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Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Spartium junceum L. Flower Extracts: A Preliminary Study

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Our objective was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of extract of Spartium junceum L. flowers. Samples of flowers were collected from wild plants, dried, powdered, and extracted with hexane and methanol. The extracts were evaporated to dryness and then suspended in suitable solvent. They were then tested for anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenin rat paw edema test and for analgesic activity in the Randall and Selitto mechanical pressure test and in the tail-flick test. Twenty-four hours after treatment, the gastric mucosa of each rat was observed macroscopically. Based on these results the hexane extract was fractioned by column chromatography, and the fractions obtained were tested in the same way. The results showed good anti-inflammatory activity only for a single fraction of the hexane extract, while all the extracts and all the other hexane fractions showed both peripheral and central analgesic activity. In rats treated with the tested compounds hyperemia and ulcers were absent. The data from this preliminary study reveal interesting pharmacological properties of S. junceum L. flowers extract related to the marked analgesic activity and the absence of gastric ulcerogenic activity.
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JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD
J Med Food9 (3) 2006, 386-390
© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Spartium junceum L. Flower Extracts:
A Preliminary Study
Luigi Menghini,
1
Paola Massarelli,
2
Giancarlo Bruni,
2
and Rita Pagiotti
3
1
Department of Drug Science, University of Chieti, Chieti;
2
Department of Pharmacology “Giorgio Segre,”
University of Siena, Siena; and
3
Department of Plant Biology and Agro-ambiental Biotechnologies,
University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
ABSTRACT Our objective was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of extract of Spartium junceum L.
flowers. Samples of flowers were collected from wild plants, dried, powdered, and extracted with hexane and methanol. The
extracts were evaporated to dryness and then suspended in suitable solvent. They were then tested for anti-inflammatory ac-
tivity in the carrageenin rat paw edema test and for analgesic activity in the Randall and Selitto mechanical pressure test and
in the tail-flick test. Twenty-four hours after treatment, the gastric mucosa of each rat was observed macroscopically. Based
on these results the hexane extract was fractioned by column chromatography, and the fractions obtained were tested in the
same way. The results showed good anti-inflammatory activity only for a single fraction of the hexane extract, while all the
extracts and all the other hexane fractions showed both peripheral and central analgesic activity. In rats treated with the tested
compounds hyperemia and ulcers were absent. The data from this preliminary study reveal interesting pharmacological prop-
erties of S. junceum L. flowers extract related to the marked analgesic activity and the absence of gastric ulcerogenic activ-
ity.
KEY WORDS:
analgesic
anti-inflammatory
pharmacological activity
Spartium junceum
INTRODUCTION
S
PARTIUM JUNCEUM
L. is abundant in the Mediterranean re-
gion: it is present in Europe, Asia, and Africa. In Italy it
grows spontaneously, and it is very widespread. It is even
more abundant in the central and southern Apennines, where
it is a typical part of the landscape.
In recent years the old use of Spartium as a biomass source
(to produce ecological stuffing, rope, etc.) or as a cellulose
source for the paper industry has been resumed.
1,2
The perfume industry uses the absolute essence rather
than the essential oil. The latter, in fact, has an unpleasant
smell due to the presence of furfural.
S. junceum L. is used in modern herbal medicine as a
flower infusion for diuretic and purgative purposes, but in
traditional Turkish medicine it is recommended for its an-
tiulcer activity.
3–5
A phytochemical investigation detected the presence of
flavonoids, flavones, isoflavones, saponins,
6,7
and quino-
lizidinic alkaloids, probably involved in the defensive strat-
egy of the aerial part of the plant.
8,9
This work is a preliminary step to evaluate eventual new
activities of Spartium flowers, apart from the ones men-
tioned above, and further studies will also be needed on the
chemical characterization of the extracts.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material
A sample of S. junceum L. flowers was collected from
plants growing spontaneously near Perugia, in Central Italy
at 400 m above sea level. It was then authenticated at the
Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroam-
bientali, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Perugia, Peru-
gia, Italy, where a voucher specimen (number A2538) is de-
posited.
