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Employee and Customer Injury During Violent Crimes in Retail and Service Businesses

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We sought to compare the frequency and risk factors for employees and customers injured during crimes in retail (convenience, grocery, and liquor stores) and service businesses (bars, restaurants, motels). A total of 827 retail and service businesses in Los Angeles were randomly selected. Police crime reports (n=2029) from violent crimes that occurred in these businesses from January 1996 through June 2001 were individually reviewed to determine whether a customer or an employee was injured and to collect study variables. A customer injury was 31% more likely (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11, 1.51) than an employee injury during a violent crime. Customer injury was more frequent than employee injury during violent crimes in bars, restaurants, convenience stores, and motels but less likely in grocery or liquor stores. Injury risk was increased for both employees and customers when resisting the perpetrator and when the perpetrator was suspected of using alcohol. Customers had an increased risk for injury during crimes that occurred outside (relative risk [RR]=2.01; 95% CI=1.57, 2.58) and at night (RR=1.79; 95% CI=1.40, 2.29). Security programs should be designed to protect customers as well as employees.
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October 2006, Vol 96, No. 10 | American Journal of Public Health Peek-Asa et al. | Peer Reviewed | Research and Practice | 1867
RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
Peek-Asa et al. | Peer Reviewed | Research and Practice | 1867
Objectives. We sought to compare the frequency and risk factors for employ-
ees and customers injured during crimes in retail (convenience, grocery, and
liquor stores) and service businesses (bars, restaurants, motels).
Methods. A total of 827 retail and service businesses in Los Angeles were ran-
domly selected. Police crime reports (n = 2029) from violent crimes that occurred
in these businesses from January 1996 through June 2001 were individually re-
viewed to determine whether a customer or an employee was injured and to col-
lect study variables.
Results. A customer injury was 31% more likely (95% confidence interval
[CI] = 1.11, 1.51) than an employee injury during a violent crime. Customer injury
was more frequent than employee injury during violent crimes in bars, restau-
rants, convenience stores, and motels but less likely in grocery or liquor stores.
Injury risk was increased for both employees and customers when resisting the
perpetrator and when the perpetrator was suspected of using alcohol. Customers
had an increased risk for injury during crimes that occurred outside (relative risk
[RR] = 2.01; 95% CI = 1.57, 2.58) and at night (RR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.40, 2.29).
Conclusions. Security programs should be designed to protect customers as
well as employees. (Am J Public Health. 2006;96:1867–1872. doi:10.2105/AJPH.
2005.071365)
crimes that occurred in 827 businesses from
January 1996 through June 2001. Businesses
were participants in the Workplace Violence
Prevention Program (WVPP), conducted in
Los Angeles, California. An evaluation of the
WVPP has been published elsewhere.
15
The
WVPP was powered to examine changes in
overall crime rates, not those with injuries,
and, thus, we lack adequate power to exam-
ine intervention effects on employee and cus-
tomer injury. Thus, for this analysis we con-
trolled for intervention status but did not
examine the intervention as an exposure
variable.
Eligible business types included conve-
nience stores, grocery stores, liquor stores,
bars, restaurants, and motels. Businesses were
identified through a commercial directory that
included self-identified business type classified
by a single standard industrial classification
code that indicated the primary nature of the
business. Businesses were randomly sampled
using a stratified design to represent business
types and neighborhood crime rates within
the city. The WVPP included 314 interven-
tion, 96 control, and 417 businesses that de-
clined intervention participation.
Workplace violence is a leading cause of oc-
cupational death, injury, worker’s compensa-
tion costs, and lost productivity.
1–6
Robberies
are the leading cause of occupational homi-
cide and cause more than 60% of worker
homicides each year.
2,7
Small retail (conve-
nience, grocery, and liquor stores) and service
businesses (bars, restaurants, motels) have the
highest risk of robbery and related workplace
homicide and assault.
1,2,7–9
Violence prevention programs in retail and
service businesses have focused on primary
prevention of robberies or on the protection
of employees during a robbery.
10
Evaluations
of these programs have shown some success
in preventing robberies and in reducing homi-
cides and assaults on employees.
10
However,
robberies are 1 of many potentially violent
crimes that can occur in the business setting,
and customers as well as employees are at
risk of being victimized during these crimes.
Customer victimization is especially important
for retail and service businesses whose pri-
mary function is to serve customers.
Employers are required to protect employees
from known hazards under the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Gen-
eral Duty Clause.
11–13
Some state OSHAs, such
as in California, have more specific require-
ments for employers to identify and address vi-
olent hazards in the workplace to protect the
employee.
11 , 12 , 14
However, US Occupational
Safety and Health mandates do not require em-
ployers or business owners to protect their cus-
tomers. Thus far, no workplace violence pro-
grams have examined effects of violence on
customers. Using a large database of crimes in
small retail and service businesses, we exam-
ined the incidence and risk factors for customer
and employee injury during workplace crimes.
METHODS
Study Population
Crimes were identified through review of
Los Angeles Police Department reports of
Employee and Customer Injury During Violent Crimes
in Retail and Service Businesses
| Corinne Peek-Asa, PhD, Carri Casteel, PhD, Jess F. Kraus, PhD, and Paul Whitten, MS
Data Collection
Businesses were matched by address to an
electronic crime report database maintained
by the Los Angeles Police Department. The
electronic database did not include sufficient
details of each crime to identify the role of
employees and customers. Thus, each crime
report was retrieved and read thoroughly.
A total of 2954 reports were matched by ad-
dress to the 827 business addresses between
January 1996 and June 2001. Of these, 925
(31.3%) were excluded because they were
duplicate reports or described crimes that did
not have any relation to the business. For ex-
ample, an assault on an individual walking by
a business might be reported at that busi-
ness’s address but would not be related to the
business. The final sample included 2029 re-
ports of violent crimes.
Violent crimes included homicide, assault,
battery, robbery, rape, and attempts to com-
mit these crimes. Victims were considered
customers of the business if a business trans-
action occurred or the victim was a nonem-
ployee located within the business or walking
in or out of the business. Employees and cus-
tomers were considered injured if the report
American Journal of Public Health | October 2006, Vol 96, No. 101868 | Research and Practice | Peer Reviewed | Peek-Asa et al.
RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
TABLE 1—Risk of Employee and Customer Injury During Violent Crimes in Retail and
Service Businesses: Los Angeles, California, January 1996–June 2001
Total Events Leading Events Leading Risk Ratio of Customer
Crimes, to Employee to Customer to Employee
No. (%) Injury, No.(%) Injury, No.(%) Injury
a
(95% CI)
All Violent Crimes
b
Type of business
Convenience store 394 (19.4) 94 (23.9) 105 (26.7) 1.12 (0.83, 1.41)
Bar 98 (4.8) 19 (19.4) 69 (70.4) 3.63 (1.87, 5.39)
Grocery store 325 (16.1) 123 (37.9) 63 (19.4) 0.51 (0.33, 0.69)
Liquor store 483 (23.8) 154 (31.9) 127 (26.3) 0.82 (0.58, 1.06)
Motel 395 (19.5) 65 (16.5) 232 (58.7) 3.57 (2.45, 4.69)
Restaurant 334 (16.5) 90 (27.0) 116 (34.7) 1.29 (0.92, 1.86)
Total 2029 542 (26.7) 712 (35.1) 1.31 (1.11, 1.51)
Robberies
Type of business
Convenience store 231 (22.6) 35 (15.3) 29 (12.4) 0.89 (0.44, 1.34)
Bar 14 (1.4) 6 (42.9) 4 (28.6) . . .
c
Grocery store 196 (19.2) 58 (29.7) 14 (7.2) 0.24 (0.10, 0.38)
Liquor store 275 (26.9) 74 (26.9) 40 (14.6) 0.54 (0.30, 0.78)
Motel 152 (14.9) 16 (10.5) 69 (45.4) 4.31 (1.51, 7.11)
Restaurant 154 (15.1) 28 (18.2) 13 (8.4) 0.46 (0.17, 0.75)
Total 1022 217 (21.2) 171 (16.7) 0.79 (0.59, 0.99)
Note.CI=confidence interval.
a
Risk ratios for the totals were clustered on intervention status, business type, and individual business. Risk ratios stratified
by business type were clustered on intervention status and individual business.
b
Violent crimes included homicide, assault, battery, robbery, and attempts to commit these crimes.
c
Number of robberies were too few to calculate reliable risk ratio estimates.
mentioned physical injury of any severity
level to the individual, whether or not med-
ical treatment was sought.
Study Variables
The 2 outcome variables examined were
the occurrence of an employee injury and
the occurrence of a customer injury during a
crime. The crime reports did not include full
information about all people present in the
business during the crime, so the denomina-
tor for risk estimates was the crime. The in-
dependent variables were chosen on the
basis of reported measurable risk in previous
literature and availability on the police crash
report. Independent variables included re-
sisting the perpetrator, presence of multiple
perpetrators, crime occurrence between
10
PM and 6 AM, location of the crime out-
side of the business, suspicion of alcohol
use by the perpetrator, presence of multiple
people during the crime, if the crime oc-
curred during the course of an argument,
and if the crime was premeditated. Resis-
tance to the perpetrator included noncooper-
ation, or arguing with, chasing, or being
physically aggressive with the perpetrator(s).
Location was coded as inside or outside
the business building(s) based on where the
crime was initiated. Outdoor business loca-
tions were confined to business property.
Suspected alcohol use was documented in
the police report if the victim(s) stated to po-
lice that the perpetrator was intoxicated or
if the responding officer observed the perpe-
trator to be intoxicated. Multiple people
present during the crime included both em-
ployees and customers. Crimes were consid-
ered to have occurred in the course of an
argument if the police report specifically
mentioned arguing initiated by the victim or
perpetrator. Crimes were considered pre-
meditated if the perpetrator exhibited suspi-
cious behavior before the violent crime (e.g.,
carried a weapon, stalked the business).
Analysis
We used SUDAAN software
16
to calculate
risk ratios and their standard errors to take
into account the correlated nature of the data.
Three clustering factors were included: individ-
ual business (because multiple crimes could
have occurred in a single business), business
type, and intervention status. Intervention
status included whether the business was an
intervention, control, or decline business and
whether the crime occurred before or after
study interaction, thus control for all interven-
tion strata. Standard errors were calculated
using Taylor linearization.
The unit of analysis was the crime event.
Analyses were conducted separately for over-
all crimes and for robberies. Robberies were
examined separately, because they have been
the primary focus of previous workplace vio-
lence research in the retail industry. Rob-
beries are a subset of all crimes and included
any police report in which one of the crime
motivations was listed as robbery. Risk ratios
comparing employee and customer injury
were calculated overall and by type of busi-
ness. Analyses stratified on type of business
were clustered only on individual business
and intervention status. Risk ratios for em-
ployee and customer injury were calculated
for independent variables using hierarchical
logistic regression. Resulting estimates were
interpreted as risk ratios, because assump-
tions for risk ratio approximation were met.
Each ratio was controlled for the 3 clustering
factors and mutually adjusted for all depen-
dent variables.
RESULTS
Incidence of Employee and Customer
Injury
Employees were injured in 542 (26.7%)
crimes, and customers were injured in 712
(35.1%) crimes (Table 1). A customer injury
was 31% more likely than an employee in-
jury (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11,
1.51). Injury to both employees and cus-
tomers occurred in only 14 (0.7%) crimes.
