Characteristics of Patients With Healthcare‐Associated Infection Due to SCC mec Type IV Methicillin‐Resistant Staphylococcus aureus •

Anti-Infective Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and the School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.18). 10/2006; 27(10):1025-31. DOI: 10.1086/507918
Source: PubMed


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV allele is most commonly associated with community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) infection; however, such organisms have also been identified in the healthcare setting. The objective of the present study was to characterize the epidemiology of and clinical outcomes associated with SCCmec-IV MRSA infection acquired in the healthcare setting, compared with infection caused by MRSA of other SCCmec types.
We evaluated a cohort of 100 inpatients with MRSA infection that met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition for healthcare-associated infection and compared the patients' demographic characteristics, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the MRSA isolates, the infection types, and the associated clinical and microbiological outcomes. For each MRSA isolate, the SCCmec type and the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) were determined by polymerase chain reaction methods.
SCCmec-IV MRSA isolates were isolated from 53 patients (42% of these isolates were positive for PVL), and SCCmec-II or SCCmec-III MRSA was isolated from 47 patients (3% of these isolates were positive for PVL). No differences were noted between the patients in the SCCmec-II/III group and the patients in the SCCmec-IV group with respect to age (median, 55 vs 50 years); sex (77% vs 64% of patients were male); medical service (surgical service, 60% in both groups; ICU admission, 55% vs 53%), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (median, 8 vs. 7); infection type; or underlying comorbidities, except for presence of a burn wound (13% vs 2%; P < .04). Patients in the SCCmec-II/III group were more likely to have multiple sites of infection (P = .006) and a longer length of stay (LOS) prior to detection of MRSA than were patients in the SCCmec-IV group (median, 4 vs 1 days; P < .001). Total LOS was significantly greater for patients in the SCCmec-II/III, compared with those in the SCCmec-IV group (P = .006). Multiple logistic regression identified liver disease and longer LOS prior to detection of MRSA as predictors of infection with SCCmec-II/III MRSA. Rates of susceptibility to clindamycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tetracycline was significantly greater among SCCmec-IV MRSA isolates, compared with type II/III isolates (P < or = .05). Compared with SCCmec-IV isolates acquired in the community, the susceptibility rates among healthcare-associated SCCmec-IV isolates was significantly less for clindamycin, gentamicin, and levofloxacin, indicating that these organisms may quickly acquire resistance to non- beta -lactam antibiotics, as do SCCmec-II/III strains.
SCCmec-IV MRSA appears to have become established in hospitals. The onset of infection caused by SCCmec-IV strains is earlier than the onset of infection with SCCmec-II/III strains; however, associated types of infection are similar. Infection with SCCmec-II/III MRSA is currently associated with an adverse impact on outcome, compared with infection with SCCmec-IV MRSA. Further research is warranted to determine the impact of SCCmec type IV strains in hospital settings.