Extraction and purification
The flowers (200 g), dried and powdered, were extracted
in a Soxhlet apparatus with hexane for 10 hours. After dry-
ing the plant residue we proceeded to a second Soxhlet ex-
traction with analytical-grade methanol for 10 hours. The
hexane (HE) and methanol (ME) extracts were evaporated
at 35°C under reduced pressure. These dry extracts (HE,
3.10 g; ME, 67.30 g) have been used for the preliminary
study.
Manuscript received 16 February 2005. Revision accepted 15 May 2005.
Address reprint requests to: Dr. Luigi Menghini, Department of Drug Science, Univer-
sity of Chieti, Via dei Vestini 31, I-66013 Chieti, Italy, E-mail: lmenghini@unich.it
386
A sample of the HE was fractioned by column chro-
matography on silica gel 70, 230 mesh (Sigma Chemical,
Steinheim, Germany). The elution was performed using
hexane/ethyl acetate (80:20) [fraction 1 (F1)], hexane/ethyl
acetate (60:40) [fraction 2 (F2)], and ethyl acetate [fraction 3
(F3)]. The fractions were collected manually and tested by
thin-layer chromatography (TLC) (TLC aluminium layer, sil-
ica gel 60 F254, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) using a mix-
ture of hexane/ethyl acetate (70:30) as mobile phase. TLC
spots were revealed with sulfuric acid (10% in methanol) and
heating. All the solvents used were of analytical grade.
Pharmacological studies
In a preliminary phase we tested HE and ME extracts to
evaluate the anti-inflammatory and/or analgesic activity,
and, on the basis of these result, we tested three hexane frac-
tions (F1, F2, and F3).
Male Sprague-Dawley rats (Harlan Italy s.r.l., Correz-
zana, Milan), weighing 180–200 g, were used in these stud-
ies and were divided randomly into groups. At least five an-
imals per group were used. The extracts and the fractions
were suspended in the solvent (a 1.6% methylcellulose so-
lution with 1.6% Tween 80) and administered orally. In the
preliminary study the doses of HE and ME were equivalent
to 2.5 g of dry flowers. The hexane fractions (F1, F2, and
F3) were tested in a dosage of 140 mg/kg (this quantity was
calculated on the yield of extraction and is always equiva-
lent to 2.5 g of crude drug). Indomethacin was used as the
reference drug (10 mg/kg), suspended in the same solvent.
Vehicle-only was administered to the control group. The
medium volume of administration was 0.5 mL for each rat.
Anti-inflammatory activity
The carrageenin rat paw edema method was used.10 The
compounds were administered o rally, and after 30 minutes
edema was produced in the right hind paw by injecting 0.1
mL of a 1% carrageenin suspension into the plantar area.
The volume of the paw was measured by a plethysmometer
(Ugo Basile, Comerio, Varese, Italy) before treating the an-
imals (basal value) and then 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 6 hours after
carrageenin suspension injection.
Analgesic activity
Randall and Selitto test.
11
Analgesic activity was mea-
sured in terms of the increase in mechanical pressure ap-
plied to the rat paw by using an analgesimeter (Ugo Basile).
The rats were dosed orally with the suspension to be tested,
and after 30 minutes, 0.1 mL of a 1% carrageenin suspen-
sion was injected into the plantar tissue of the right hind
paw. The pain threshold was measured prior to treatment
(basal value) and at 1-, 2-, 3-, and 6-hour intervals follow-
ing the carrageenin suspension injection.
Tail-flick test. This experiment was carried out using the
technique developed by D’Amour and Smith.