Multiple employees were injured in 2.4% of
all events leading to employee injury, and
October 2006, Vol 96, No. 10 | American Journal of Public Health Peek-Asa et al. | Peer Reviewed | Research and Practice | 1869
RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
TABLE 2—Risk Factors for Employee and Customer Injury During 2029 Violent Crimes
Occurring in 827 Small Retail and Service Businesses: Los Angeles, California, January
1996–June 2001
Crimes With Employee Injuries Crimes With Customer Injuries
Employee Risk Ratio
b
Customer Risk Ratio
b
No.
a
Injured (95% CI) Injured (95% CI)
Anyone resisted
Yes 1086 348 1.64 (1.32, 2.03) 433 1.54 (1.24, 1.92)
No 873 192 1.00 257 1.00
Employee resisted
Yes 574 347 1.77 (1.55, 2.02) NA NA
No 565 193 1.00 NA NA
Customer resisted
Yes 531 NA NA 441 1.19 (1.10, 1.29)
No 370 NA NA 258 1.00
Crime occurred between 10
PM and 6 AM
Yes 706 154 0.69 (0.54, 0.89) 318 1.79 (1.40, 2.29)
No 1323 391 1.00 394 1.00
Crime occurred outside
c
Yes 710 174 0.90 (0.71, 1.14) 335 2.01 (1.57, 2.58)
No 1297 361 1.00 368 1.00
At least 1 perpetrator was suspected of using alcohol
Yes 156 58 1.70 (1.19, 2.43) 68 1.07 (0.66, 1.43)
No 1797 476 1.00 606 1.00
Multiple suspected perpetrators
Yes 741 188 0.92 (0.72, 1.18) 213 0.71 (0.65, 0.90)
No 1240 351 1.00 472 1.00
Multiple people present
Yes 524 159 1.26 (0.98, 1.62) 129 0.55 (0.42, 0.71)
No 1505 386 1.00 583 1.00
Occurred in course of argument
Yes 450 136 1.27 (0.96, 1.68) 250 2.49 (1.93, 3.21)
No 1579 409 1.00 462 1.00
Crime was premeditated
Yes 563 171 1.37 (1.08, 1.74) 136 0.61 (0.48, 0.78)
No 1466 374 1.00 576 1.00
Note.CI=confidence interval; NA = not applicable.
a
Cases with unknown values included resisting = 70, location of crime outside= 22, suspected perpetrator alcohol use = 76,
multiple suspected perpetrators = 48.
b
Risk ratios and confidence intervals were clustered by intervention status, business type, and individual business and
mutually adjusted for each risk factor.
c
Crime occurred outside of the business building but on business property, such as a parking lot.
multiple customers were injured in 3.4% of
events leading to customer injury.
Customers had the highest proportion of
injuries in bars (70.4%), motels (58.7%), and
restaurants (34.7%). Employees had the high-
est proportion of injuries during violent
crimes in grocery stores (37.9%), liquor stores
(31.9%), and restaurants (27.0%).
Customer injury was more than 3.5 times
likely than an employee injury during crimes
in bars (95% CI = 1.87, 5.39) and motels
(95% CI = 2.45, 4.69) and nearly 30%
more likely in restaurants (95% CI= 0.92,
1.86). Customers were less likely than em-
ployees to be injured in grocery stores
(relative risk [RR]= 0.51; 95% CI = 0.33,
0.69) and liquor stores (RR = 0.82; 95%
CI=0.58, 1.06).
Because robberies have been the primary
focus of workplace violence prevention pro-
grams, we examined trends among robberies
separately (Table 1). A customer injury was
21% (95% CI=0.59, 0.99) less likely than an
employee injury during robberies. Motels were
the only business type in which a customer in-
jury was more likely than an employee injury
in both overall violent crimes and robberies.
Although customer injury was more likely dur-
ing violent crimes in restaurants, customer in-
jury was 46% less likely than employee injury
in restaurant robberies (95% CI= 0.17, 0.75).
Although robberies were infrequent in bars,
bar robberies were associated with a high pro-
portion of injuries for both employees (42.9%)
and customers (28.6%).
Risk Factors Associated With Employee
and Customer Injury
Resisting the perpetrator of the crime was
consistently related to increased risk for in-
jury for both employees and customers, and
the risk was higher for robberies than for all
violent crimes combined (Table 2, Table 3).
Crimes occurring from 10
PM to 6 AM were
protective against employee injury. Cus-
tomers, however, had 1.79 (95% CI = 1.40,
2.29) times the risk of injury for violent
crimes that occurred late at night. Cus-
tomers were at increased risk for injury
when the crime occurred outside the busi-
ness building, compared with employees,
who were at decreased risk. The risk was
particularly high for customers who were
robbed outside of the business building,
which led to a 5-time increase in injury risk
(95% CI = 3.40, 7.84). Suspicion of alcohol
use by the perpetrator was associated with
increased risk for injury in all models but
was only significant for employee injury
during all violent crimes (RR = 1.70; 95%
CI=1.19, 2.43).
Violent crimes with multiple suspected per-
petrators were not related to employee injury
and led to less frequent customer injury.
However, robberies with multiple suspected
perpetrators led to increased injury for both
employees (RR=1.36; 95% CI=0.96, 1.93)
and customers (RR = 1.87; 95% CI=1.25,
2.80). In comparison, overall crimes and
American Journal of Public Health | October 2006, Vol 96, No. 101870 | Research and Practice | Peer Reviewed | Peek-Asa et al.
RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
TABLE 3—Risk Factors for Employee and Customer Injury During 1022 Robberies Occurring in
827 Small Retail and Service Businesses: Los Angeles, California, January 1996–June 2001
Crimes With Employee Injuries Crimes With Customer Injuries
Employee Risk Ratio
b
Customer Risk Ratio
b
No.
a
Injured (95% CI) Injured (95% CI)
Anyone resisted
Yes 449 133 2.52 (1.81, 3.52) 101 1.98 (1.25, 3.12)
No 554 82 1.00 70 1.00
Employee resisted
Yes 305 132 2.26 (1.79, 2.87) NA NA
No 434 83 1.00 NA NA
Customer resisted
Yes 171 NA NA 100 1.62 (1.29, 2.04)
No 154 NA NA 51 1.00
Crime occurred between 10 PM and 6 AM
Yes 315 62 0.94 (0.64, 1.36) 70 1.26 (0.86, 1.84)
No 707 155 1.00 101 1.00
Crime occurred outside
c
Yes 267 46 0.67 (0.45, 1.00) 101 5.16 (3.40, 7.84)
No 753 171 1.00 70 1.00
At least 1 perpetrator was suspected of using alcohol
Yes2561.30 (0.46, 3.67) 8 2.23 (0.63, 7.90)
No 967 206 1.00 156 1.00
Multiple suspected perpetrators
Yes 549 130 1.36 (0.96, 1.93) 101 1.87 (1.25, 2.80)
No 461 86 1.00 65 1.00
Multiple people present
Yes 353 97 1.66 (1.17, 2.37) 36 0.38 (0.23, 0.61)
No 669 120 1.00 135 1.00
Occurred in course of argument
Yes42132.04 (0.98, 4.25) 17 2.58 (1.28, 5.21)
No 980 204 1.00 154 1.00
Crime was premeditated
Yes 372 104 1.92 (1.37, 2.67) 35 0.37 (0.24, 0.56)
No 650 113 1.00 136 1.00
Note.CI=confidence interval; NA = not applicable.
