Variable region 4 of SIV envelope correlates with rapid disease progression in morphine-exposed macaques infected with SIV/SHIV

AIDS Research Program, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, PR 00732, Puerto Rico. <>
Virology (Impact Factor: 3.32). 03/2007; 358(2):373-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2006.08.039
Source: PubMed


We analyzed the association between the evolution of the V3-V5 regions of env and disease progression in our SIV/SHIV macaque model of morphine dependence and AIDS. Previous studies revealed two distinct disease patterns--fast progression and normal progression. To determine the effect of the two distinct patterns of disease in the evolution of SIV/17E-Fr envelope, we analyzed env sequences from three morphine-dependent macaques that developed accelerated AIDS and three morphine-dependent macaques that developed AIDS at a slower rate and compared them to control macaques. Morphine-dependent animals exhibited a higher percentage of diversity in both plasma and CSF compartments within V4 when compared to controls. Divergence from the inoculum was significantly greater in the morphine group as compared to controls in CSF but not in plasma. We also found a direct correlation in V4 evolution and rapid disease progression. These results indicate that morphine dependence plays a role in the pathogenesis of SIV/SHIV infection and env evolution.

Download full-text


Available from: Richard Noel
  • Source
    • "The envelopes isolated from individuals infected with subtype C HIV-1 demonstrated that slow progressors had a significantly longer C3-V4 region compared with progressors [8]. In addition, rapid progressors among SIV-infected macaques exhibited high diversity in the V4 region [9]. Furthermore, neutralization escape has been associated with amino acid substitutions and sequence insertion/deletion in the V4 region in SIV [10], [11] andaqqa HIV infection [12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The importance of the fourth variable (V4) region of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) in virus infection has not been well clarified, though the polymorphism of this region has been found to be associated with disease progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the present work, we focused on the correlation between HIV-1 gp120 V4 region polymorphism and the function of the region on virus entry, and the possible mechanisms for how the V4 region contributes to virus infectivity. Therefore, we analyzed the differences in V4 sequences along with coreceptor usage preference from CCR5 to CXCR4 and examined the importance of the amino acids within the V4 region for CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic virus entry. In addition, we determined the influence of the V4 amino acids on Env expression and gp160 processing intracellularly, as well as the amount of Env on the pseudovirus surface. The results indicated that V4 tended to have a shorter length, fewer potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS), greater evolutionary distance, and a lower negative net charge when HIV-1 isolates switched from a coreceptor usage preference for CCR5 to CXCR4. The N- and C-terminals of the HIV-1 V4 region are highly conserved and critical to maintain virus entry ability, but only the mutation at position 417 in the context of ADA (a R5-tropic HIV-1 strain) resulted in the ability to utilize CXCR4. In addition, 390L, 391F, 414I, and 416L are critical to maintain gp160 processing and maturation. It is likely that the hydrophobic properties and the electrostatic surface potential of gp120, rather than the conformational structure, greatly contribute to this V4 functionality. The findings provide information to aid in the understanding of the functions of V4 in HIV-1 entry and offer a potential target to aid in the development of entry inhibitors.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "V4, in contrast to all other regions identified , showed a direct correlation between evolution and morphine-dependent rapid progression (Rivera- Amill et al, 2007). In SIV, V4 has been implicated in determining coreceptor use and that may account for the unique result for this variable region in these rapid progressors (Cho et al, 1998; Hu et al, 2000; Smyth et al, 1998; Rivera-Amill et al, 2007). The V3– V5 analysis was also performed for CSF, where the plasma pattern was reproduced. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and illicit drug addiction remain major health problems not only in the United States but all over globe. The effect of drug addiction on HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) has been somewhat underexplored. However, in United States more than one fourth of HIV-positive individuals are injection drug users. Opiates are known to negatively affect the immune system, and therefore may have deleterious effects on progression of disease among HIV-infected individuals. This review discusses the effects of opiates on immune system as well as its effect on HIV replication and AIDS progression. In addition, the effects of opiates on disease progression in non-human primate model of AIDS is presented with at least one possible reason for rapid disease progression in multi-virus the challenge model.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of NeuroVirology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important veterinary pathogen with comparative significance because of its similarities to its human counterpart HIV. Since FIV is the only non-primate lentivirus which induces AIDS-like symptoms in its natural host, it serves as a valuable animal model for both prophylactic and therapeutic studies of HIV. It is accepted that the induction of neutralising antibodies (NAbs) is a key element in the control of lentiviral infection, since T-cell based vaccines alone failed to prevent infection in most experimental animal model systems. In this project a robust and reproducible in vitro neutralisation assay was developed and optimised, permitting the assessment of the NAb response in naturally infected cats and with the potential to evaluate candidate vaccines. It was demonstrated that, in general, primary FIV strains in the UK belong to subtype A, and therefore the development of a regional, subtype A-specific, FIV vaccine could be considered for use in the UK. The identification of a neutralisation resistant isolate of FIV led to the finding that a linear neutralisation determinant was located within the V5 region of Env and mutations in this region may lead to immune evasion in vivo. In addition, a second neutralisation determinant was identified in the C3/V4 region of Env. Finally, it was observed that a small proportion of naturally infected cats generated NAbs against FIV. Of these, only a very small proportion of the cats had antibodies with the potential to cross neutralise strains within the same subtype as the homologous isolate. Nonetheless, a plasma sample from a single cat was identified that neutralised all strains tested, including strains from different subtypes and geographical regions. It is likely that studies of the homologous isolate that induced the broad NAb response may be capable of inducing a similar broad response in vaccinated cats. Such a finding would have important implications for the design of potential novel lentiviral immunogens.
    Preview · Article ·
Show more