12
The painful
stimulus was applied to the rat tail by a radiant source, and
the reaction time was determined on a tail-flick unit (Ugo
Basile). The rats were treated orally. The reaction time af-
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SPANISH BROOM 387
T
ABLE
2. A
NTI
-I
NFLAMMATORY
A
CTIVITY OF
HE F
RACTIONS IN THE
C
ARRAGEENIN
E
DEMA
T
EST IN THE
R
AT
% variation of injected paw volume (mean SE)
Compound Dose (mg/kg p.o.) 0.5 h 1 h 2 h 3 h 6 h
Controls 28.30 1.65 38.96 2.63 52.31 4.61 65.77 4.79 72.05 6.84
F1 140 22.98 4.51 30.99 7.83 43.24 13.13 57.76 4.51 92.61 14.68
F2 140 16.87 1.05
a
13.96 1.61
b
17.37 0.97
a
35.75 3.48
a
43.11 9.31
F3 140 25.54 3.41 37.98 3.27 42.75 2.94 59.13 5.86 81.04 7.27
Indomethacin 10 17.60 3.42
a
22.36 1.99
a
33.52 2.87
a
38.13 3.83
a
46.80 3.20
a
P .05,
b
P .001.
T
ABLE
1. A
NTI
-I
NFLAMMATORY
A
CTIVITY OF
HE
AND
ME
IN THE
C
ARRAGEENIN
E
DEMA
T
EST IN THE
R
AT
% variation of injected paw volume (mean SE)
Compound Dose (mg/kg p.o.) 0.5 h 1 h 2 h 3 h 6 h
Controls 33.22 3.77 38.68 5.58 43.31 1.71 56.27 2.56 72.94 7.03
HE 2,500
a
18.69 4.18
b
37.35 5.16 37.42 4.86 44.73 6.16 53.05 4.35
ME 25,00
a
21.71 1.47
b
17.96 0.95
b
36.09 5.61 45.40 2.26
b
59.79 4.78
Indomethacin 10 24.32 3.31 27.40 4.43 27.98 3.35
b
28.94 5.46
b
45.83 3.14
b
a
Dose is expressed as equivalent of mg of flowers/kg.
b
P .05.
388 MENGHINI ET AL.
T
ABLE
3. A
NALGESIC
A
CTIVITY OF
HE
AND
ME
IN THE
R
ANDALL AND
S
ELITTO
T
EST
11
IN THE
R
AT
Dose
(mg/kg
Compound p.o.) Basal 1 h 2 h 3 h 6 h
Controls 141.67 3.07 126.67 3.33 135.00 5.62 125.00 4.28 130.83 4.55
HE 2,500
a
137.50 4.78 177.50 2.50
b
190.00 8.16
b
187.50 11.08
c
187.50 4.78
b
ME 2,500
a
145.00 6.45 180.00 10.80
c
195.00 8.66
b
170.00 10.80
c
180.00 9.13
c
Indomethacin 10 146.67 6.23 170.00 4.08
b
190.00 4.08
b
210.00 4.08
b
163.33 8.50
c
a
Dose is expressed as equivalent of mg of flowers/kg.
b
P .001,
c
P .05.
Pain threshold (g) (mean SE)
T
ABLE
4. A
NALGESIC
A
CTIVITY OF
HE F
RACTIONS IN THE
R
ANDALL AND
S
ELITTO
T
EST
11
IN THE
R
AT
Dose
(mg/kg
Compound p.o.) Basal 1 h 2 h 3 h 6 h
Controls 140.00 2.33 127.27 2.72 131.82 2.26 133.64 3.09 131.82 5.36
F1 140 142.50 4.78 160.00 7.07
a
160.00 8.16
a
145.00 6.45 172.50 6.29
b
F2 140 140.00 5.78 153.33 3.33
a
153.33 8.83
a
150.00 5.78
a
156.66 8.83
a
F3 140 147.50 2.50 155.00 10.41
a
142.50 4.78
a
142.50 13.77 160.00 7.07
a
Indomethacin 10 145.00 4.65 175.00 5.78
a
173.33 8.83
a
206.67 8.83
a
166.67 8.83
a
a
P .001,
b
P .05.