a
Cases with unknown values included resisting = 19, location of crime outside= 2, suspected perpetrator alcohol use = 30,
multiple suspected perpetrators = 12.
b
Risk ratios and confidence intervals were clustered by intervention status, business type, and individual business and
mutually adjusted for each risk factor.
c
Crime occurred outside of the business building but on business property, such as a parking lot.
robberies with multiple people present in-
creased employee injury. Customers, however,
were less likely to be injured when multiple
people were present. Customers and employ-
ees were at increased risk for injury when the
crime or robbery occurred during the course
of an argument. Employees, but not cus-
tomers, were at increased risk for injury when
the crime or robbery was premeditated.
DISCUSSION
In small retail and service businesses, vio-
lent crimes led to a customer injury 31%
more often than to an employee injury, and
customer injury was only slightly less likely
than employee injury during robberies.
Bars were associated with the highest pro-
portion of injuries for customers. In addition,
some of the injuries in restaurants could be
associated with bars located within the restau-
rant. Aggression in bars has been correlated
with crowding, noise, inadequate seating, ex-
cessive heat, and being unclean, which are
thought to irritate and provoke bar patrons,
especially when intoxicated.
17–20
The behav-
ior of bartenders and bouncers may con-
tribute to violence in bars,
19
which is consis-
tent with our finding that customers are at
increased risk for injury when the perpetrator
is an employee of the business. Strategies for
reducing violence in bars include environ-
mental controls, changes in bar management
practices, legal liability of bartenders, im-
proved violence prevention training, and im-
proved relationships with police.
19 ,21–23
Previous literature has focused on risk
factors for employee injury during violent
workplace crime. Resisting the perpetrator
of the crime has been shown to increase the
risk for employee injury,
24
and we show
similar risk for both employees and cus-
tomers. We found that the presence of mul-
tiple people during the crime increased the
risk for employee injury but decreased risk
for customer injury. Although some previ-
ous research has found that robbery and in-
jury were more likely with only 1 employee
on duty,
25–28
other studies have found that
the number of employees was not a risk
factor.
29,30
Two studies examined the risk
for robbery depending on the presence of
customers; 1 found that the absence of cus-
tomers increased robbery risk,
25
and 1
found that the absence of customers was
not a risk factor.
29
We found that employee
injury, but not customer injury, was less
likely during late-night hours, which is in-
consistent with previous literature.
25,31
Risk factors for customer injury were dif-
ferent than risk factors for employees. Cus-
tomers were more likely to be injured in ser-
vice businesses (bars, restaurants, motels),
whereas employees were more likely to be in-
jured in retail businesses (convenience, gro-
cery, and liquor stores). Customers were more
likely to be injured during crimes that oc-
curred late at night, outside of the business
building, with no other people present, and
during arguments.
These differences have important implica-
tions for prevention strategies, and commonly
October 2006, Vol 96, No. 10 | American Journal of Public Health Peek-Asa et al. | Peer Reviewed | Research and Practice | 1871
RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
recommended elements of security plans can
be applicable to customer safety.
10,32,33
Im-
proved lighting and visibility, both within the
business and outside area around the business
building, have been shown to be effective in re-
ducing robberies.
26,27,29,32
Although businesses
such as bars and restaurants may build an am-
biance through low lighting, these businesses
could increase lighting and visibility on the out-
side of the business, where we show customers
to be at high risk for injury.
Training employees to handle robbers, in-
toxicated individuals, and potentially aggres-
sive customers also has been shown to be ef-
fective in reducing workplace violence and
related injury.
19 , 2 0 , 2 4
Such training rarely in-
cludes instruction on how to help customers
handle these situations. Training employees
to handle a wide variety of violent threats
might be especially relevant in bars, restau-
rants, and motels, where it is likely that em-
ployees such as security guards will intervene
during altercations in which customers are
involved.
Some strategies to protect employees could
have potential negative effects on customers.
Protective barriers that isolate employees will
protect the employee but leave customers vul-
nerable. Cash control policies have been very
effective in reducing robberies but could
make customers vulnerable targets for rob-
bery when cash from the business is limited.
Further research is needed to understand
how different prevention and intervention
strategies differentially affect employees and
customers.
Our study had several limitations. Many,
perhaps the majority, of crimes in small busi-
nesses are not reported to police, and our
estimates of injury reflect only reported
crimes. Because crimes leading to injury are
more likely to be reported, the incidence of
injury may be an overestimate. Crime reports
used in this analysis were linked by address
to a participating business. Although crime
reports without a full address (e.g., a crime
report that included only an intersection of 2
streets) would be unlikely to involve the busi-
ness, some crimes meeting eligibility criteria
could have failed the linking process. Al-
though police reports documented the occur-
rence of injury, those reports did not include
information about injury severity.
Risk calculations for customer injury were
not conditioned on the presence of a cus-
tomer in the business, because this informa-
tion was not consistently documented in po-
lice reports. The risk of customer injury is
thus conservative, because some of the crimes
may have occurred while no customers were
on the premises of the business and, there-
fore, none were at risk.
Small retail and service businesses are
common locations for violent crime, and
these crimes pose risks for both employees
and customers. Most businesses have taken
some steps to reduce crime,
15 , 3 4
but safety
requirements have focused on employees.
Motivation for employers to protect their
employees and their customers comes from
different sources. Crime prevention pro-
grams have historically been required for
employee protection through city ordinances
or OSHA requirements.
10 , 12 , 13
Failing to pro-
tect customers will not violate current ordi-
nances or OSHA standards, but employers
can face legal liability and financial conse-
quences for violent injuries occurring in
their businesses.
