Bioenergetic exercises in inpatient treatment of Turkish immigrants with chronic somatoform disorders: A randomized, controlled study

University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
Journal of Psychosomatic Research (Impact Factor: 2.74). 11/2006; 61(4):507-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.01.004
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to examine whether bioenergetic exercises (BE) significantly influence the inpatient psychotherapeutic treatment results for Turkish immigrants with chronic somatoform disorders.
In a 6-week randomized, prospective, controlled trial, we treated a sample of 128 Turkish patients: 64 were randomly assigned to BE and 64 participated in gymnastic exercises in lieu of BE. The Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) were employed.
According to the intent-to-treat principle, the bioenergetic analysis group achieved significantly better treatment results on most of the SCL-90-R and STAXI scales.
BE appears to improve symptoms of somatization, social insecurity, depressiveness, anxiety, and hostility in the inpatient therapy of subjects with chronic somatoform disorders. Reduction of the anger level and reduction in directing anger inwards, with a simultaneous increase of spontaneous outward emotional expression, could be expected.

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    • "Patients who are treated with BPT appear to benefit in terms of improved general well-being, reduced motor tension and enhanced activity levels. There is substantial evidence for the efficacy of Functional Relaxation on psychosomatic disorders (asthma, tension headache, irritable bowel syndrome) and evidence from one randomised controlled trial (RCT), that Bioenergetic Analysis may be specifically effective for somatoform disorder patients (Nickel et al., 2006). At least three RCTs have demonstrated that chronic schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms respond to manualised BPT (or body-oriented psychological intervention strategies such as movement therapy), improving patients' psychomotor behaviour and social as well as emotional interaction; a multicentre trial across the UK will be completed in 2014 (Nitsun, Stapleton, & Bender, 1974; Priebe et al., 2013; Röhricht & Priebe, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The evidence base for the effectiveness of body psychotherapy (BPT) in the treatment of severe mental disorders has improved much over the last decade; both methodologically robust randomised controlled trials and also qualitative studies demonstrated how BPT can contribute substantially to the treatment portfolio and help address chronic conditions and disorder-specific psychopathology. This paper summarises how BPT is utilised for the treating a range of severe mental disorders including mania and schizophreniform psychosis, personality disorder and severe anxiety as well as depressive disorders. The intervention strategies are related to specific body-oriented phenomena, i.e. disturbances of body experience and body-mind regulation disorders; the approaches are described in the context of a new theoretical paradigm of BPT as embodied and embedded relational psychotherapy, aiming to facilitate improved self/affect regulation. For each specific illness, a short sketch of the cardinal symptoms and body image phenomenology is followed by a summary of disorder-specific intervention strategies of BPT for severe mental illness.
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    • "exercise-induced changes in specific lymphocyte subtype counts (Cosgrove et al., 2012; Koizumi et al., 2003; LaPerriere et al., 1994; Shimizu et al., 2011, 2008; Yeh et al., 2006). Both somatization syndromes and major depression may be accompanied by reduced physical activity, and interventions which include physical activity have been shown to reduce the severity of depressive and somatoform symptoms (Nickel et al., 2006; Penedo and Dahn, 2005). While several studies have addressed the impact of acute exercise on immunological measures, little research has been done on immunological changes following repeated exercise training for several days, weeks or months, especially in clinical samples. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Previous research indicates that physical activity may alter the number of immune cells. We examined whether increasing or decreasing the level of physical activity affects circulating lymphocyte and monocyte counts in patients with somatization syndromes and patients with major depression. Methods Thirty-eight participants with major depression, 26 participants with somatization syndromes and 47 healthy controls participated in the study. Using an experimental within-subject design, participants were involved in 1 week of increased physical activity (daily exercise sessions) and 1 week of reduced physical activity. Counts of total lymphocytes, lymphocyte subsets and monocytes were determined before and after each trial. Linear mixed models adjusted for sex, body mass index, age, fitness status and the order of trials were used for longitudinal data analysis. Results One week of exercise increases the number of monocytes in healthy controls (p<.05), but not in patients with somatization syndromes or patients with major depression. In addition, after 1 week of exercise, depressive symptoms were reduced in patients with major depression (p<.05) while somatoform symptoms were reduced (p<.05) in both clinical groups. Baseline comparisons and mixed models indicated reduced T helper cell counts in patients with somatization syndromes. Limitations Relatively small sample size. The time of physical activity was relatively short and restricted to low-graded exercise. Conclusions This study demonstrates a blunted mobilization of monocytes by exercise in both patients with somatization syndromes and patients with major depression. In addition, even one week of exercise reduces somatoform and depressive symptoms.
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    • "The use of antipsychotic drugs and their connection with weight gain and metabolic abnormalities may lead to negative body image and low self-esteem (De Hert et al., 2006; Loh et al., 2008). Therefore, alternative treatments other than medication and cognitive behavior therapy such as body orientation processes in psychotherapy, regular exercise or aerobic dance therapy may result to positive psychological outcomes concerning body image and offer an alternative or complementary treatment option for patients with psychiatric disorders (Burgess et al., 2006; Nickel et al., 2006). According to Richardson et al. (2005), since patients diagnosed with schizophrenia often possess poor physical health, physical activity could significantly reduce the levels of comorbidity associated with mental illness, improve quality of life and in some cases to be as effective as psychotherapeutic interventions. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an exercise program on improving self-image and self-esteem of thirty (30) patients with schizophrenia. The sample was separated randomly in three groups of 10 individuals, that is, a control group, an exercise observation with tokens group (experiment group A) and an actual exercise with tokens group (experiment group B). Data from patients with schizophrenia collected using the Body-Cathexis Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale which were selected and administered to participants prior and after the application of the exercise program. The 8 weeks duration of the exercise program was conducted combining physical activity with behavioristic treatment so as to promote exercise behavior and minimize drop out risk. The results reported that the physical activity program had positive effects in experiment group B participants compared to those of the experiment group A and control group as felling more vigorous and with higher self-esteem, leading to an improved personal care and less social limitations.
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