Pain threshold (g) (mean SE)
T
ABLE
5. A
NALGESIC
A
CTIVITY OF
HE
AND
ME
IN THE
T
AIL
F
LICK
T
EST IN THE
R
AT
Dose
(mg/kg
Compound p.o.) Basal 1 h 2 h 3 h 6 h
Controls 7.43 0.21 6.53 0.35 6.38 0.37 6.95 0.26 7.35 0.30
HE 2,500
a
7.42 0.20 7.62 0.72 10.95 1.57
b
8.90 0.74
b
10.32 0.90
b
ME 2,500
a
7.75 0.43 8.30 0.85 8.30 0.13
b
9.37 0.62
b
8.60 0.44
b
Indomethacin 10 7.03 0.37 8.33 0.70
b
8.20 0.36
b
8.83 0.41
b
9.83 1.04
b
a
Dose is expressed as equivalent of mg of flowers/kg.
b
P .05.
Pain threshold (g) (mean SE)
T
ABLE
6. A
NALGESIC
A
CTIVITY OF
HE F
RACTIONS IN THE
T
AIL
F
LICK
T
EST IN THE
R
AT
Dose
(mg/kg
Compound p.o.) Basal 1 h 2 h 3 h 6 h
Controls 6.91 0.15 6.44 0.19 6.73 0.24 6.94 0.22 6.44 0.23
F1 140 6.45 0.36 7.30 0.40 8.07 0.41
a
8.85 0.33
b
11.05 0.91
b
F2 140 6.40 0.37 7.07 0.70 8.07 0.32
a
8.30 0.68
a
8.97 0.20
b
F3 140 7.07 0.31 8.97 0.73
b
9.15 0.48
b
8.67 0.56
a
10.05 1.15
b
Indomethacin 10 7.03 0.37 8.33 0.70
a
8.20 0.36
a
8.83 0.41
a
9.83 1.04
a
a
P .05,
b
P .001.
Pain threshold (g) (mean SE)
QU
1
ter the application of the painful stimulus was determined
before treatment (basal value) and at 1-, 2-, 3-, and 6-hour
intervals following the administration.
Gastric ulcerogenic action
Twenty-four hours after the treatment the rats were sac-
rificed by decapitation and autopsied. The gastric mucosa
of each rat was observed macroscopically as reported else-
where.
13
Statistical analyses
All data are presented as mean SE and were analyzed
with Student’s t test. Values of P .05 were considered sig-
nificant.
The statistical comparisons between basal values of con-
trol and treated groups were evaluated in the same way, and
differences were not significant.
RESULTS
Anti-inflammatory activity
The results are reported in Tables 1 and 2. In this test HE
shows significant values at 0.5 hours only, whereas ME has
statistically significant values compared with the control at
0.5 hour, 1 hour, and 3 hours. Nevertheless, both extracts
are not comparable in activity with indomethacin. F1 and
F3 seem to lack anti-inflammatory activity, with values up
to 3 hours similar to the control and even worse at 6 hours.
The edema growth is inhibited by F2, which gives values of
activity better than those of indomethacin in all the mea-
surements. As reported in Table 2, all these values have sta-
tistical significance, except that at 6 hours.
Analgesic activity
Randall and Selitto test.
11
The results are reported in Ta-
bles 3 and 4. ME, HE, and all the hexane fractions show pe-
ripheral analgesic activity.
Tail-flick test. ME, HE, and all the hexane fractions (Ta-
bles 5 and 6) show central analgesic activity at all observa-
tion intervals. HE prolongs the time of reaction similar to
indomethacin at 3 hours and 6 hours, with higher values at
2 hours. ME up to 2 hours has values similar to the refer-
ence drug and better values at 3 hours and maintains a sig-
nificant activity until 6 hours. The analgesic activity of F1
increases from 1 hour up to 6 hours, when the values are
better than those of indomethacin. Compared with the other
hexane fractions F2 shows a weaker activity at any time, but
its values compared with the control are significant from 2
hours up to 6 hours. F3 seems to be the fraction with the
best activity, having values of reaction time higher than
those of other fractions and, except at 3 hours, even than the
reference drug.
Gastric ulcerogenic action
All the animals treated with indomethacin showed macro-
scopic lesions of the gastric mucosa, whereas no lesions
were observed in the rats treated with the tested compounds.
DISCUSSION
The HE and ME showed an interesting pharmacological
profile. Both were active as analgesics, especially in the tail-
flick test, with values better than those of indomethacin.