11
Wider public knowledge
of risks to customers may introduce new
mechanisms to promote workplace safety
programs.
About the Authors
Corinne Peek-Asa and Paul Whitten are with the Depart-
ment of Occupational and Environmental Health, Injury
Prevention Research Center, College of Public Health, Uni-
versity of Iowa, Iowa City. Carri Casteel is with the Depart-
ment of Epidemiology and the Injury Prevention Research
Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Jess
Kraus is with the Department of Epidemiology and the
Southern California Injury Prevention Research Center,
University of California, Los Angeles.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Corinne Peek-Asa,
University of Iowa IPRC, Department of Occupational and
Environmental Health, 100 Oakdale Blvd, 114 IREH, Iowa
City, IA 52242 (e-mail: corinne-peek-asa@uiowa.edu).
This article was accepted December 18, 2005.
Contributors
C. Peek-Asa wrote the article and supervised data col-
lection and analyses. C. Casteel assisted in designing
and conducting the analysis and contributed to writing
some sections. P. Whitten conducted the analysis.
J.F. Kraus was principal investigator for the study and
reviewed the article.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (grant R18 OH03412).
The authors thank the following contributors:
Lisa Meneshian, Lawrence Chu, James Grayson,
Dawn Gregory, and Phillip Smith from the University
of California, Los Angeles project team; First Assistant
Chief James McDonnell from the Los Angeles Police
Department; and Rosemary Erickson from the Athena
Research Corporation.
Human Participant Protection
This study was reviewed and approved by the Univer-
sity of California, Los Angeles, human subject protec-
tion committee and was approved, through a memoran-
dum of understanding, by the Los Angeles Police
Department.
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American Journal of Public Health | October 2006, Vol 96, No. 101872 | Research and Practice | Peer Reviewed | Peek-Asa et al.
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T
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ations. Confronting Violence includes lists of organiza-
tions and public agencies that provide help.
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Executive Director Mohammad N. Akhter, MD, MPH,
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CV2D07J9
... 10,14,16,17,19,21 İşyerinde şiddete maruz kalma açısından diğer bir riskli sektör olan hizmet sektörü (dükkanlar, marketler, restoranlar, bakkal, motellerde, güvenlik görevlisi vb.) çalışanları ile ilgili olarak Türkiye'de yapılan çalışmada şiddet görülme oranının %26,6 olduğu, diğer ülkelerde yapılan beş çalışmada ise %26,7-34 arasında olduğu belirlenmiştir. 9,16,18,19,23 Hizmet sektörü içerisinde yer alan güvenlik görevlilerinde şiddet görülme oranı Türkiye'de %38,8-41,1 arasında ve diğer ülkelerde ise %14,3-39 arasında bulunmuştur. [16][17][18][19]23 Eğitim sektöründe çalışan öğretmenlerin şiddete maruz kalma oranı, Türkiye'de %6,8 ve diğer ülkelerde ise %6-55,5 arasında olduğu belirlenmiştir. ...
... (2006) tarafından yapılan çalışmada çalışanların gündüz saatlerinde daha fazla şiddete maruz kaldıkları bulunmuştur. 9,11,15,16,21,23 İşyeri faktörleri: Şiddet sıklığı üzerinden etkili olan işyeri faktörlerinin değerlendirildiği 5 çalışmada, çalışma ortamı özellikleri, rol çatışması, zaman baskısı ve ekip iletişiminin kötü olması gibi unsurların risk faktörü olduğu belirtilmiştir (Tablo 2). 11,15,18,21,22 TARTIŞMA Çalışma yaşamında işyeri şiddeti açısından riskli mesleklerde çalışanlarda şiddet sıklığı ve etkileyen faktörleri değerlendiren çalışmaların sistematik olarak incelendiği bu çalışma ile, çeşitli mesleklerde işyeri şiddeti görülme oranları ve etkileyen faktörler değerlendirilmiştir. ...
... Çalışmada bu sektörde yapılan beş çalışmaya ulaşılmıştır. 9,[16][17][18]23 Türkiye'de Aytaç ve ark. (2011) tarafından yapılan çalışmada hizmet sektöründe çalışan bireylerin şiddete uğrama oranı %26,6 bulunmuştur. ...
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alışma yaşamı insan sağlığını olumsuz etkileyen pekçok tehlike ve risk içer-mektedir. Bilimsel ve teknolojik gelişmeler oldukça fazla sayıda yeni işkolları ve üretim tekniklerinin oluşmasına neden olmuştur. Bunun sonucunda çalı-şanlar yeni risklerle daha çok karşılaşmaya başlamıştır. Günümüzde çalışanlar yap-tıkları iş ve çalışma ortamlarından kaynaklanan şiddet olaylarına sıklıkla maruz Turkiye Klinikleri J Public Health Nurs-Special Topics 2015;1(2) 55 Çalışma Yaşamında Şiddet ve Etkileyen Faktörler: Sistematik İnceleme Ö ÖZ ZE ET T Bu sistematik inceleme, riskli mesleklerde çalışanlarda, şiddet görülme sıklığını ve etkile-yen faktörleri değerlendiren çalışmaları sistematik olarak incelenmek amacıyla planlanmıştır. Pub-med, Science Direct, Medline, CINAHL ve ULAKBİM Ulusal Veri Tabanları taranarak 2382 makaleye ulaşılmıştır. Çalışmaya alınma kriterlerine uygun bulunan toplam 16 makale değerlendi-rilmiştir. İncelenen çalışmaların tümünde herhangi bir şiddete maruz kalma oranı %6,8-91,4 ara-sında bulunmuştur. Şiddet türlerine göre ise, fiziksel şiddet oranı %22-74,9; sözel şiddet oranı %26,6-91,4 arasında bulunmuştur. En fazla maruz kalınan şiddet türü %91,4 ile sözel şiddet olup, hasta yakınları, hastalar ve müşteriler tarafından uygulandığı bulunmuştur. Deneyimsiz ve genç olmak, gece ve vardiyalı çalışmak, hizmet ya da sağlık sektörlerinde çalışmak, kadın olmak gibi fak-törlerin şiddet sıklığı üzerine etkili olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu sistematik inceleme, farklı meslek-lerde görülen şiddet olaylarını değerlendirme olanağı sağlamıştır. Farklı mesleklerde çalışanların şiddet sıklığı farklılık göstermekle birlikte şiddet üzerine etkili olan faktörler benzerlik göster-mektedir. Bu nedenle çalışanların iş sağlığı ve güvenliğini geliştirmeye yönelik programların plan-lanması ve bu faktörler göz önüne alınması önemlidir. A An na ah ht ta ar r K Ke el li im me el le er r: : Şiddet; işyeri; çalışan; riskli meslek A AB BS ST TR RA AC CT T This systematic review is aims to investigate systematically the studies that assessing the prevalence of workplace violence and factors associated with violence among workers in risky occupations. PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, CINAHL and ULAKBIM Turkish National Database were searched and 2382 studies were reached. According to the inclusion criteria, a total of 16 articles were included into the study. The frequency of any type of violence in all studies was found 6.8-91.4%; physical violence 22-74.9% and, verbal violence 26.6-91.4%. The most exposed type of violence was to verbal violence with 91.4%, that mostly applied by patient relatives/patients/cus-tomers. It was stated in the studied scrutinized that the factors such being young and inexperienced, and night-shift work, working in service or healthcare sector may affect the frequency of violence. This systematic review has provided the opportunity to evaluate the frequency of violence in different professions. Although, the frequency of violence was vary, violence associated effected factors were similar to those working in different occupations. Therefore these factors should be taken into consideration in the planning of the occupational health and safety programs for workers. K Ke ey y W Wo or rd ds s:
... Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. (14). ...
