Triclosan in Plasma and Milk from Swedish Nursing Mothers and Their Exposure via Personal Care Products

Stockholm University, Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 4.1). 01/2007; 372(1):87-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.08.007
Source: PubMed


The bactericide triclosan is commonly used in e.g. plastics, textiles and health care products. In vitro studies on rat and human biological systems indicate that triclosan might exert adverse effects in humans. Triclosan has previously been found in human plasma and milk, but neither the primary source of human exposure nor the efficiency of triclosan transfer to human milk is known. In this study, plasma and milk were sampled from 36 mothers and analyzed for triclosan. Scrutinization of the women's personal care products revealed that nine of the mothers used toothpaste, deodorant or soap containing triclosan. Triclosan and/or its metabolites were omnipresent in the analyzed plasma and milk. The concentrations were higher in both plasma and milk from the mothers who used personal care products containing triclosan than in the mothers who did not. This demonstrated that personal care products containing triclosan were the dominant, but not the only, source of systemic exposure to triclosan. The concentrations were significantly higher in plasma than in milk, indicating that infant exposure to triclosan via breast milk is much less than the dose in the mother.

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    • "al., 2004Jacobs et al., 2005;Veldhoen et al., 2006;Chen et al., 2007;Ahn et al., 2008;Paul et al., 2010;Rodriguez and Sanchez, 2010) may offer hints that it may actually occur in humans, especially with regular exposures to various products with direct contact or entry to the body. Triclosan was found in the plasma and milk in nursing mothers regularly consuming products containing this ingredient (Allmyr et al., 2006). In addition, triclosan can bioaccumulate in the liver and fat tissues, and possibly the brain at a low potential (Geens et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Triclosan is an antimicrobial or sanitizing agent used in personal care and household products such as toothpaste, soaps, mouthwashes and kitchen utensils. There are increasing evidence of the potentially harmful effects of triclosan in many systemic and cellular processes of the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of triclosan in the survivability of cultured rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Cortical cells from embryonic day 14 rat embryos were isolated and cultured in vitro. After stabilizing the culture, triclosan was introduced to the cells with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM and in varied time periods. Thereafter, cell viability parameters were measured using MTT assay and PI staining. TCS decreased the cell viability of treated NSC in a concentration-dependent manner along with increased expressions of apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, while reduced expression of Bcl2. To explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of TCS in NSC, we measured the activation of MAPKs and intracellular ROS. TCS at 50 μM induced the activations of both p38 and JNK, which may adversely affect cell survival. In contrast, the activities of ERK, Akt and PI3K, which are positively correlated with cell survival, were inhibited. Moreover, TCS at this concentration augmented the ROS generation in treated NSC and depleted the glutathione activity. Taken together, these results suggest that TCS can induce neurodegenerative effects in developing rat brains through mechanisms involving ROS activation and apoptosis initiation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Biomolecules and Therapeutics
    • "A study showed a 70 mM TCS cream underwent 10% absorption into human skin, showing absorption into the skin in the millimolar range (Queckenberg, et al. 2010). TCS is detectable in both blood and milk of lactating mothers (Allmyr, et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial used widely in hospitals and personal care products, at ~10 mm. Human skin efficiently absorbs TCS. Mast cells are ubiquitous key players both in physiological processes and in disease, including asthma, cancer and autism. We previously showed that non-cytotoxic levels of TCS inhibit degranulation, the release of histamine and other mediators, from rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), and in this study, we replicate this finding in human mast cells (HMC-1.2). Our investigation into the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect led to the discovery that TCS disrupts adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in RBL-2H3 cells in glucose-free, galactose-containing media (95% confidence interval EC50 = 7.5-9.7 µm), without causing cytotoxicity. Using these same glucose-free conditions, 15 µm TCS dampens RBL-2H3 degranulation by 40%. The same ATP disruption was found with human HMC-1.2 cells (EC50 4.2-13.7 µm), NIH-3 T3 mouse fibroblasts (EC50 4.8-7.4 µm) and primary human keratinocytes (EC50 3.0-4.1 µm) all with no cytotoxicity. TCS increases oxygen consumption rate in RBL-2H3 cells. Known mitochondrial uncouplers (e.g., carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone) previously were found to inhibit mast cell function. TCS-methyl, which has a methyl group in place of the TCS ionizable proton, affects neither degranulation nor ATP production at non-cytotoxic doses. Thus, the effects of TCS on mast cell function are due to its proton ionophore structure. In addition, 5 µm TCS inhibits thapsigargin-stimulated degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells: further evidence that TCS disrupts mast cell signaling. Our data indicate that TCS is a mitochondrial uncoupler, and TCS may affect numerous cell types and functions via this mechanism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Applied Toxicology
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    • "Triclosan (2′-hydroxy-2,4,4′-trichlorodiphenyl ether) is a broad spectrum antibacterial, which has been used in personal care and household products including toothpaste, for many years. Although it is considered to have low toxicity in mammals (Bhargava and Leonard, 1996), it has nevertheless been found in human plasma, urine and breast milk (Allmyr et al., 2006a, 2006b, 2008; Calafat et al., Science of the Total Environment 508 (2015) 546–552 ⁎ Corresponding author at: School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Prince Charles "
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse effects of long-term usage of triclosan-containing toothpaste in humans are currently unknown. We assessed the effect of long-term use of 0.3% triclosan-toothpaste on serious adverse events (SAEs) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). 438 patients with a history of stable CVD were entered into the 5-year longitudinal Cardiovascular and Periodontal Study at Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia and randomised into test (triclosan) or placebo groups. There were no significant differences in demographics or clinical features between the groups. Patients were examined at baseline, and annually for 5-years. SAEs were classified according to the System Organ Classes defined by MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities). Results were analysed using chi square and Kaplan Meier analysis. Overall, 232 patients (123 in the triclosan group; 109 in the placebo group) experienced 569 SAEs (288 in the triclosan group and 281 in the placebo group). There was no significant difference between the groups in numbers of patients experiencing SAEs (p=0.35) or specific cardiovascular SAEs (p=0.82), nor in time to the first SAE or first cardiovascular SAE, irrespective of gender, age or BMI after adjusting for multiple comparisons (p>0.05). The adjusted odds of experiencing an SAE were estimated to increase by 2.7% for each year of age (p=0.02) and the adjusted odds of experiencing a cardiovascular SAE were estimated to increase by 5.1% for each unit increase in BMI (p=0.02). Most cardiovascular events were related to unstable angina or myocardial infarcts, 21 were associated with arrhythmia and 41 were vascular events such as aortic aneurysm and cerebrovascular accident. Within the limitations of the present study the data suggest that the use of triclosan-toothpaste may not be associated with any increase in SAEs in this CVD population. The long-term impact of triclosan on hormone-related disease, such as cancer, in humans remains to be determined.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Science of The Total Environment
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