The fractions obtained from HE of Spartium flowers
maintained this activity: one of them (F2) exhibited marked
anti-inflammatory action, and all of them showed analgesic
activity. Moreover, F2 gave the highest anti-inflammatory
activity, exhibiting higher edema growth inhibition than in-
domethacin during the 6 hours of observation, whereas F1
and F3 did not give any anti-inflammatory response, as ex-
pected, and the values obtained cannot be considered sig-
nificant for statistical analysis.
All fractions showed an interesting peripheral analgesic ac-
tivity, and, even if in most of results the activity is lower than
indomethacin, it is notable that after the third hour the activ-
ity of indomethacin decreased, whereas the activity of the frac-
tions continued to increase, showing a value comparable or
higher (F1) than the reference drug at the sixth hour.
In the tail-flick test we observed a significant analgesic
activity of all the fractions, especially for the most polar F3,
whose activity was better than indomethacin throughout the
test.
The data from this preliminary study reveal interesting
pharmacological properties and lack of gastric ulcerogenic
action of the fractions obtained from HE of Spartium. How-
ever, at present, it is not possible to identify the single com-
pounds responsible for the activity observed. Further chem-
ical investigations of the fractions will focus on isolation
and characterization of the active principle.
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390 MENGHINI ET AL.
MENGHINI
QU1
Had to stack Tables 3–6 to fit before ref-
erences, OK?
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Background Along with swift economy upgrowing and continuous amelioration of lifestyle, people at present are paying more attention to health issues. Synthetic drugs will be compensated with other natural ones which belong to natural origin. Plants have always been considered as sources of several compounds that are used in many fields, especially human and animal health, starting from boosting the immunity to treatment of infectious diseases caused by some pathogenic microbes such as bacteria, fungi as well as viruses. This study aimed to incorporate some types of plants within antimicrobial portfolio through examination of different six plants which were Cichorium intybus, Cinnamomum camphora, Commiphora myrrha, Foeniculum vulgare, Nerium oleander and Spartium junceum. As well, attempting to identify the active constituents of their extracts using GC-MS. Materials and Methods All selected plants were analyzed to determine their phytochemical composition such as phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and so on. Extraction step was done by sophisticated equipment called supercritical fluid extractor SFE through adjustment of specific conditions include temperature, time, flow rate and pressure to change the behavior of CO2. Testing the antimicrobial activity of each plant extract via agar well diffusion method through formation of clear zones against wide range of pathogenic test microorganisms including both Gram positive and negative bacteria as well as yeasts. Finally, attempting to identify primarily the constituents of each plant extract using GC-MS. Results and Discussion crude extract of F. vulgare showed the highest potency against C. albicans, E. faecalis and S. typhimurirm, it contains some unique compounds such as squalene, eugenol and isoeugenol while, Extract of Cichorium intybus showed a moderate activity especially against C. libolytica and MRSA and it includes Vitamin A like compound which indicates antioxidant property. Conclusion Conclusively, fennel gave a promising result as a good wide spectrum antimicrobial agent because it contains some compounds act as antimicrobial agents such as eugenol which was used as food preservative in addition to squalene which acts as antioxidant and antimycotic agent so, it will be useful especially while it was used in highly purified form excluding all undesirable subcomponents.
... It is known as "Katırtırnağı" or "AdiKatırtırnağı" among the people 9 . It has been reported that S. junceum flowers exhibit moderate sedative and diuretic activities 10 , antiulcer [11][12] , antiinflammatory, analgesic 13 and antitumor 14 activities. The antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of aromatic water obtained from S. junceum flowers were investigated, and it was determined that aromatic water had a significant cytotoxic and antioxidant activity 15 . ...