... Another important finding is the increasing trends of industryrelated hospitalizations observed among the women in the sample. We speculate that this observation could partially be explained by the upsurge in women's participation in the labor force, especially in high-risk areas traditionally dominated by men, such as heavy (14). †The prevalence rate is provided as the number of industry-related injuries per 100,000 inpatient discharges. ...
... Workers in this industry group, especially in quick serve and fast food casual restaurants, work alone or in small numbers, work late at night, handle cash, and deliver food, thus increasing their risk of exposure to violence.41 Improving external lighting, reducing cash available on the premises, using surveillance systems, and training employees to handle violent situations have been shown to be effective in reducing robberies and other violent crimes.42 4.6 | Spectator SportsAlthough the Spectator Sports had the highest total and lost-time TBI rates, it ranked 8th and 17th by PI for overall events(Table 2). ...
Article
Background: The purpose of this analysis was to identify and prioritize high-risk industry groups for traumatic brain injury (TBI) prevention efforts. Methods: Workers with TBI from 2001 to 2011 were identified from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation data. To prioritize industry groups by claim type (lost-time (≥8 days away from work) and total claims) and injury event categories, we used a prevention index (PI) that averaged TBI counts and rate ranks (PI = (count rank + rate rank)/2). TBI rates per 10 000 estimated full-time equivalent (FTE = 2000 h/y) workers were calculated. Results: From 2001 to 2011, 12 891 TBIs were identified among private employers, resulting in a rate of 5.1 TBIs per 10 000 FTEs. Of these, 40% (n = 5171) were lost-time TBIs, at a rate of 2.0 per 10 000 FTEs. Spectator Sports had the highest lost-time TBI rate (13.5 per 10 000 FTEs), whereas General Freight Trucking had the greatest number of lost-time TBIs (n = 293). Based on PIs, General Freight Trucking ranked first for lost-time TBIs for all injury events combined. Several industry groups within Construction, General and Specialized Freight Trucking, Services to Building and Dwellings, Employment Services, and Restaurants and Other Eating Places ranked high across multiple injury event categories for lost-time TBIs. Conclusions: The high-ranking industry groups identified from our study can be used to effectively direct occupational TBI prevention efforts.
... In their study Peek-Asa et al. (2006) found that the customers and the employees were concerned about the exposure of risk by any criminal act. If customers do not feel safe and comfortable they would hesitate to spend their time and money in any type of service setting (Kajalo & Lindblom, 2010). ...
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Full-text available
Shopping mall is a group of retail stores under one roof. Malls have been constantly adapting and changing in both style and substance in order to attract increasingly sophisticated and fickle consumers. There are various factors which might affect shoppers’ selection of a place to shop. The present study is an attempt in this regard with special reference to Indian context. The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting selection criterion of consumers with respect to shopping malls. Mall intercept survey was conducted to identify the factors which influence the selection of shopping malls in multiple cities. The sample included 181 active mall shoppers. Total seven factors which influence the selection of shopping malls from consumer’s view point were identified with a structure questionnaire. Study will help the mall owners and the retail marketers to understand the insights of shoppers that on what basis consumers select the shopping malls for shopping. On these bases, they can plan their strategies for shopping malls.
... This general practice, on the one hand, creates complexity for lenders trying to understand the real blueprint of business; on the other hand, it causes weak control or the sudden demise of SMEs. Peek-Asa et al. (2006) spotlighted another important factor, crime, which potentially affect the growth of SMEs. Crimes involve robberies, break-ins, harassment and violent attacks. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to identify the barriers that are linked to the institutional, external and social environmental factors in the emerging economies of South-East Asia (SEA). Through a comparative analysis of China, India and Pakistan, this study attempts to understand the constraints that might inhibit small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in this region from becoming more successful. Design/methodology/approach This study proposes an empirical research framework to identify the constraints to determinants of SMEs’ growth (the CDSG model) in an important geographic and industrial cluster of SEA countries including China, India and Pakistan. Six propositions are tested, using data from 1,443 SMEs obtained from Enterprise Survey Data Repository database from the World Bank. Ordinary least-squares estimation is applied for statistical analyses and testing of the research propositions. Findings The results show the differential effects of the proposed CDSG model in China, India and Pakistan. Access to external finance is found to be irrelevant to the growth of SMEs in China, while it has a positive influence in India and Pakistan. Furthermore, in terms of the innovation process, partial mediation is traced. Using the tax rate factor, negative mediation is found between CDSG variables and SMEs’ growth. Both mediators play different roles in firm growth activities, while the level of significance of some variables is found to be more relevant to a specific region rather than to all. Practical implications The prudent management of the proposed CDSG variables could revolutionize the constraints facing SME growth, making them into success factors. This could invigorate the growth of SMEs’ in SEA countries. The paper concludes with practical implications for policymakers and investors. Originality/value This SMEs’ theoretical framework is the first to use innovation and tax rate mediators to highlight the determinants of business growth in three SEA regional economies (China, India and Pakistan).
