Consequences of bottle-feeding to the oral facial development of initially breastfed children

Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP, Brasil.
Jornal de Pediatria (Impact Factor: 1.19). 09/2006; 82(5):395-7. DOI: 10.2223/JPED.1536
Source: PubMed


To identify and assess the possible consequences of bottle-feeding on the oral facial development of children who were breastfed up to at least six months of age.
Two hundred and two children (4 years of age) enrolled in an early health attention program participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: G1 (children who used only a cup to drink) and G2 (those who used a bottle).
Lip closure was observed in 82% of the children in G1 and in 65% of those in G2 (p = 0.0065). The tongue coming to rest in the maxillary arch was found in 73% of the children in G1 and in 47% of those in G2 (p = 0.0001). Nasal breathing was observed in 69% of G1 and in 37% of G2 (p = 0.0001). The maxilla was shown to be normal in 90% of G1 and in 78% of G2 (p = 0.0206).
Use of the bottle, even among breastfed children interferes negatively with oral facial development.

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    • "Nevertheless, our results support the recommendation of cup feeding when the newborn needs an alternative feeding method, as it provides the infant with an opportunity for developing the muscles involved in suction [9,32]. The positive impact of cup feeding has also been reported in studies where there is a higher prevalence of breastfeeding after hospital discharge in infants who used the cup for supplementation in neonatal units [17,32,34]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background When breastfeeding is difficult or impossible during the neonatal period, an analysis of muscle activity can help determine the best method for substituting it to promote the child’s development. The aim of this study was to analyze the electrical activity of the masseter muscle using surface electromyography during suction in term newborns by comparing breastfeeding, bottle and cup feeding. Methods An observational, cross-sectional analytical study was carried out on healthy, clinically stable term infants, assigned to receive either breast, or bottle or cup feeding. Setting was a Baby Friendly accredited hospital. Muscle activity was analyzed when each infant showed interest in sucking using surface electromyography. Root mean square averages (RMS) recorded in microvolts were transformed into percentages (normalization) of the reference value. The three groups were compared by ANOVA; the “stepwise” method of the multiple linear regression analysis tested the model which best defined the activity of the masseter muscle in the sample at a significance level of 5%. Results Participants were 81 full term newborns (27 per group), from 2 to 28 days of life. RMS values were lower for bottle (mean 44.2%, SD 14.1) than breast feeding (mean 58.3%, SD 12.7) (P = 0.003, ANOVA); cup feeding (52.5%, SD 18.2%) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). For every gram of weight increase, RMS increased by 0.010 units. Conclusions Masseter activity was significantly higher in breastfed newborns than in bottle-fed newborns, who presented the lowest RMS values. Levels of masseter activity during cup-feeding were between those of breast and bottle feeding, and did not significantly differ from either group. This study in healthy full term neonates endorses cup rather than bottle feeding as a temporary substitute for breastfeeding.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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    • "Relationship between duration of breastfeeding, bottle-feeding, non-nutritive sucking habits and development of malocclusions Besides the positive aspects mentioned above, breastfeeding has been cited as one of the environmental factors leading to the correct development of dentofacial structures [23] [24]. Absence or short duration of breastfeeding consequently results in longer duration of bottle-feeding which may negatively affect children's oral-facial development [25] [26] [27]. Malocclusion, an unacceptable deviation either and/or functionally from the ideal relationship of the upper and lower teeth, is one of the adverse outcomes [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders that present at young age, may occasionally be associated with physical problems and disorders. Among them exists a group of oral-pharyngeal conditions with considerable clinical morbidity. Previous research that identified absence or short duration of breastfeeding in ADHD children has been reviewed. Essential nutritional factors in breast milk can affect brain development and regulate the manifestation of ADHD symptoms. Low ferritin levels caused by insufficient breastfeeding may contribute to ADHD susceptibility because of the role of iron in dopaminergic activity. Insufficient breast feeding and subsequently excessive bottle-feeding may lead to increased rates of non-nutritive sucking habits, such as pacifier use and thumb-sucking, all of which are associated with the risk of development of malocclusions. Malocclusion refers to an unacceptable deviation from the ideal relationship of the upper and lower teeth and necessitates orthodontic treatment. Sleep-disordered breathing in children may present with neurocognitive symptoms that resemble ADHD and abnormal craniofacial developments, as well as malocclusions, have been cited as part of the syndrome. Obesity, which is an outcome of insufficient breastfeeding, is a shared comorbidity of ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing. The risk of traumatic dental injury is higher in children with ADHD and presence of malocclusions further increases the likelihood of dental injuries. In this review, certain oral-pharyngeal conditions relating to ADHD have been reviewed and links among them have been highlighted in a tentative explanatory model. More research that will provide increased awareness and clinical implications is needed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Medical Hypotheses
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    • "The cycle of movements performed by the child’s jaws while sucking at the breast enables adequate growth and positioning of the jaws for proper tooth eruption [5-24], which, in turn, plays an essential role in learning to chew properly. Furthermore, children who breastfeed are less likely to be exposed to other forms of sucking, such as bottle-feeding and pacifier use [25], which are known to be deleterious to the development of the oral cavity [1,9,10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is some evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding to masticatory function, but no studies have evaluated the influence of breastfeeding duration on the quality of this function. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between duration of breastfeeding and quality of masticatory function in preschoolers. Methods Cross-sectional study nested in a contemporary cohort of 144 randomly selected Brazilian infants. Data on sociodemographic, dietary, and sucking-related parameters were collected shortly after birth and at 7, 30, 60, 120, and 180 days of life. Masticatory function was assessed between the ages of 3 and 5 years, using a standardized procedure involving three foodstuffs of different consistencies, for evaluation of incision, lip competence, masticatory patterns, masticatory movements, and perioral muscle use. The quality of masticatory function was scored, and multiple linear regression was used to test for association between this score and the duration of breastfeeding. Results A positive correlation was found between duration of breastfeeding and masticatory function scores (rs = 0.473; p < 0.001). Children breastfed for at least 12 months had significantly higher average scores, regardless of bottle-feeding or pacifier use. Children who were breastfed for longer were more likely to score satisfactorily across all tested parameters. Conclusions Breastfeeding has a positive impact on mastication. In our sample, duration of breastfeeding was positively associated with the quality of masticatory function at preschool age.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · BMC Public Health
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