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This study was carried out to evaluate the antiviral activities of methanol and aqueous extracts prepared from the flowers and stems of Spartium junceum L., used as herbal medicine in the treatment of gastric ulcer in Turkish folk medicine, against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The maximum non-toxic concentration of the extracts (MNTC) was determined against Vero cells by using the serial twofold dilution of MNTC (specific for each extract). The cytotoxic activity of the extracts and their ability to inhibit the cytopathic effect (CPE) caused by the virus in tissue culture was evaluated by colorimetric XTT assay after three days of inoculation and incubation. 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC 50) and 50% effective concentration (EC 50) were determined using graph pad prism, and the selectivity index (SI) was calculated from the EC 50 ratio of CC 50. As a result of the research, the strongest antiviral activity against HSV-1 was determined from flower aqueous extract with 1290.88 μg/mL EC 50 and 24.09 SI values, and this was followed by stem aqueous extract (EC 50 = 1217.52 μg/mL, SI = 12.22), flower methanol (EC 50 = 1673.41 μg/mL, SI = 6.74) and stem methanol extracts (EC 50 = 795.31 μg/mL, SI = 4.86). As a result, we can say that S. junceum extracts are worthy of further study to develop as an alternative to the drugs used clinically against HSV-1. This is the first report on S. junceum for anti-HSV-1 activity.
... This plant can be used in bioengineering stabilization techniques [27], soil retainer in erosion control [26], and for composite additive applications [28]. Moreover, they have various biological activities such as: sedative and diuretic activities [26], antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic [29], antiulcer [30,31], anti-inflammatory, analgesic [32], antifertility [33] and antitumor [34] activities. In this work, Ag NPs were biosynthesized with the help of S. junceum flower extract in an aqueous silver nitrate medium. ...
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Green synthesis of nanoparticles has received great attention from scientists due to their undeniable applications in all field of science. In this study, an eco-friendly and fast approach is reported for the preparation of silver nanoparticle (Ag NPs) using Spartium junceum flower extract, as a reductant and stabilizer agent, from aqueous solution of silver nitrate. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was optimized by investigating the reaction parameters including: pH, temperature, concentration of plant extract and interaction time. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. Also, the biosynthesis of Ag NPs was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy through the presence of a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band for Ag NPs at max=420 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles were crystalline in nature, nearly spherical in shape with 15-25 nm range of sizes.
... The flower infusion is used for treatment of peptic ulcers in southern Anatolia, Turkey (2) and also methanolic extract of S. junceum flowers has shown antiulcerogenic effect in vivo against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats, due to an oleanen-type triterpenicsaponin named spartitrioside (2,4). Other studies have reported antileishmanial activity of extract of branches against Leishmania major (5) and anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of hexane extract of flowers in rats (6). Some flavonoids has been isolated from S. junceum, including chrysin, chrysin 7-glucoside, and chrysin 7-gentiobioside from flowers (3); luteolin and genistein (7); apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, genistein-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside, 5,8-dihydroxy-4´methoxy-6,7methylenedioxyisoflavone, carthamidin-7-O-α-Lrhamnopyranoside, 3β,16β,22β,24-tetrahydroxyolean-l2-ene-3-β-yl-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(l→2)]α-L-rhamnopyranoside (junceoside) from aerial part (8). ...
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The essential oil, isolated by hydrodistillation from fresh flowers of Spartium junceum L. collected from medicinal plant garden in Shiraz faculty of pharmacy, near Shiraz, Fars, Iran, was investigated by Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. The GC/MS analysis of the oil revealed the presence of 30 constituents, of which Linalool (26.18%), Tetradecanoic acid (22.83%), Camphor (13.50%), and Dodecanoic acid (13.09%) were the major, constituting altogether almost 75.60% of total composition. This is the first report of linalool as a major compound in S. junceum oil composition. For studying of 18S rRNA gene, genomic DNA content was extracted and PCR procedure was done. Sequence similarity searches were done using NCBI database and CLC sequence viewer software. The result of PCR blasted with other sequenced genes in NCBI showed 98 % similarity to the 18S small subunit rRNA of Pisum sativum (Fabaceae) and Phaseoleae environmental samples of Elev and Amb clones. The phylogenetic relationships among 71 previously reported sequences of ribosomal encoding genes from plants and this novel sequence was investigated too.
