Approaches to Reduce Antibiotic Resistance in the Community

Department of Microbiology, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Créteil, Créteil, France.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 2.72). 11/2006; 25(10):977-80. DOI: 10.1097/01.inf.0000239271.10784.1e
Source: PubMed


During the last two decades, there has been an alarming worldwide increase of resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens responsible for community-acquired infections. This dramatic evolution is generally attributed to the extensive use of antibiotics and the selective pressure on the bacterial strains. To decrease antibiotics resistance in the community, several approaches should be considered through: reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions: inappropriate antibiotic treatments are becoming a major issue; however, few studies have shown a decrease of antibiotic resistance following a reduction of antibiotic use in the community;decreasing the prescriptions of the more selective antibiotic compounds for some bacterial species, eg macrolides and group A streptococcus (GAS), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and pneumococcus; using an optimal dosage and duration of antibiotic regimens chosen; some studies have suggested that low dosage and long treatment duration could promote antibiotic resistance; and implementing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines; several studies have shown a decline in the proportion of penicillin nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive pneumococcal diseases or nasopharyngeal flora. The combination of these approaches, particularly the reduction of antibiotic use and pneumococcal immunization, could be synergistic.

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    • "Reducing the mortality rate from bacterial infections and diseases, antibiotics have become cornerstones of modern medicine required by many common procedures such as transplantation, chemotherapy for cancer or surgery [1]. However, antibiotics lose their efficiency after a period of months to years [2] [3] [4], eventually producing new strains of bacteria resistant to the given drug. Since old antibiotics lose their efficiency faster than new ones can be developed [5], there is currently no antibiotic in clinical use, to which resistance has not yet been reported [6] [7]. "
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes
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    • "The discovery, development and clinical exploitation of antibiotics count among the most significant medical advances in history. However, antibiotics lose their efficiency after a period of months to years [35–37], eventually producing new strains of resistant bacteria, as the continuous application of antibiotics wipes out the cells in a bacteria population sensitive to the drug given. At the same time this effect creates perfect survival conditions for the fraction of bacteria immune to the pharmaceuticals applied. "
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