Accuracy of intraoperative imprint cytology of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States
The American Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.29). 11/2006; 192(4):516-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2006.05.014
Source: PubMed


In breast cancer treatment, immediate completion of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) can be performed if the intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) examination is positive. This study evaluates the accuracy of intraoperative imprint cytology (IC) for detecting SLN metastases.
Pathology reports from 385 SLN biopsy examinations were reviewed retrospectively. The SLNs were serially sectioned perpendicular to the long axis and IC was performed intraoperatively. The SLNs then were formalin-fixed for permanent sections. Final pathology was compared with the intraoperative IC results.
The sensitivities for IC detection of N0(i+) (n = 36), N1mi (n = 24), and N1a-3a (n = 65) metastases were 0%, 4%, and 74%, respectively. The specificity was 100%.
Final pathology identified 89 (23%) patients with N1 or greater disease. IC allowed 49 (55%) of these patients to undergo synchronous completion of ALND. No unnecessary completion ALNDs were performed. The sensitivity of IC decreased with decreasing size of the metastasis.

13 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In breast cancer treatment, intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) evaluation is used to identify patients who may potentially benefit from immediate completion of axillary lymph node dissection. Prospectively collected breast cancer registry data identified 516 SLN biopsies between January 2003 and December 2005. Intraoperative evaluation (IE) of the SLNs was performed in 479 axillae. Final pathology by hematoxylin and eosin and, for negative nodes, by immunohistochemical stains was compared with the IE result. The effect of IE and final pathology on surgical treatment was examined. The sensitivities for IE of N0(i+) (n = 39), N1mi (n = 41), and N1a-3a (n = 89) metastases were 0%, 5%, and 63%, respectively. The specificity was 99.7%. IE identified 57 (44%) of SLN-positive (N1mi and N1a-3a) axillae, thus resulting in synchronous axillary lymph node dissection for those patients. Reoperation for false-negative IEs (N1mi or N1a-3a with negative IE) occurred in only 27 axillae (39%). IE of SLNs has adequate sensitivity and excellent specificity. In addition to allowing patients to benefit from synchronous surgery, IE helped patients to receive care in concordance with recommended practice guidelines. The false-negative IE of SLNs highlights uncertainty with the clinical significance of axillary nodal staging when only small amounts of metastatic disease are identified in the axilla.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in breast cancer patients has conventionally been determined by intraoperative histopathologic examination of frozen sections followed by definitive postoperative examination of permanent sections. The purpose of this study is to develop a more efficient method for intraoperative detection of lymph node metastasis. Cutoff values to distinguish macrometastasis, micrometastasis, and nonmetastasis were determined by measuring cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA in histopathologically positive and negative lymph nodes using one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA). In an intraoperative clinical study involving six facilities, 325 lymph nodes (101 patients), including 81 SLNs, were divided into four blocks. Alternate blocks were used for the OSNA assay with CK19 mRNA, and the remaining blocks were used for H&E and CK19 immunohistochemistry-based three-level histopathologic examination. The results from the two methods were then compared. We established CK19 mRNA cutoff values of 2.5 x 10(2) and 5 x 10(3) copies/muL. In the clinical study, an overall concordance rate between the OSNA assay and the three-level histopathology was 98.2%. Similar results were obtained with 81 SLNs. The OSNA assay discriminated macrometastasis from micrometastasis. No false positive was observed in the OSNA assay of 144 histopathologically negative lymph nodes from pN0 patients, indicating an extremely low false positive for the OSNA assay. The OSNA assay of half of a lymph node provided results similar to those of three-level histopathology. Clinical results indicate that the OSNA assay provides a useful intraoperative detection method of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Clinical Cancer Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of axillary lymph nodes for metastatic involvement is the most significant factor in gauging prognosis in breast cancer patients. Complete axillary dissection can be associated with significant morbidity. Therefore, sentinel node biopsy was developed to sample nodes and avoid dissection in patients without clinical evidence of nodal involvement. While most surgeons currently perform the procedure, the technique remains unstandardized. Sentinel node identification rates, false-negative rates and procedural complication rates are the main outcomes measured and can depend significantly on variations in technique. Future studies on sentinel lymph node biopsy will probably focus on clarifying accuracy of the procedure in different clinical settings, delineating standard technical practice guidelines and further achieving improved outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Show more