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Spartium junecum L. was collected from Baksa in Lattakia, Syria, and studied morphologically depending on characteristics of plant life-form, flowers, leaves, fruits and seeds according to specialized floras, in addition to some characteristics of stomata types, trichomes, pollen grains and fibers that have been demonstrated by this study. The study of the leaves stomata confirmed the presence of 4 types, namely; anisocytic, isotricytic, brachyparahexacytic, and tetracytic. The type of trichomes was the same in all the studied areas, which is: non-glandular trichomes with different densities. Pollen grains were, tricolpate, triangular, the dimensions of the polar axis and equatorial axis were (35µm), and (31µm), respectively. Spartium junecum L. cellulose fibers were extracted by DiCoDe method (digestion–compression–decompression). The morphology of the obtained fibers was studied by optical microscopy (OM). The results showed that Spartium junecum L. fibers are elementary fibers arranged in bundles. The diameter of a single elementary fiber ranged from 7 to 10μm approximately, while the diameter of the whole bundle was about (50μm). The cross-sections showed an irregular polygonal shape with a very much characterized lumen. The essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from the dried flowers of Spartium junceum L. was investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. The GC/MS analysis of the oil revealed the presence of 6 constituents, of which heptacosene (28.75%), 3-ethyl-5-(2-ethylbutyl)-octadecane (22.45%), heptacosane (21.2%) and heneicosane (18.82%) were the major compounds constituting altogether almost 91.22% of the total composition.
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The Spartium junceum is a medicinal plant that belongs to the fabacea family.The nonpolar chemical composition of it was investigated and fifty nine compounds were identified by GC-MS. The main constituents were the n-Hexadecanoic acid (14.27%), 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrien-1-ol(13.07%), Tetradecanoic acid (6.59%) Octadecanoic acid (3.68%) and (-Sitosterol(3.67%).
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Crude hydromethanolic (80% methanol) extracts produced by maceration of Onopordum acanthium leaves and Spartium junceum flowers were tested for cytotoxic effects against glioblastoma U-373 tumour cells. Onopordum acanthium extract was found to be ~5 times more cytotoxic than Spartium junceum (IC50 values of 309 and 1602μg/ml, respectively). Similar to most chemotherapeutic agents killing through the intrinsic pathway, Onopordum killed the cells via apoptosis, which was confirmed by the activation of caspase-3. Spartium exerted its weak cytotoxic effect, presumably by a caspase-independent, non-apoptotic form of necrotic-like programmed cell death. Onopordum acanthium is considered a promising plant for the researchers investigating putative biological activities, particularly antitumour and immune-related activity.
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The alkaloid pattern of Spartium junceum has been investigated. Cytisine, N-methylcytisine, anagyrine, rhombifoline and epi-baptifoline occur as major compounds in most of the samples studied. Considerable quantitative differences were found between various parts of the plant. The alkaloid content changed strongly dependent on the seasons. Only a limited variation can be ascribed to geographical origin.
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The anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of the extracts and fractions obtained from seven Turkish plants, which are used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastric ailments including peptic ulcers, were studied against one standard strain and eight clinical isolates of H. pylori by using the agar dilution method. Flowers of Cistus laurifolius and Spartium junceum, cones of Cedrus libani, herbs and flowers of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis, fruits of Momordica charantia, herbaceous parts of Sambucus ebulus, and flowering herbs of Hypericum perforatum were evaluated in this study. Results showed that all except one extract from six of these plants showed activity against the microorganism with MICs between 1.95 and 250 microg/ml, with S. junceum being the only inactive species. Amongst the active plants the inhibitory properties of C. laurifolius were found prominent.