... It is well understood that responding to customer needs more efficiently and effectively than competitors is an important source of advantage for chain stores (Merlo et al., 2006). Providing a secure and safe environment has become an important factor in chain store's management (Coleman, 2006;Peek-Asa et al., 2006). If customers do not feel safe and comfortable in the store, they are not likely to spend their time and money there (Hunter, 2006;Lee et al., 1999;Pretious et al., 1995;Overstreet and Clodfelter, 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to extract main indicators for review the internal and external dimensions of Etka chain stores and after the studying the organizational documentation and with using of the customer reviews, was determined the position of Etka chain stores in attractiveness and capabilities matrix. For any organization in any level, it is important to determine its position compared to competitors in terms of attractiveness and capabilities. Considering now that the "Etka chain stores" are the largest supplier of goods and services in Iran and in order to its mission tries to improve the processes of supply, storage, distribution, sales and after sales services company with an economic approach. According to peripheral changes in different dimensions of economic, political, social and also with the emergence fundamental paradigm in business such as service businesses, penetration of IT in business like E-commerce, the answer to this question is important "Where is the position of Etka chain stores in this industry?". The data collection method is using the questionnaires. Finally the customer reviews have been analyzed.
Chapter
This chapter aims to theoretically examine effective surveillance management (ESM) during service encounters within the servicescape and provide a conceptual framework for the study of this topic in a service management perspective. It analyses antecedents, dimensions and effects of ESM. This study especially proposes as antecedents both improving customer service experience along with meeting customers’ need for security and implementing a surveillance service-oriented strategy that includes secure and safe servicescape design, deterrent communication, and trained and motivated security staff. This chapter suggests also that the dimensions of ESM (customer-physical service environment encounters, customer-technological surveillance systems encounters, and customer-security staff encounters) contribute to enhancing service quality, experience quality, and staff productivity. The integration of these dimensions, antecedents, and effects create a theoretically grounded framework that can serve as a starting point for future studies about this topic in the field of service management.
Book
Ziele der Untersuchung waren die Identifikation möglicher Zusammenhänge des Risikos von Raubstraftaten und der Schädigung von Beschäftigten mit Merkmalen der Betriebsstätten des (Einzel-)Handels und dem Verhalten von Beschäftigten, ferner die Beurteilung der Effektivität von Präventionsangeboten und -maßnahmen der Berufsgenossenschaft Handel und Warenlogistik (BGHW) hinsichtlich der Vermeidung von Raubereignissen und gesundheitlicher Schädigungen von Beschäftigten im Handel. Das Augenmerk lag dabei insbesondere auf Zusammenhängen zwischen technischen Sicherungen und organisatorischen Vorkehrungen und dem Viktimisierungsrisiko der betrachteten Betriebsstätten sowie auf dem Verhalten von Tätern und Beschäftigten während der analysierten Straftaten und dessen Bedeutung für den weiteren Tatverlauf im Hinblick auf Risiken für Beschäftigte, Kundinnen/Kunden und andere Anwesende. Für die Untersuchung wurde eine Kombination verschiedener methodischer Zugänge verfolgt. In drei einander ergänzenden, jeweils in Zusammenarbeit mit der BGHW durchgeführten Erhebungen wurden umfangreiche Daten zu Raubüberfällen und den davon betroffenen Betriebsstätten sowie zu einer Vergleichsgruppe nicht betroffener Betriebe erfasst; hierbei wurden auch Informationen zur Opfernachsorge für betroffene Beschäftigte erhoben. Die Erhebungen umfassten eine bundesweite Jahresvollerhebung von der BGHW gemeldeten Raubdelikten, eine ereignisunabhängige Erhebung der wichtigsten Betriebsmerkmale im Rahmen von bundesweiten Betriebsbegehungen sowie auf ausgewählte Regionen begrenzte intensive Betriebsbegehungen in zwei Großstädten und einem ländlichen Kreis. Ferner wurden eine umfassende Recherche der deutschen und internationalen (englischsprachigen) Forschungsliteratur vorgenommen und das polizeiliche Hellfeld und die polizeiliche Wahrnehmung und Prävention von Raubstraftaten untersucht, indem Daten der polizeilichen Kriminalstatistik herangezogen und Experteninterviews mit Polizeibeamten geführt wurden.
Article
Objective: To compare implementation of robbery prevention strategies between gas station/convenience stores with liquor stores/grocery stores/pharmacies, restaurants/bars, and other retail businesses. Methods: One hundred forty-nine retail businesses were evaluated by police personnel across four police departments for adherence to robbery prevention strategies. Assessment of these strategies occurred between November 2012 and October 2014. Implementation of these strategies were compared across business types using logistic regression. Results: Liquor/grocery stores/pharmacies and restaurants/bars were less likely to have a high site assessment score for robbery prevention elements when compared with gas station/convenience stores. Conclusions: Non-gas station/convenience stores require stronger consideration when developing robbery prevention programs and policies to assure appropriate implementation of robbery prevention strategies.
Chapter
This chapter aims to theoretically examine effective surveillance management (ESM) during service encounters within the servicescape and provide a conceptual framework for the study of this topic in a service management perspective. It analyses antecedents, dimensions and effects of ESM. This study especially proposes as antecedents both improving customer service experience along with meeting customers' need for security and implementing a surveillance service-oriented strategy that includes secure and safe servicescape design, deterrent communication, and trained and motivated security staff. This chapter suggests also that the dimensions of ESM (customer-physical service environment encounters, customer-technological surveillance systems encounters, and customer-security staff encounters) contribute to enhancing service quality, experience quality, and staff productivity. The integration of these dimensions, antecedents, and effects create a theoretically grounded framework that can serve as a starting point for future studies about this topic in the field of service management.
