Postresuscitative Intensive Care: Neuroprotective Strategies after Cardiac Arrest

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Seminars in Neurology (Impact Factor: 1.79). 10/2006; 26(4):396-402. DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-948320
Source: PubMed


Cardiac arrest is a common disease in the United States, and many patients will die as a result of the neurological damage suffered during the anoxic period, or will live in a neurologically debilitated state. When cardiopulmonary-cerebral resuscitation results in the return of spontaneous circulation, intensive care is required to optimize neurological recovery. Such "brain-oriented" therapies include routine care, such as positioning and maintenance of volume status; optimization of cerebral perfusion, with the use of vasopressors if needed; management of increased intracranial pressure with agents such as hypertonic saline; assuring adequate oxygenation and avoiding hypercapnia; aggressive fever control; intensive glucose control, with the use of an insulin drip if needed; and management of seizures if they occur. To date, no neuroprotectant medications have been shown to improve neurological outcome. Induced moderate therapeutic hypothermia is utilized as a neuroprotective maneuver. Future treatment options and advanced monitoring techniques are also discussed. Further study to optimize neuroprotective strategies when treating patients who survive cardiac arrest is needed.

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    • "Ultimately, this leads to progressive cell destruction, postcardiac arrest brain injury, circulatory dysfunction, multiorgan failure, and death[17,18]. The beneficial effects of MTH are based on the prevention of this cascade, specifically, by reducing cellular metabolic needs and inhibiting temperature-sensitive pathways of the ischemiareperfusion cascade to slow ongoing hypoxic neurological insult[13,17,18]. As such, a number of studies have demonstrated improved neurological outcomes with the use of MTH in the postcardiac arrest period. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are a critically ill patient population with high mortality. Combining mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) with early coronary intervention may improve outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of mortality in OHCA patients undergoing MTH with and without cardiac catheterization. Design. A retrospective cohort of OHCA patients who underwent MTH with catheterization (MTH + C) and without catheterization (MTH + NC) between 2006 and 2011 was analyzed at a single tertiary care centre. Predictors of in-hospital mortality and neurologic outcome were determined. Results. The study population included 176 patients who underwent MTH for OHCA. A total of 66 patients underwent cardiac catheterization (MTH + C) and 110 patients did not undergo cardiac catheterization (MTH + NC). Immediate bystander CPR occurred in approximately half of the total population. In the MTH + C and MTH + NC groups, the in-hospital mortality was 48% and 78%, respectively. The only independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for patients with MTH + C, after multivariate analysis, was baseline renal insufficiency (OR = 8.2, 95% CI 1.8–47.1, and p = 0.009). Conclusion. Despite early cardiac catheterization, renal insufficiency and the absence of immediate CPR are potent predictors of death and poor neurologic outcome in patients with OHCA.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Neurologic injury is the predominant cause of poor functional outcome in patients who are resuscitated from cardiac arrest. The management of these patients in the ICU can be challenging because of the paucity of effective therapies and lack of readily available diagnostic and prognostic tools. After several decades of failed pharmacologic neuroprotection trials, recent and well-designed randomized trials showed that therapeutic hypothermia is an effective neuroprotective measure in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Therapeutic hypothermia has been recommended by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and has been incorporated in the American Heart Association CPR Guidelines. The American Academy of Neurology recently enhanced the delivery of care in survivors of cardiac arrest by providing evidence-based practice parameters on the prediction of poor outcome in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest, based on clinical evaluation and diagnostic tests. This article discusses these advances and their potential impact on the care provided in the ICU.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Critical Care Clinics
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury (HIBI) is unfortunately a common complication after cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) with devastating neurologic complications. Intensive care unit (ICU) management is initially aimed at cardiovascular stabilization and correction of the underlying cause of arrest such as ventricular fibrillation (VF), myocardial infarction from symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD), or respiratory arrest. Once the patient is stabilized from a cardiac standpoint, growing evidence suggests that therapeutic hypothermia may provide cerebral neuroprotective benefit for VF-related CPA. Practical ICU evaluation and implementation of therapeutic hypothermia is discussed. Evaluation and management of HIBI-related autonomic disturbances or paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia (PAID) is discussed. Finally, we review the literature regarding neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest and the tests with highest specificity that can aid in the decision-making process.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Current Anaesthesia and Critical Care
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