). However, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the risk of progression to dementia from MCI in relation to the presence of MetS. "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components with incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and its progression to dementia in a large longitudinal Italian population-based sample with a 3.5-year follow-up. A total of 2097 participants from a sample of 5632 65-84-year-old subjects from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging were evaluated. MetS was defined according to the Third Adults Treatment Panel of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. MCI, dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) were classified using current published criteria. Among MCI patients those with MetS (N=49) had a higher risk of progression to dementia (HR, 4.40; 95% CI, 1.30-14.82) compared with those without MetS (N=72). After a multivariate adjustment, the risk in MCI patients with MetS approximately doubled (multivariate adjusted HR, 7.80, 95% CI 1.29-47.20) compared with those MCI without MetS. Finally, among non-cognitively impaired individuals there were no significant differences in risks of developing MCI in those who were affected by MetS (N=608) in comparison with those without MetS (N=837), as well as excluding those individuals with undernutrition or low inflammatory status with or without undernutrition. In our population, among MCI patients the presence of MetS independently predicted an increased risk of progression to dementia over 3.5 years of follow-up.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Neurobiology of aging
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    • "Moreover, some authors associate MetSd in aging with high risk of dementia [11], fronto-subcortical symptoms [12,13] and poorer neuropsychological performance [14,15]. In a recent study, we found differences between MetSd and control groups in processing speed and in some executive functions, after controlling for the influences of education and gender[15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic Syndrome (MetSd) is a cluster of vascular risk factors that may influence cerebrovascular pathology during aging. Recently, microstructural white matter (WM) changes detected by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and processing speed deficits have been reported in MetSd patients. We aimed to test the relationship between WM alteration and cognitive impairment in these patients. The sample comprised 38 subjects (19 patients aged between 50 and 80 years old, and 19 controls). All patients fulfilled National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP-III) criteria for MetSd. Speed of information processing was measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and reaction time (RT) on the Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II) and the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT). DTI images were acquired in a 3 Tesla Siemens Trio scanner. Voxelwise statistical analysis of the fractional anisotropy (FA) data was performed using the Tract-Based Spatial Statistics part of the FMRIB Software Library. A correlation analysis was performed between processing speed variables and FA values. There was a larger proportion of slow subjects (percentile below 25th) in the patient group (Chi2 = 7.125 p = 0.008). FA values correlated positively with SDMT in anterior and posterior parts of the corpus callosum, and RT CPT-II correlated negatively with FA values in the anterior corpus callosum (p < 0.05 corrected) in the patient group. We found significant correlations between WM alterations and cognitive impairment in MetSd patients, especially in the frontal lobe. These findings highlight the importance of MetSd prevention and control due to its association with structural and functional damage in the central nervous system.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · BMC Neurology
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