Article
Background Retail is a growing economic sector and employs an increasing number of the overall workforce, yet little is known about the incidence and characteristics of work-related deaths in the retail industry. Methods Workplace deaths were examined using the Census of Fatal Occupational injuries from 1992 through 1996. Occupational fatality rates were calculated by age, gender, and type of establishment, and characteristics of occupational deaths in the retail industry were compared to other industries. Results Liquor stores had the highest work-related fatality rates in the retail industry. The two leading causes of death in the retail industry were violence (69.5%) and motor vehicle crashes (19.3%). Females, younger, minority, and foreign-born workers were more likely to be killed in retail than other industries. Deaths in the retail industry were more likely to be in small businesses, after normal business hours, and in urban settings. Discussion Workers in the retail industry were at lower risk of most types of workplace deaths but had a markedly increased risk of violent death than workers in other industries. Am. J. Ind. Med. 35:186-191, 1999. (C) 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
In comparing the pattern of nonfatal injuries across industries, occupations, and worker characteristics, the evidence from the state workers' compensation data is in general agreement with the pattern found in the BLS survey and in other data sources. All of these sources rank social services and health services as the highest-risk major industries. They show that health services and social services account for most of work-related assault injuries; the security, retail, and educational services industries are also high on the list. The riskiest occupations were related to psychiatric and long-term healthcare, social services, security services, and retail [3,4,14,15]. Workers with compensable workers' compensation claims for assault and violence-related injuries, particularly in the state-fund system, have a loss of earnings of roughly 30% 4 years after the injury. There is substantial direct personal and societal cost related to workplace violence. One advantage of using the state fund's data on workers' compensation to estimate the number, cost, and incidence rates of assaults is that, in contrast to BLS methodology, this system codes all claims rather than only claims resulting in days lost from work. This approach allows the tracking of a greater proportion of assaults than is possible with the BLS survey. Another advantage is that because the workers' compensation data are not sample-based estimates, the problems of small samples are avoided. The disadvantage of using workers' compensation data to estimate rates of workplace violence is that only a small fraction of all cases of assault result in a claim for workers' compensation. If the worker chooses not to file a claim, the assault case will not appear in the data. If the assault does not result in an injury requiring medical treatment or lost workdays, it will not appear as a case. For nonfatal injuries, the pattern of occurrence in Washington State is consistent with that reported in other studies [16,17]. Health and social services alone accounted for more than 50% of all workers' compensation claims during this period. Nonfatal assaults in these industries are primarily encounters between caregivers and patients or between social service providers and clients [16,18,19]. As these studies suggest, important factors put these workers at risk, including inadequate staffing levels and training; working in isolation; and working at the client's place of residence, which is common in social services. The trend in staffing levels in psychiatric hospitals, where staffing levels stabilized and then rose during the study period, is important. Two studies have shown that assault rates in psychiatric care settings have been higher in areas with lower staff-patient ratios and lower costs expended per patient [20,21]. Policies of taking patients out of institutions, which in turn place social service workers at greater risk, are faulted for increasing workplace risks for healthcare workers by increasing the proportion of the institutionalized population with serious diagnoses. Because a large proportion of workers in these sectors are public employees, the disproportionate weight of public-sector workers among work-related assault cases is understandable. Although there was substantial overlap in at-risk occupations between the authors' study and the NCVS study, the highest-risk occupations in the NCVS are different from those the authors found using the workers' compensation data. This difference is probably caused by a combination of reasons, including the fact that a large proportion of police and corrections officers work for self-insured city and county governments. For these occupations, the medical-only claims were not available for the authors' analysis. The authors' study also excludes the work-related assaults experienced by self-employed workers, such as taxi cab drivers. Another factor differentiating the NCVS, a household survey, from the claims database is indicated by the contrast in gender ratios. In the NCVS, the rate of male victimization was 56% higher than that for women, whereas the Washington State claims data indicate that women account for 55% to 58% of assault-related claims. There may be a gender-based or an occupation-based difference in injury-reporting behavioral norms. Research into this question would be useful. Washington State has recognized the issue of workplace violence in the healthcare setting and has enacted a requirement that such workplaces develop a violence prevention program. Legislation first was introduced in 1997, and gradual implementation of the new regulations began in 1999 in general and psychiatric hospitals. Evaluation of the effectiveness of this new set of rules is crucial; as evidenced by the decreasing claims rates in the psychiatric facilities since 1998, the attention to this matter by the legislature and by the responsible authorities in the executive branch may be having an impact (see Fig. 1). The workforce levels for skilled nursing care have fallen, whereas the levels in other long-term healthcare sectors have increased. This factor, coupled with evidence that financial pressures may be resulting in patient and caregiver transferals from skilled nursing care toward less medically intensive nursing and personal care facilities, may be driving the trend of increasing claims rates for assault in the nursing and personal care industry. The problem of workplace violence may be migrating from one industry to another. This area needs more research. In retail trades, such as grocery stores, gasoline service stations, and restaurants, increased risk has been associated with working late at night; working alone, and exchanging money with the public [22]. In February 1990 a regulation was instituted in Washington State that required employers operating late-night retail establishments to offer crime prevention training to their employees, provide adequate lighting levels, assure a clear view of the cash registers from the street, and limit access to safes and cash. Although only a small portion of covered employers were aware of the regulation, it is possible that the drop in assault-related claims in food stores from 19 claims per 10,000 FTEs in 1992 to 12 claims in 2000 might be the result of increased compliance with this regulation [23]. Another aspect of assault-related claims that this report sheds light on is the difference in claims frequency and cost between males and females. This report confirms the pattern found elsewhere that women experience a disproportionate number of assaults as compared with other workplace injuries. This difference is related to the greater concentration of female workers in the highest-risk industries (ie, social and health services). In a study of assault claims at a major private carrier, the costs of such claims were 40% greater for male workers than for female workers [24]. The authors did not find such a large difference in costs. Using median costs, which are appropriate when distributions are highly skewed, the authors found that the cost differential is only 16% for medical claims and 10% for time-loss claims. It is surprising that the differential is greater for medical claims than for time-loss claims, given that wage-replacement costs per lost workday are higher for men than for women; however, the median number of lost workdays for women was 14% greater than the median number (23.5 days) for men.
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