Costs of Refractive Correction of Distance Vision Impairment in the United States, 1999-2002

Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-9301, USA.
Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 6.14). 01/2007; 113(12):2163-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.06.033
Source: PubMed


Correctable vision impairment caused by refractive error is common in the United States population. We estimated the direct costs of providing eyeglasses to all Americans (age> or =12) who need refractive correction to achieve good distance vision.
Cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of United States citizens.
Participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), age > or = 12 years. The NHANES examines a nationally representative sample of the U.S. noninstitutionalized, civilian population.
Presenting and corrected visual acuity data were obtained using an autorefractor from 13,211 (93.0%) of the 14,203 participants who visited the NHANES Mobile Examination Center in 1999 through 2002. Need for refractive correction was defined by current use of corrective lenses for distance vision, improvement to good visual acuity following autorefractor correction (using several cutpoints to define good visual acuity), or both.
Estimates of direct cost for refractive correction (1 pair of complete eyeglasses and a refraction examination) were computed based on Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services fee schedules for 2000 and also based on expenditure data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.
The NHANES results indicate that >110 million Americans could or do achieve normal vision with refractive correction. The annual direct cost of correcting distance vision impairment is at least $3.8 billion. Of this amount, $780 million represents the annual cost of providing distance vision correction for persons > age 65.
Correctable vision impairment due to refractive error is common in the United States population. These cost estimates provide useful information for public health endeavors aimed at provision of refractive correction to those who need it.

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    • "Additionally, more than 85% of Hong Kong Chinese school children aged between 13 and 15 years are myopic [7]. The economic impact of refractive error management can be substantial- vision impairment correction costs account for 3.8 to 7.2 billion dollars annually in the USA alone [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Myopia, or nearsightedness, is highly prevalent in Asian countries and is considered a serious public health issue globally. High-grade myopia can predispose individuals to myopic maculopathy, premature cataracts, retinal detachment, and glaucoma. A recent study implicated zinc finger protein 644 isoform 1 (ZNF644) variants with non-syndromic high-grade myopia in a Chinese-Asian population. Herein we focused on investigating the role for ZNF644 variants in high-grade myopia in a United States (US) cohort. DNA from a case cohort of 131 subject participants diagnosed with high-grade myopia was screened for ZNF644 variants. Spherical refractive error of -≤-6.00 diopters (D) in at least one eye was defined as affected. All coding, intron/exon boundaries were screened using Sanger sequencing. Single nucleotide allele frequencies were determined by screening 672 ethnically matched controls. Sequencing analysis did not detect previously reported mutations. However, our analysis identified 2 novel single nucleotide variants (c.725C>T, c.821A>T) in 2 high-grade myopia individuals- one Caucasian and one African American, respectively. These variants were not found in normal controls. A rare variant - dbsSNP132 (rs12117237→c.2119A>G) - with a minor allele frequency of 0.2% was present in 6 additional cases, but was also present in 5 controls. Our study has identified two novel variants in ZNF644 associated with high-grade myopia in a US cohort. Our results suggest that ZNF644 may play a role in myopia development.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Molecular vision
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    • "Myopia affects 25% of the Western world, making this condition the most common eye disorder in the West and constituting a significant public health and economic problem [1,2]. The cost of optical correction to provide clear distinct vision is considerable. "
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Molecular vision
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    • "Myopia affects 33.1% of the American population greater than 12 years of age [1], resulting in dependence on optical correction and/or treatment with refractive surgery. The estimated economic impact of correcting myopic adults in the United States is $3.8-7.2 billion annually [2]. In addition to financial burdens, studies have shown decreased quality of life associated with higher levels of myopia in patients wearing spectacle correction and/or contact lenses [3]. "
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Molecular vision
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