Chronic toxicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds to the springtail Folsomia candida and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus

Department of Animal Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.23). 10/2006; 25(9):2423-31. DOI: 10.1897/05-628R.1
Source: PubMed


An urgent need exists for incorporating heterocyclic compounds and (bio)transformation products in ecotoxicological test schemes and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). The aim of the present study therefore was to determine the chronic effects of (heterocyclic) PACs on two terrestrial invertebrates, the springtail Folsomia candida and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus. The effects of 11 PACs were determined in chronic experiments using reproduction and survival as endpoints. The results demonstrated that as far as narcosis-induced mortality is concerned, effects of both homocyclic and heterocyclic PACs are well described by the relationship between estimated pore-water 50% lethal concentrations and log Kow. In contrast, specific effects on reproduction varied between species and between compounds as closely related as isomers, showing up as deviations from the relationship between pore-water 50% effect concentrations and log Kow. These unpredictable specific effects on reproduction force one to test the toxicity of these PACs to populations of soil invertebrates to obtain reliable effect concentrations for use in risk assessment of PACs.

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Available from: Michiel H. S. Kraak, Feb 03, 2014
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    • "Only three concentrations of CeO 2 NPs were tested, based on the lack of effects on reproduction that CeO 2 NPs have shown in an earlier study with earthworms at 10,000 mg Ce/kg dry soil (Lahive et al., 2014). Phenanthrene concentrations were chosen based on previous studies for springtails (Droge et al., 2006). Since no previous work on effects of phenanthrene to isopods via soil was available, a broader concentration range was tested. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are used as diesel fuel additives to catalyze oxidation. Phenanthrene is a major component of diesel exhaust particles and one of the most common pollutants in the environment. This study aimed at determining the effect of CeO2 NPs on the toxicity of phenanthrene in Lufa 2.2 standard soil for the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus and the springtail Folsomia candida. Toxicity tests were performed in the presence of CeO2 concentrations of 10, 100 or 1000mg Ce/kg dry soil and compared with results in the absence of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs had no adverse effects on isopod survival and growth or springtail survival and reproduction. For the isopods, LC50s for the effect of phenanthrene ranged from 110 to 143mg/kg dry soil, and EC50s from 17.6 to 31.6mg/kg dry soil. For the springtails, LC50s ranged between 61.5 and 88.3mg/kg dry soil and EC50s from 52.2 to 76.7mg/kg dry soil. From this study it may be concluded that CeO2 NPs have a low toxicity and do not affect toxicity of phenanthrene to isopods and springtails. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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    • "Azaarenes and their transformation products, more polar than their homocyclic analogues, can interact specifically with cell membranes and DNA, and this interaction may influence their toxicity (De Voogt et al., 1999). Since isomer specific toxicity of PACs has been established in several studies (Kraak et al., 1997; Bleeker et al., 1999a; De Voogt et al., 1999; Wiegman et al., 2001; Droge et al., 2006), three isomer pairs were selected: two three-ringed homocyclic compounds , two three-ringed azaarenes and the two main transformation products of the two azaarenes. The aim of this study was to determine if the closely related homo-and heterocyclic compounds affected emergence of the midge Chironomus riparius during chronic exposure to PAC spiked sediments. "

    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Environmental Pollution
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    • "Twenty treatments were tested for the effects on reproduction: 11 different ratios of the binary mixture of cadmium and phenanthrene, together with four concentrations of each single compound and an acetone solvent control. Based on literature data on EC 50 concentrations for reproduction of F. candida for single chemical exposures to these compounds (Van Gestel and Koolhaas 2004; Droge et al. 2006; Leon Paumen et al. 2008) nominal concentrations of cadmium and phenanthrene were selected to range between 0 and 80 mg/kg dry soil (Table 1). For the subsequent transcriptional response study, nominal concentrations of the toxicants were based on the 50 % effect levels derived from the estimated 50 %-isoboles for effects on 28 days reproduction, see Fig. 1 "
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    ABSTRACT: Since the 'omics revolution', the assessment of toxic chemical mixtures has incorporated approaches where phenotypic endpoints are connected to a mechanistic understanding of toxicity. In this study we determined the effect of binary mixtures of cadmium and phenanthrene on the reproduction of Folsomia candida and investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying this response. Mixture toxicity modeling showed an antagonistic deviation from concentration addition for reproduction effects of the mixtures. Subsequent transcriptional response analysis was done using five mixtures at the modeled 50 % effect level for reproduction. The transcription profiles of 86 high throughput RT-qPCR assays were studied by means of partial least squares regression analysis. The first and second principal components (PCs) were correlated with global responses to cadmium and phenanthrene, while correlations with the mixture treatments were found in the higher PCs. Specifically associated with the mixture treatments were a biotransformation phase II gene, four mitochondrial related genes and a gene involved in the biosynthesis of antioxidant selenoproteins. Membrane integrity related gene inductions were correlated with the single phenanthrene treatment but not with the mixtures. Immune and inflammatory response assays did not correlate with any of the mixtures. These results suggest moderated oxidative stress, a higher mitochondrial maintenance and less compromised membrane function in the mixture exposed samples compared to the separate cadmium or phenanthrene exposures. The antagonism found for inhibition of reproduction may partially originate from these differences. Mechanistic studies on mixture toxicity can ultimately aid risk assessment by defining relevant toxicity pathways in organisms exposed to real-world mixture exposures present in the field.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Ecotoxicology
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