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    • "Differences in infection types caused by HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA have been reported, with CA-MRSA causing mostly SSTIs, often in young, otherwise healthy individuals, and HA-MRSA causing a range of infections in older patients with co-morbidities. However, recent data suggest that CA-MRSA in the hospital environment has a similar disease profile to HA-MRSA, causing invasive disease in older patients [12]. Reducing HA-MRSA in the hospital environment will result in an overall reduction in antimicrobial resistance. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) performs regular multicentre period prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance. In 2011, 29 laboratories in Australia participated in the national surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus resistance. The survey only included unique isolates from clinical specimens collected ≥48 h after hospital admission. MRSA accounted for 30.3% of S. aureus isolates. MRSA resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and clindamycin (constitutive resistance) varied considerably between regions. Resistance to non-β-lactam antimicrobials was uncommon in MSSA, with the exception of erythromycin. Regional variation in resistance was due to the differential distribution of MRSA clones between regions. The proportion of S. aureus genetically characterised as healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) was significantly lower in this survey (18.2%) compared with the 2005 survey (24.2%) (P < 0.0001). Although four HA-MRSA clones were characterised, 98.8% of HA-MRSA were classified as either ST22-MRSA-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) or ST239-MRSA-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA). Multiclonal community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) increased markedly from 6.5% in 2005 to 11.7% of all S. aureus in 2011 (P < 0.0001). Although the proportion of MRSA resistant to non-β-lactam antimicrobials has decreased nationally, the proportion of S. aureus that are MRSA has remained stable. This is primarily due to non-multiresistant CA-MRSA becoming more common in Australian hospitals at the expense of the long-established multiresistant ST239-MRSA-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA). Given hospital outbreaks of CA-MRSA are thought to be extremely rare, it is most likely that patients colonised at admission with CA-MRSA have become infected with the colonising strain during their hospital stay.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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    • "Several reports have indicated the possibility that the incidence of CA-MRSA infection would surpass that of HA-MRSA infection [16,29,30]. Considering the wide spread of CA-MRSA in Asian countries in particular, there is an urgent need of epidemiological or molecular studies of this strain to guide targeting of effective therapeutic agents. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Community Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a strain of MRSA that can cause infections in patients in the community, in which these patients had no previous risk factors for MRSA infection and the patient received 72 hours prior to infection when admitted to hospital. This study aims to determine and compare the characteristics of epidemiological, clinical, and molecular biology of CA-MRSA with HA-MRSA. Methods A total of 11 clinical strains of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-sensitive Stapylococcus aureus (MSSA) were collected from 2 hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2012. SCCmec typing was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the presence of six genes (vraR, vraG, vraA, vraF,fruA, and fruB) associated with vancomycin resistance was examined by simple PCR analysis. Results We found three strains of community-acquired MRSA with SCCmec type II and one strain of hospital-acquired MRSA with SCCmec type IV. The other seven strains did not contain mecA genes and SCCmec. Plasmid pUB110 was found in one strain of community-acquired MRSA and two strains of hospital-acquired MRSA. vraA genes were present in 9 of the 11 strains, vraF in 4, vraG in 5, and vraR in 4. Note worthily, three quarters of strains without pUB110 contained vraR and vraF, and 70% contained vraA, whereas 60% of strains with pUB110 contained vraG. Conclusion Based on these results, we should be concerned about the possibility of transition from MRSA strains sensitive to vancomycin in VISA strains of MRSA strains obtained in clinical trials. But first we need to look the existence of natural VISA or hVISA among these MRSA strains.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Research Notes
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    • "Our data showed an increased resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, and cephalothin from 2006 to 2008, in addition to the appearance of MRSA isolates from goats in 2008 (Table 2). Furthermore, the MRSA isolates identified in this study belonged to the major nosocomial SCCmec types: SCCmec type II and III [52,53]. Zoonotic transfer of MRSA has been reported between horses and humans in the USA [20,54], between cattle and humans in Korea [55], and between livestock and humans in Taiwan [56,57]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Widespread in the environment, Staphylococcus spp. infect animals and humans as normal flora or pathogens. By extending our recent report of multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. aureus in dairy goats, this study investigated the staphylococcal infection and characterized the MDR-S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates collected from goats in 2008 to elucidate the appearance of MRSA in goats and the mastitis associated staphylococcus enterotoxin (SE) types. A total of 555 samples were collected from six goat parts and three environmental sources among four dairy goat farms in southern Taiwan. Coagulase-positive and negative Staphylococcus spp. (CPS and CNS, respectively) were also identified. Furthermore, predominant SE genes of nine enterotoxin genes sea through sej along with antimicrobial resistance and genetic variations were determined. In total, 137 staphylococcal strains were identified and found predominantly in milk, and in the vagina, anus, and nasal cavity. The most prevalent species was S. lentus, followed by S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. xylosus. Enterotoxin genes were not identified in any CNS isolates, however sec and see were identified only in S. aureus associated with mastitis in goat. In compared to the isolates from 2006 to 2007, 27 S. aureus isolates from 2008 were found to be more resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, oxacillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, and tetracycline. Eleven MRSA isolates were identified and belonged to SCCmec type III (nine isolates) as the major type and SCCmec type II (two isolates). These MRSA isolates revealed pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern A (five isolates), C (one isolate), and D (one isolate) of human isolates. The other two isolates without pulsotypes belonged to ST59. The prevalence and infection sites of CNS differed from those of CPS. Genetic analyses indicated that genetic divergence, possible zoonotic transfer of MRSA, and the involvement of sec as important virulence factors for of S. aureus that lead to mastitis in goats.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · BMC Veterinary Research
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