The history of tissue engineering

Harvard Medical School, Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.01). 09/2006; 10(3):569-76. DOI: 10.2755/jcmm010.003.20
Source: PubMed

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    • "So their blood and nutrient supply is clearly limited. This results in cell death and unavoidable necrosis of the engineered construct with subsequent loss of shape and function [2], [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The reconstruction of an auricle for congenital deformity or following trauma remains one of the greatest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Tissue-engineered (TE) three-dimensional (3D) cartilage constructs have proven to be a promising option, but problems remain with regard to cell vitality in large cell constructs. The supply of nutrients and oxygen is limited because cultured cartilage is not vascular integrated due to missing perichondrium. The consequence is necrosis and thus a loss of form stability. The micro-surgical implantation of an arteriovenous loop represents a reliable technology for neovascularization, and thus vascular integration, of three-dimensional (3D) cultivated cell constructs. Auricular cartilage biopsies were obtained from 15 rabbits and seeded in 3D scaffolds made from polycaprolactone-based polyurethane in the shape and size of a human auricle. These cartilage cell constructs were implanted subcutaneously into a skin flap (15×8 cm) and neovascularized by means of vascular loops implanted micro-surgically. They were then totally enhanced as 3D tissue and freely re-implanted in-situ through microsurgery. Neovascularization in the prefabricated flap and cultured cartilage construct was analyzed by microangiography. After explantation, the specimens were examined by histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs with implanted vascular pedicle promoted the formation of engineered cartilaginous tissue within the scaffold in vivo. The auricles contained cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as GAGs and collagen even in the center oft the constructs. In contrast, in cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs without vascular pedicle, ECM distribution was only detectable on the surface compared to constructs with vascular pedicle. We demonstrated, that the 3D flaps could be freely transplanted. On a microangiographic level it was evident that all the skin flaps and the implanted cultivated constructs were well neovascularized. The presented method is suggested as a promising alternative towards clinical application of engineered cartilaginous tissue for plastic and reconstructive surgery.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The replacement of biological human tissues with living and non-living constructs falls into the realm of a large portion of the biomaterials industry. Tissue engineering remains the most favourable technique, with the potential for replacement of biocompatible tissues and organs (Vacanti 2006), although materials that are investigated for hard-tissue replacements (Katti 2004) are made using advanced techniques in materials science, engineering and nanotechnology. Optimized growth, proliferation and the osteogenic nature of the cells as well as appropriate scaffold degradation remain the challenging features of successful tissueengineered bone. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we have investigated osteoblast adhesion, proliferation and differentiation on nanocomposites of chitosan, polygalacturonic acid (PgA) and hydroxyapatite. These studies were done on both two- and three-dimensional (scaffold) samples. Atomic force microscopy experiments showed nanostructuring of film samples. Scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying methods. The mechanical response and porosity of the scaffolds were also determined. The compressive elastic modulus and compressive strength were determined to be around 0.9 and 0.023 MPa, respectively, and the porosity of these scaffolds was found to be around 97 per cent. Human osteoblast cells were used to study their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Optical images were collected after different intervals of time of seeding cells. This study indicated that chitosan/PgA/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite films and scaffolds promote cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The formation of bone-like nodules was observed after 7 days of seeding cells. The nodule size continues to increase with time, and after 20 days the size of some nodules was around 735 microm. Scanning electron microscope images of nodules showed the presence of extracellular matrix. The alizarin red S staining technique was used to confirm mineralization of these nodules.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences
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    • "vascular system to form distant metastases. In this respect , oncogenesis may be viewed as an event closely related to both the natural tissue development and repair process and cancer development [Vacanti, 2006a, b]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recreating an environment that supports and promotes fundamental homeostatic mechanisms is a significant challenge in tissue engineering. Optimizing cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis, and providing suitable stromal support and signalling cues are keys to successfully generating clinically useful tissues. Interestingly, those components are often subverted in the cancer setting, where aberrant angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, cell signalling and resistance to apoptosis drive malignant growth. In contrast to tissue engineering, identifying and inhibiting those pathways is a major challenge in cancer research. The recent discovery of adult tissue-specific stem cells has had a major impact on both tissue engineering and cancer research. The unique properties of these cells and their role in tissue and organ repair and regeneration hold great potential for engineering tissue-specific constructs. The emerging body of evidence implicating stem cells and progenitor cells as the source of oncogenic transformation prompts caution when using these cells for tissue-engineering purposes. While tissue engineering and cancer research may be considered as opposed fields of research with regard to their proclaimed goals, the compelling overlap in fundamental pathways underlying these processes suggests that cross-disciplinary research will benefit both fields. In this review article, tissue engineering and cancer research are brought together and explored with regard to discoveries that may be of mutual benefit.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Cells Tissues Organs
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