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Spartium junceum L. (Fabaceae) flowers are used for the treatment of peptic ulcers in Turkish folk medicine. The possible superoxide dismutase-like activity of the extracts, fractions and constituents obtained through activity-guided fractionation were studied by using in vitro electron spin resonance spectrometry, in order to explain the role of antioxidant principles in the potent antiulcerogenic activity of the extract. Despite the fact that the triterpene, spartitrioside, which was previously reported as the active antiulcerogenic constituent of the flowers was found almost inactive, the flavonoid-rich fractions showed potent antioxidant activity. Five flavonoid glycosides bearing catechol structure in ring B were isolated from the butanol extract and their structures were elucidated using 1H- and 13C-NMR techniques as isoquercitrin (quercetin 3beta-glucoside) (1,); luteolin 4'beta-glucoside (2); quercetin 3, 4'-diglucoside (3); azaleatin 3beta-glucoside (quercetin 5-methylether 3beta-glucoside) (4), quercetin 4'beta-glucoside (5). Flavonoids (2) and (4) showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity with 22.59 and 19.08 U/ml, respectively.
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Alkaloid content variations were studied in four Spartium junceum populations in different dynamic stages. The highest alkaloid content was found in young plants, in reproductive organs, particularly in seeds, and in the twigs with primary structure. In addition, among the four populations, the highest alkaloid values were noted in the pioneer population, the lowest in the more vigorous population. These alkaloid contents can be interpreted as a defensive strategy of the species, and more specifically, of individuals in the pioneer population, which are the most vulnerable to predators and parasites.
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In order to identify herbaceous species utilizable for pulp and paper production three perennial species (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss, Spartium junceum L. and Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich) were tested in the Department of Agronomy of University of Pisa. Screening of these species for biomass and stem production was carried out from 1993 to 1995 in the second, third and fourth growing season. Concurrently, these species were also tested for suitability as pulp materials on a laboratory scale with a `high yield process'. The main physical–mechanical and optical properties of the paper produced from these species were evaluated on 80 g m−2 test sheets as functions of the following parameters: Schopper–Riegler freeness, tensile strength, tearing strength, bursting strength, brightness, opacity, permeability and beating time. All the species demonstrated good agronomic traits making them potentially suitable for cultivation in the Mediterranean area. As far as paper-making characteristics are concerned, the most promising results were obtained with M. sinensis pulps. Pulps from this species, when bleached, could already be used for paper making. Their good properties make these pulps suitable for printing or writing paper production up to 20% besides the possibility of using them for low weight coated papers.
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New 4-anilinoquinoline-3-carboxylic acids, N-[3-carboxyquinolyl (4)]anthranilic acids and their corresponding esters were synthetized by reacting 4-chloro-3-carbethoxyquinolines with substituted anilines and methyl anthranilate respectively. All the compounds were tested for antiinflammatory and analgesic activities. Some derivatives showed a significant antiinflammatory activity comparable to that of indomethacin.
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Two new flavonoids, 5,8-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyisoflavone and carthamidin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside and a new triterpenoid saponin, 3 beta,16 beta,22 beta,24-tetrahydroxy-olean-12- ene-3-beta-yl-]beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (junceoside), were isolated from Spartium junceum. Their structures were elucidated by means of IR, UV, MS, 1H, 13C NMR, 13C NMR DEPT and 2D NMR experiments. Apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and genistein-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, never previously found in this plant, were also isolated.
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A new oleanene-type saponin with potent anti-ulcerogenic activity was isolated from the flowers of Spartium junceum. The various techniques of NMR spectral analysis, viz. 1H, 13C, DEPT, C-H COSY, H-H COSY, COLOC, NOESY, HMBC, HMQC, in conjunction with EI- and FAB-mass spectrometry, revealed that the structure of the isolated saponin was 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2) -O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-3 beta,16beta,22 beta,24-tetrahydroxy-olean-12-ene and named as spartitrioside.
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Flowers of Spartium junceum L. (Fabaceae) are used for the treatment of gastric ulcers in Turkish folk medicine. Through bioassay-guided fractionation using chemical and chromatographical means and water immersion and restraint-induced stress ulcer model in rats, a saponin fraction was determined as the potent anti-ulcerogenic ingredient. The active fraction was also highly effective in preventing ethanol- and pyloric ligation-induced gastric lesions as well as inhibiting gastric secretion volume, gastric pH and titratable acidity, but did not affect the hexosamine content of the gastric mucosa. A novel oleanen-type triterpenic saponin, named as spartitrioside, was isolated as the active principle by using chromatographical separation techniques.