Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settingsCDCMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep200655RR-1411716410759

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (proposed), Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 10/2006; 55(RR-14):1-17; quiz CE1-4.
Source: PubMed


These recommendations for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing are intended for all health-care providers in the public and private sectors, including those working in hospital emergency departments, urgent care clinics, inpatient services, substance abuse treatment clinics, public health clinics, community clinics, correctional health-care facilities, and primary care settings. The recommendations address HIV testing in health-care settings only. They do not modify existing guidelines concerning HIV counseling, testing, and referral for persons at high risk for HIV who seek or receive HIV testing in nonclinical settings (e.g., community-based organizations, outreach settings, or mobile vans). The objectives of these recommendations are to increase HIV screening of patients, including pregnant women, in health-care settings; foster earlier detection of HIV infection; identify and counsel persons with unrecognized HIV infection and link them to clinical and prevention services; and further reduce perinatal transmission of HIV in the United States. These revised recommendations update previous recommendations for HIV testing in health-care settings and for screening of pregnant women (CDC. Recommendations for HIV testing services for inpatients and outpatients in acute-care hospital settings. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-2]:1-10; CDC. Revised guidelines for HIV counseling, testing, and referral. MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-19]:1-62; and CDC. Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR 2001;50[No. RR-19]:63-85). Major revisions from previously published guidelines are as follows: For patients in all health-care settings HIV screening is recommended for patients in all health-care settings after the patient is notified that testing will be performed unless the patient declines (opt-out screening). Persons at high risk for HIV infection should be screened for HIV at least annually. Separate written consent for HIV testing should not be required; general consent for medical care should be considered sufficient to encompass consent for HIV testing. Prevention counseling should not be required with HIV diagnostic testing or as part of HIV screening programs in health-care settings. For pregnant women HIV screening should be included in the routine panel of prenatal screening tests for all pregnant women. HIV screening is recommended after the patient is notified that testing will be performed unless the patient declines (opt-out screening). Separate written consent for HIV testing should not be required; general consent for medical care should be considered sufficient to encompass consent for HIV testing. Repeat screening in the third trimester is recommended in certain jurisdictions with elevated rates of HIV infection among pregnant women.

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    • "In addition to the need for interventions to increase prevention efforts, there are immediate policy and practice implications. For instance, as the CDC currently recommends HIV screening only for individuals between 13 and 64 years (Branson et al., 2006), individuals older than 65 years should be included in the recommendation to increase screening among older adults. The state of Kentucky should include information specifically about HIV prevention among older adults in the required HIV/AIDS continuing education credits to increase awareness of the importance of HIV prevention among older adults. "
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    ABSTRACT: To explore primary care providers' HIV prevention practices for older adults. Primary care providers' perceptions and awareness were explored to understand factors that affect their provision of HIV prevention materials and HIV screening for older adults. Data were collected through 24 semistructured interviews with primary care providers (i.e., physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) who see patients older than 50 years. Results reveal facilitators and barriers of HIV prevention for older adults among primary care providers and understanding of providers' HIV prevention practices and behaviors. Individual, patient, institutional, and societal factors influenced HIV prevention practices among participants, for example, provider training and work experience, lack of time, discomfort in discussing HIV/AIDS with older adults, stigma, and ageism were contributing factors. Furthermore, factors specific to primary and secondary HIV prevention were identified, for instance, the presence of sexually transmitted infections influenced providers' secondary prevention practices. HIV disease, while preventable, is increasing among older adults. These findings inform future research and interventions aimed at increasing HIV prevention practices in primary care settings for patients older than 50. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Applied Gerontology
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    • "inform their regular doctor about their participation in a vaccine study. However, according to recommendations for HIV testing by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, individuals can be tested for HIV under a general consent for all medical care and that pre-test counseling is not required as part of screening programs in healthcare settings [14]. While individuals can " opt-out " of HIV testing, the process may be confusing for some, especially if they are not aware of this practice beforehand and/or present at a hospital for an emergency. "
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody-inducing vaccines are a major focus in the preventive HIV vaccine field. Because the most common tests for HIV infection rely on detecting antibodies to HIV, they may also detect antibodies induced by a candidate HIV vaccine. The detection of vaccine-induced antibodies to HIV by serological tests is most commonly referred to as vaccine-induced sero-reactivity (VISR). VISR can be misinterpreted as a sign of HIV infection in a healthy study participant. In a participant who has developed vaccine-induced antibodies, accurate diagnosis of HIV infection (or lack thereof) may require specialized tests and algorithms (differential testing) that are usually not available in community settings. Organizations sponsoring clinical testing of preventive HIV vaccine candidates have an ethical obligation not only to inform healthy volunteers about the potential problems associated with participating in a clinical trial but also to help manage any resulting issues. This article explores the scope of VISR-related issues that become increasingly prevalent as the search for an effective HIV vaccine continues and will be paramount once a preventive vaccine is deployed. We also describe ways in which organizations conducting HIV vaccine trials have addressed these issues and outline areas where more work is needed. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Vaccine
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    • "E arly diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by rapid HIV tests allows identification of patients who may be candidates for antiretroviral treatment, quick confirmation of HIV status in patients presenting with an AIDS-defining illness and prevention of the spread of HIV infection [1] [2]. " Fourth-generation or combo " rapid tests (detecting both antibodies and p24 antigen) have recently been found to be less accurate in identifying the acute phase of HIV infection in respect of conventional " fourth-generation " tests [3] [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a case of symptomatic acute HIV infection in a young man where a fourth-generation rapid screening test combining HIV-specific antibody and p24 antigen was negative. In highly suspicious cases of acute HIV infection, plasma HIV RNA assays together with conventional, non-rapid screening tests should be used.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive
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