Parafibromin inhibits cancer cell growth and causes G1 phase arrest
The HRPT2 (hereditary hyperparathyroidism type 2) tumor suppressor gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed 531 amino acid protein termed parafibromin. Inactivation of parafibromin predisposes one to the development of HPT-JT syndrome. To date, the role of parafibromin in tumorigenesis is largely unknown. Here, we report that parafibromin is a nuclear protein that possesses anti-proliferative properties. We show that overexpression of parafibromin inhibits colony formation and cellular proliferation, and induces cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Moreover, HPT-JT syndrome-derived mutations in HRPT2 behave in a dominant-negative manner by abolishing the ability of parafibromin to suppress cell proliferation. These findings suggest that parafibromin has a critical role in cell growth, and mutations in HRPT2 can directly inhibit this role.
Available from: Massimo Carella
- "In keeping with the tumor suppressor gene hypothesis, parafibromin mutations have been reported to induce cell growth and proliferation [14,18,33,34]. We then verified if the NoLS variants acted in the same way. "
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ABSTRACT: Hyperparathyroidism Jaw-Tumour Syndrome (HPT-JT) is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), maxillary/mandible ossifying fibromas and by parathyroid carcinoma in 15% of cases. Inactivating mutations of the tumour suppressor CDC73/HRPT2 gene have been found in HPT-JT patients and also as genetic determinants of sporadic parathyroid carcinoma/atypical adenomas and, rarely, typical adenomas, in familial PHPT. Here we report the genetic and molecular analysis of the CDC73/HRPT2 gene in three patients affected by PHPT due to atypical and typical parathyroid adenomas, in one case belonging to familial PHPT. Flag-tagged WT and mutant CDC73/HRPT2 proteins were transiently transfected in HEK293 cells and functional assays were performed in order to investigate the effect of the variants on the whole protein expression, nuclear localization and cell overgrowth induction. We identified four CDC73/HRPT2 gene mutations, three germline (c.679_680delAG, p.Val85_Val86del and p.Glu81_Pro84del), one somatic (p.Arg77Pro). In three cases the mutation was located within the Nucleolar Localisation Signals (NoLS). The three NoLS variants led to instability either of the corresponding mutated protein or mRNA or both. When transfected in HEK293 cells, NoLS mutated proteins mislocalized with a predeliction for cytoplasmic or nucleo-cytoplasmic localization and, finally, they resulted in overgrowth, consistent with a dominant negative interfering effect in the presence of the endogenous protein.
Available from: Timothy C. Baradet
- "Parafibromin is a member of the polymerase associated factor 1 (PAF1) complex that is involved in chromatin remodeling by histone ubiquitination and methylation, thereby regulating gene expression.9,10 Furthermore, it functions as a putative tumor suppressor and has been shown to provide multiple tumor suppressive functions by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting the G1 to S phase transition, and directly regulating growth factor gene expression by binding to their promoters.11–14 Normally, parafibromin is ubiquitously expressed in a variety of human tissues.15 "
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ABSTRACT: Parafibromin, encoded by HRPT2 gene, is a recently identified tumor suppressor. Complete and partial loss of its expression have been observed in hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), parathyroid carcinoma, breast carcinoma, lung carcinoma, gastric and colorectal carcinoma. However, little has been known about its expression in renal tumors. In order to study the expression of parafibromin in a series of the 4 major renal cell tumors - clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC), chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and oncocytoma. One hundred thirty nine renal tumors including 61 ccRCCs, 37 pRCCs, 22 chRCCs and 19 oncocytomas were retrieved and used for the construction of renal tissue microarrays (TMAs). The expression of parafibromin was detected by immunohistochemical method on the constructed TMAs. Positive parafibromin stains are seen in 4 out of 61 ccRCCs (7%), 7 out of 37 pRCCs (19%), 12 out of 23 chRCCs (52%) and all 19 oncocytomas (100%). Parafibromin expression varies significantly (P< 8.8 x10-16) among the four major renal cell tumors and were correlated closely with tumor types. No correlation of parafibromin expression with tumor staging in ccRCCs, pRCCs and chRCCs, and Fuhrman nuclear grading in ccRCCs and pRCCs. In summary, parafibromin expression was strongly correlated with tumor types, which may suggest that it plays a role in the tumorigenesis in renal cell tumors.
Available from: Benjamin G Neel
- "Parafibromin/Cdc73 Is a Key Substrate of SHP2 tumor syndrome, a familial cancer syndrome that predisposes individuals to parathyroid carcinomas (Carpten et al., 2002). Consistent with its tumor suppressive role, overexpression of parafibromin inhibits proliferation of certain types of cells at least partly via the SUV39H1 histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase-mediated transrepression of cell-cycle regulatory genes such as cyclin D1 and c-myc (Woodard et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2006; Lin et al., 2008; Yang et al., 2010; and this work). "
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ABSTRACT: Deregulation of SHP2 is associated with malignant diseases as well as developmental disorders. Although SHP2 is required for full activation of RAS signaling, other potential roles in cell physiology have not been elucidated. Here we show that SHP2 dephosphorylates parafibromin/Cdc73, a core component of the RNA polymerase II-associated factor (PAF) complex. Parafibromin is known to act as a tumor suppressor that inhibits cyclin D1 and c-myc by recruiting SUV39H1 histone methyltransferase. However, parafibromin can also act in the opposing direction by binding β-catenin, thereby activating promitogenic/oncogenic Wnt signaling. We found that, on tyrosine dephosphorylation by SHP2, parafibromin acquires the ability to stably bind β-catenin. The parafibromin/β-catenin interaction overrides parafibromin/SUV39H1-mediated transrepression and induces expression of Wnt target genes, including cyclin D1 and c-myc. Hence, SHP2 governs the opposing functions of parafibromin, deregulation of which may cause the development of tumors or developmental malformations.
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