The Application of Reproductive Technologies to Natural Populations of Red Deer

Reproductive Biology Group, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (UCLM-CSIC-JCCM), Campus Universitario, Albacete, Spain.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals (Impact Factor: 1.52). 11/2006; 41 Suppl 2(s2):93-102. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2006.00773.x
Source: PubMed


Over the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the application of reproductive technology to the conservation and management of natural populations of deer. The application of assisted reproduction technologies within natural population of deer is in its infancy. However, its future potential is enormous, particularly in relation to genetic management or conservation. This paper reviews the present state of such technologies for a wild subspecies of red deer, the Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus), by discussing the major components of oestrous synchronization, semen collection/cryopreservation and insemination techniques. In addition, findings made during the course of studies on natural populations have enormous potential for the understanding of novel reproductive mechanism that may not be uncovered by livestock or human studies. A summary of these results are also reviewed here.

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    • "In red deer, post-mortem collection has been considered as a very important germplasm resource because of the hunting activity in Spain during the past few decades (Garde et al., 2006). Studies using this sperm collection approach have provided for significant improvements by implementing different cooling and freezing rates, extender composition or antioxidant supplementation (Fernandez-Santos et al., 2006; Martinez-Pastor et al., 2006a; Martínez-Pastor et al., 2006b; Anel-López et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The potential protective effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) and trolox (TRX), an analogue of vitamin E, supplementation during in vitro culture (2h, 39°C) of electroejaculated frozen/thawed red deer sperm was investigated. Cryopreserved sperm were thawed and incubated with no additive (Control) and 1mM or 5mM of each antioxidant to find out whether these supplementations can maintain the sperm quality, considering the use of thawed samples for in vitro techniques such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF), sperm sex sorting or refreezing. The effect of GSH on sperm motility was positive compared to TRX which was negative (P<0.001). After 2h of incubation at 39°C, use of GSH improved motility while TRX supplementation reduced sperm motility compared with Control samples without antioxidant. Use of TRX at both concentrations (1 and 5mM; TRX1 and TRX5) resulted in lesser percentages of apoptotic sperm (12.4±1.1% and 11.7±0.9%) than GSH1, GSH5 (15.2±1% and 14.6±1.1%) and Control samples (16.9±1.2%) (P<0.001). Use of GSH at both concentrations (1 and 5mM) resulted in greater mitochondrial activity as compared with findings for the Control, TRX1 and TRX5 groups. Results of this study indicate that GSH is a suitable supplement for electroejaculated red deer sperm. It would be necessary to conduct fertility trials (in vivo and in vitro), to assess whether GSH supplementation of thawed red deer sperm could improve fertility rates.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Animal reproduction science
    • "Another problem frequently observed with the use of EE is semen contamination with urine [18]. The cryopreservation of gametes and the development of gene banks are useful techniques to improve conservation status of endangered species [19]. For this purpose, techniques for semen collection should be adequately adapted to the biology of each species. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to characterize the stress response and the seminal parameters obtained with electroejaculation (EE) or transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) in two captive but nondomestic ruminants, the mouflons and the Iberian ibex under general anesthesia. In mouflons, the physiological responses (heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, cortisol, creatine kinase, potassium and glucose concentrations) changed similarly with both procedures. The TUMASG procedure was faster than EE in mouflons (21.7 ± 1.4 vs. 12.4 ± 1.2 minutes, P < 0.01). In ibexes, respiratory rate, cortisol and creatine kinase concentration changes were greater with EE than with TUMASG (final respiratory rate: 62.7 ± 5.5 vs. 38.1 ± 5.6 breaths/min [P < 0.05]; final cortisol: 51.4 ± 5.1 vs. 25.3 ± 5.6 ng/mL [P < 0.001]; and final creatine kinase: 300.9 ± 99.9 vs. 87.1 ± 16.9 U/L [P < 0.001]). Electroejaculation provided better results in some sperm parameters (mouflons: sperm score: 3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.2 [P < 0.01]; total number of sperm ejaculated: 982.4 ± 299 vs. 710.0 ± 542.2 [P < 0.05]; ibexes: sperm with progressive motility: 47.7 ± 6.2 vs. 20.5 ± 8.3 [P < 0.05]). The transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands appears to be an alternative technique to collect sperm from wild ruminants, reducing the need for electrical stimuli and thus decreasing the undesired responses of EE in the more sensitive species. On the other hand, better fresh sperm may be collected with EE. However, TUMASG provides practical advantages in animal welfare, firstly in these wild species more sensible to stress management and capture myopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Theriogenology
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    • "One strategy to improve populations of endangered species, or to increase its genetic diversity, is the development and application of reproductive biotechnologies. Although interest in these techniques for conservation and management of natural populations of deer has increased during last years, the experience of its application to natural populations is still scarce (Garde et al., 2006). Anatomical approaches and definitive and novel morphological information paved the way for better applicability of various practices such as reproductive biotechnologies in genital system. "
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the macroscopic anatomy of the genital organs of the female pampas deer ( Ozotoceros bezoarticus), organs from animals dead in a captive breeding station were dissected. A total of twenty females, 17 adults and 10 pre-puberal approximately 1 year old were studied by gross dissection. The ovaries of adult females without corpora lutea weighed 0.22 ± 0.02 g on the right and 0.20 ± 0.01 g on the left and accounted for 0.03 ± 0.01% of body weight. All corpora lutea (n = 6) were found in the right ovary, but in cases where there was no corpus luteum present, the right ovary tended to be heavier than the left (P = 0.1). The absence of ovarian bursa, intercornual ligament and suburethral diverticle is peculiar to this deer species. Only 6 convex caruncles were found in the uterine horns, which differ from the more of 100 present in domestic ruminants. Four regular folds that were observed in the cervix of the uterus should not be an obstacle to the passage of a transcervical catheter, allowing intrauterine artificial insemination. The close relationship between the ovarian artery and vein stood up could be associated with the passage of the uterine luteolytic factor from the vein to the ovarian artery, avoiding its systemic way, as happens in domestic ruminants. While the plan of organization was similar, there are some differences with the descriptions of other ruminants. Our results may be very useful as it provides with information that may be considered for the development of female reproductive biotechnologies.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Anantomia Histologia Embryologia
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